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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447298/effects-of-voluntary-running-exercise-on-bone-histology-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#1
Yuri Takamine, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Toshinori Yoshihara, Hisashi Naito
The incidence of obesity in children and adolescents, which may lead to type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Exercise is recommended to prevent and improve diabetes. However, little is known about the bone marrow environment at the onset of diabetes in the young, and it is unclear whether exercise training is useful for maintaining bone homeostasis, such as mechanical and histological properties. Thus, this study clarified the histological properties of bone and whether exercise contributes to maintaining bone homeostasis at the onset of type 2 diabetes in rats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429978/islet-reactive-cd8-t-cell-frequencies-in-the-pancreas-but-not-in-blood-distinguish-type-1-diabetic-patients-from-healthy-donors
#2
Slobodan Culina, Ana Ines Lalanne, Georgia Afonso, Karen Cerosaletti, Sheena Pinto, Guido Sebastiani, Klaudia Kuranda, Laura Nigi, Anne Eugster, Thomas Østerbye, Alicia Maugein, James E McLaren, Kristin Ladell, Etienne Larger, Jean-Paul Beressi, Anna Lissina, Victor Appay, Howard W Davidson, Søren Buus, David A Price, Matthias Kuhn, Ezio Bonifacio, Manuela Battaglia, Sophie Caillat-Zucman, Francesco Dotta, Raphael Scharfmann, Bruno Kyewski, Roberto Mallone
The human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted zinc transporter 8186-194 (ZnT8186-194) and other islet epitopes elicit interferon-γ secretion by CD8+ T cells preferentially in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients compared with controls. We show that clonal ZnT8186-194-reactive CD8+ T cells express private T cell receptors and display equivalent functional properties in T1D and healthy individuals. Ex vivo analyses further revealed that CD8+ T cells reactive to ZnT8186-194 and other islet epitopes circulate at similar frequencies and exhibit a predominantly naïve phenotype in age-matched T1D and healthy donors...
February 2, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428699/c-reactive-protein-crp-and-long-term-air-pollution-with-a-focus-on-ultrafine-particles
#3
Veronika Pilz, Kathrin Wolf, Susanne Breitner, Regina Rückerl, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Josef Cyrys, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the global burden of disease by particularly affecting cardiovascular (CV) causes of death. We investigated the association between particle number concentration (PNC), a marker for ultrafine particles, and other air pollutants and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a potential link between air pollution and CV disease. METHODS: We cross-sectionally analysed data from the second follow up (2013 and 2014) of the German KORA baseline survey which was conducted in 1999-2001...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421564/high-density-lipoprotein-mimicking-nanodiscs-carrying-peptide-for-enhanced-therapeutic-angiogenesis-in-diabetic-hindlimb-ischemia
#4
Hyun-Ji Park, Rui Kuai, Eun Je Jeon, Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, James J Moon, Anna Schwendeman, Seung-Woo Cho
Therapeutic strategies using endogenous stem cell mobilizer can provide effective cell-free therapy for addressing various ischemic diseases. In particular, substance P (SP) exhibited therapeutic regeneration by facilitating mobilization of endogenous stem cells from bone marrow to the injured sites. However, its therapeutic effect has been limited due to short half-life and rapid degradation of administered SP peptides in vivo. Here we sought to develop high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking nanodiscs conjugated with SP (HDL-SP) in order to increase the in vivo half-life, bone marrow targeting, and therapeutic efficacy of SP for the treatment of diabetic peripheral ischemia...
January 19, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421245/effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogue-exendin-4-on-cognitive-functions-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-possible-modulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-brain-visfatin
#5
O M Abdelwahed, O M Tork, M M Gamal El Din, L Rashed, M Zickri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Its role in cognitive functions in T2DM was not studied before...
February 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413441/feasibility-evaluation-of-myocardial-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-imaging%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-obesity-a-translational-approach
#6
Ines Valenta, Zoltan V Varga, Heather Valentine, Resat Cinar, Andrew Horti, William B Mathews, Robert F Dannals, Kimberley Steele, George Kunos, Richard L Wahl, Martin G Pomper, Dean F Wong, Pal Pacher, Thomas H Schindler
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of targeted imaging of myocardial cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1-R) and its potential up-regulation in obese mice with translation to humans using [11C]-OMAR and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). BACKGROUND: Activation of myocardial CB1-R by endocannabinoids has been implicated in cardiac dysfunction in diabetic mice. Obesity may lead to an up-regulation of myocardial CB1-R, potentially providing a mechanistic link between obesity and the initiation and/or progression of cardiomyopathy...
February 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408797/effect-of-cilostazol-on-platelet-reactivity-among-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-on-clopidogrel-therapy
#7
Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez, Hector Núñez-Medina, Stuart A Scott, Angel Lopez-Candales, Jose M Wiley, Mario J Garcia, Kyle Melin, Karid Nieves-Borrero, Christina Rodriguez-Ruiz, Lorraine Marshall, Jorge Duconge
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel is recommended to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, clopidogrel efficacy has not been adequately studied in this patient population. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of cilostazol therapy on platelet reactivity among PAD patients on clopidogrel. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional pilot study of 46 Puerto Rican patients diagnosed with PAD. The cohort was divided based on use of clopidogrel and cilostazol (n=24) or clopidogrel alone (n=22)...
February 6, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405635/metformin-does-not-affect-postabsorptive-hepatic-free-fatty-acid-uptake-oxidation-or-resecretion-in-humans-a-3-months-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-healthy-controls
#8
Lars C Gormsen, Esben Søndergaard, Nana L Christensen, Steen Jakobsen, Erik H T Nielsen, Ole L Munk, Lars P Tolbod, Niels Jessen, Søren Nielsen
AIMS: Metformin is due to its well-documented glucose lowering effect the most commonly used drug in patients with T2D. However, metformin have also in pre-clinical studies been shown to improve lipid metabolism, possibly through modulation of intrahepatic partitioning of fatty acids towards oxidation and away from reesterification and resecretion as triglycerides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore whether these pre-clinical findings can be translated to a human setting, we performed a 3-month randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group clinical trial in patients with T2D (24 patients) and healthy controls (12 subjects)...
February 6, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382697/metformin-attenuates-effects-of-cyclophilin-a-on-macrophages-reduces-lipid-uptake-and-secretion-of-cytokines-by-repressing-decreased-ampk-activity
#9
Surya Ramachandran, Vinitha Anandan, V Raman Kutty, Ajit Mullasari