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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040168/failure-of-isoflurane-cardiac-preconditioning-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-mice-involves-aberrant-regulation-of-microrna-21-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-mitochondrial-complex-i
#1
Zhi-Dong Ge, Yingchuan Li, Shigang Qiao, Xiaowen Bai, David C Warltier, Judy R Kersten, Zeljko J Bosnjak, Mingyu Liang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes impairs the cardioprotective effect of volatile anesthetics, yet the mechanisms are still murky. We examined the regulatory effect of isoflurane on microRNA-21, endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, and mitochondrial respiratory complex I in type II diabetic mice. METHODS: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was produced in obese type 2 diabetic (db/db) and C57BL/6 control mice ex vivo in the presence or absence of isoflurane administered before ischemia...
October 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036766/resistance-training-increases-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-irisin-levels-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#2
Hee-Jae Kim, Wook Song
PURPOSE: Although the fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and irisin roles are well demonstrated in metabolic disease, there have been no reports investigating the effect of resistance exercise on FGF-21 and irisin levels in diabetic skeletal muscles. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the change of FGF-21 and irisin levels in various skeletal muscles, and their association with muscle strength, following 8 weeks of resistance training using Zucker diabetic fatty rats (type 2 diabetic animal models)...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036762/low-intensity-aerobic-exercise-training-inhibition-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-high-fat-diet-induced-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Hye Jin Kim, Won Jun Lee
PURPOSE: Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031588/swertisin-rich-fraction-from-enicostema-littorale-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-fed-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotacin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats
#4
Priyanka Mokashi, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
INTRODUCTION: Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. A lot of research has been done on this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, there are no reports on flavonoids from E. littorale for its antidiabetic activity and their mechanism of action. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Swertisin rich flavonoid fraction (SRF) from Enicostema littorale blume and their mechanism of action...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030343/carbohydrate-restriction-with-postmeal-walking-effectively-mitigates-postprandial-hyperglycemia-and-improves-endothelial-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
Monique Emily Francois, Etienne Myette-Cote, Tyler Daniel Bammert, Cody Durrer, Helena Neudorf, Christopher A DeSouza, Jonathan Peter Little
Postprandial hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on endothelial function. Restricting carbohydrate intake and postmeal walking have each been shown to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia but their combination and subsequent effects on endothelial function have not been investigated. Here, we sought to examine the effect of blunting postprandial hyperglycemia by following a low-carbohydrate diet, with or without postmeal walking exercise, on markers of vascular health in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover design, individuals with T2D (N=11) completed three four-day controlled diet interventions consisting of i) low-carbohydrate diet alone (LC), ii) low-carbohydrate diet with 15-minute postmeal walks (LC+Ex), and iii) Low-fat control diet (CON)...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021150/identification-of-a-selective-and-direct-nlrp3-inhibitor-to-treat-inflammatory-disorders
#6
Hua Jiang, Hongbin He, Yun Chen, Wei Huang, Jinbo Cheng, Jin Ye, Aoli Wang, Jinhui Tao, Chao Wang, Qingsong Liu, Tengchuan Jin, Wei Jiang, Xianming Deng, Rongbin Zhou
The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases. A few compounds have been developed to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but compounds directly and specifically targeting NLRP3 are still not available, so it is unclear whether NLRP3 itself can be targeted to prevent or treat diseases. Here we show that the compound CY-09 specifically blocks NLRP3 inflammasome activation. CY-09 directly binds to the ATP-binding motif of NLRP3 NACHT domain and inhibits NLRP3 ATPase activity, resulting in the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994516/the-implication-of-combat-stress-and-ptsd-trajectories-in-metabolic-syndrome-and-elevated-c-reactive-protein-levels-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Zahava Solomon, Yafit Levin, Einor Ben Assayag, Orit Furman, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shlomo Berliner, Avi Ohry
OBJECTIVE: This study sheds light on the importance of long-term follow-up of trauma survivors, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories, and early detection of health risk factors in trauma survivors. The present study prospectively assessed the following over 23 years: (1) the association of psychological and physiologic stress during captivity with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which includes hypertension; elevated levels of insulin, triglycerides, and fasting glucose; decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and obesity and (2) the implication of PTSD trajectories in elevated CRP levels and MetS...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990401/reactive-oxygen-species-and-their-implications-on-cd4-t-cells-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Dana M Previte, Jon D Piganelli
Previous work has indicated that Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathology is highly driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS). One way in which ROS shape the autoimmune response demonstrated in T1D is by promoting CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation. As CD4+ T cells are a significant contributor to pancreatic cell destruction in T1D, understanding how ROS impact their development, activation, and differentiation is critical. Recent advances: CD4+ T cells themselves generate ROS via NADPH oxidase expression and electron transport chain activity...
October 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988626/synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-carbamimidoylcarbamate-derivatives-as-novel-vascular-adhesion-protein-1-inhibitors
#9
Susumu Yamaki, Hiroyoshi Yamada, Akira Nagashima, Mitsuhiro Kondo, Yoshiaki Shimada, Keitaro Kadono, Kosei Yoshihara
Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Here, we conducted structural optimization of the glycine amide derivative 1, which we previously reported as a novel VAP-1 inhibitor, to improve stability in dog and monkey plasma, and aqueous solubility. By chemical modification of the right part in the glycine amide derivative, we identified the carbamimidoylcarbamate derivative 20c, which showed stability in dog and monkey plasma while maintaining VAP-1 inhibitory activity...
September 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983871/human-amylin-induces-cd4-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-protection-from-autoimmune-diabetes
#10
Xiao-Xi Zhang, Yong-Chao Qiao, Wan Li, Xia Zou, Yin-Ling Chen, Jian Shen, Qin-Yuan Liao, Qiu-Jin Zhang, Lan He, Hai-Lu Zhao
Autoimmune diabetes is a disorder of immune homeostasis that leads to targeted insulin-secreting islet β cell destruction characterized by insulitis. Human amylin (hA) is an important neuroendocrine hormone co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β cells. Here, we report hA immune-modulatory action through inducing regulatory T cells. We ex vivo-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) with hA for 24 h and counted CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) using flow cytometry. Diabetic status was monitored and splenic Treg were measured in non-obese diabetic (NOD) male mice...
October 5, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980705/empowering-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells-by-p2y14-nucleotide-receptor-overexpression
#11
Farid G Khalafalla, Waqas Kayani, Arwa Kassab, Kelli Ilves, Megan M Monsanto, Roberto Alvarez, Monica Chavarria, Benjamin Norman, Walter P Dembitsky, Mark A Sussman
Autologous cardiac progenitor cell (hCPC) therapy is a promising alternative approach to current inefficient therapies for heart failure (HF). However, ex vivo expansion and pharmacological/genetic modification of hCPCs are necessary interventions to rejuvenate aged/diseased cells and improve their regenerative capacities. This study was designed to assess the potential of improving hCPC functional capacity by targeting P2Y14 purinergic receptor (P2Y14 R), which has been previously reported to induce regenerative and anti-senescence responses in a variety of experimental models...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970202/a-comparison-of-adipose-tissue-interstitial-glucose-and-venous-blood-glucose-during-postprandial-resistance-exercise-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Timothy D Heden, Ying Liu, Jill A Kanaley
Resistance exercise during the postprandial period lowers venous glucose concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the impact of resistance exercise on interstitial glucose concentrations is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare subcutaneous adipose tissue interstitial glucose and venous blood glucose concentrations during postprandial resistance exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eleven individuals completed two trials in a random order including a no exercise (NoEx) and a postprandial resistance exercise trial (M-Ex)...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970178/autophagy-mediated-neuroprotection-induced-by-octreotide-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-early-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
Rosario Amato, Elisabetta Catalani, Massimo Dal Monte, Maurizio Cammalleri, Ilaria Di Renzo, Cristiana Perrotta, Davide Cervia, Giovanni Casini
Neuronal injury plays a major role in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Our hypothesis was that the balance between neuronal death and survival may depend on a similar equilibrium between apoptosis and autophagy and that a neuroprotectant may act by influencing this equilibrium. Ex vivo mouse retinal explants were treated with high glucose (HG) for 10days and the somatostatin analog octreotide (OCT) was used as a neuroprotectant. Chloroquine (CQ) was used as an autophagy inhibitor. Apoptotic and autophagic markers were evaluated using western blot and immunohistochemistry...
September 29, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964326/postprandial-vldl-tg-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetes
#14
Esben Søndergaard, Rakel Fuglsang Johansen, Michael D Jensen, Søren Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with excess postprandial lipemia due to accumulation of chylomicrons and VLDL particles. This is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the excess lipemia is associated with an impaired suppression of VLDL-TG secretion and/or reduced clearance into adipose tissue is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We measured the postprandial VLDL-TG secretion, clearance and adipose tissue storage to test the hypothesis that impaired postprandial suppression of VLDL-TG secretion, combined with impaired VLDL-TG storage in adipose tissue, is associated with excess postprandial lipemia...
October 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963949/dacryodes-edulis-enhances-antioxidant-activities-suppresses-dna-fragmentation-in-oxidative-pancreatic-and-hepatic-injuries-and-inhibits-carbohydrate-digestive-enzymes-linked-to-type-2-diabetes
#15
Ochuko L Erukainure, Ramgopal Mopuri, Olajumoke A Oyebode, Neil A Koorbanally, Md Shahidul Islam
The leaves of Dacryodes edulis were investigated for their anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic potentials in vitro. Extracts from sequential extraction with solvents of increasing polarity (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous) of the leaves were subjected to in vitro antioxidant assays using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) protocols respectively. Their inhibitory effects were investigated on α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipases, pancreatic ATPase and glucose-6-phospatase activities...
September 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963457/kinetics-of-functional-beta-cell-mass-decay-in-a-diphtheria-toxin-receptor-mouse-model-of-diabetes
#16
Pim P van Krieken, Andrea Dicker, Maria Eriksson, Pedro L Herrera, Ulf Ahlgren, Per-Olof Berggren, Erwin Ilegems
Functional beta cell mass is an essential biomarker for the diagnosis and staging of diabetes. It has however proven technically challenging to study this parameter during diabetes progression. Here we have detailed the kinetics of the rapid decline in functional beta cell mass in the RIP-DTR mouse, a model of hyperglycemia resulting from diphtheria toxin induced beta cell ablation. A novel combination of imaging modalities was employed to study the pattern of beta cell destruction. Optical projection tomography of the pancreas and longitudinal in vivo confocal microscopy of islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye allowed to investigate kinetics and tomographic location of beta cell mass decay in individual islets as well as at the entire islet population level...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954968/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-can-prevent-intravenous-lipid-infusion-induced-myocardial-microvascular-dysfunction-and-leukocyte-activation
#17
Takanori Yasu, Akiko Mutoh, Hiroshi Wada, Mayumi Kobayashi, Yuji Kikuchi, Shinichi Momomura, Shinichiro Ueda
BACKGROUND: Levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFAs) are elevated in patients with diabetes and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction through renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation and oxidative stress. The present study investigated how systemic FFA loading affected myocardial microcirculation during hyperemia via RAS.Methods and Results:Eight healthy men received candesartan, perindopril, or a placebo for 2 days in a double-blind crossover design, and then myocardial microcirculation during hyperemia induced by a 2-h infusion of lipid/heparin was assessed using dipyridamole stress-myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE)...
September 26, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948849/antioxidant-effects-of-damiana-turnera-diffusa-willd-ex-schult-in-kidney-mitochondria-from-streptozotocin-diabetic-rats
#18
Esquivel-Gutiérrez Edgar Romualdo, Alcaraz-Meléndez Lilia, Salgado-Garciglia Rafael, Saavedra-Molina Alfredo
The antioxidant effects of water-ethanol extract (WEE) from Turnera diffusa (damiana) in kidney mitochondria from experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM) rats was evaluated. STZ-DM rats were orally treated during three and five weeks. After experimental periods, kidney mitochondria were isolated and malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO•) and protein nitrosylation levels were measured. Also, blood glucose (BG) and body weight (BW) were recorded. Damiana significantly reduced the MDA and NO• levels in kidney mitochondria, although no changes in protein nitrosylation were observed and it did not have the potential to reverse the hyperglycaemia...
September 26, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947828/fenugreek-compound-n55-lowers-plasma-glucose-through-the-enhancement-of-response-of-physiological-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#19
I-Wen Chou, Yu-Hong Cheng, Yet-Ran Chen, Patrick Ching-Ho Hsieh, Klim King
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) analogues are approved for treating type 2 diabetes, but are known to activate GLP-1R signaling globally and constitutively. Active compound N55, previously isolated from fenugreek, enhances the potency of GLP-1 without activating GLP-1R. Here we investigated if N55 lowers plasma glucose base on physiological levels of GLP-1. N55 was found to dose-dependently lower plasma glucose in non-fasted mice but not in the fasted mice, with the effect attenuated by GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39) (Ex-9)...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946662/ape1-ref-1-inhibits-phosphate-induced-calcification-and-osteoblastic-phenotype-changes-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#20
Ki Mo Lee, Eun Ok Lee, Yu Ran Lee, Hee Kyoung Joo, Myoung Soo Park, Cuk-Seong Kim, Sunga Choi, Jin-Ok Jeong, Byeong Hwa Jeon
Vascular calcification plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease; however, the role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) in inorganic phosphate (Pi)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the possible role of APE1/Ref-1 in Pi-induced VSMC calcification. We observed that Pi decreased endogenous APE1/Ref-1 expression and promoter activity in VSMCs, and that adenoviral overexpression of APE1/Ref-1 inhibited Pi-induced calcification in VSMCs and in an ex vivo organ culture of a rat aorta...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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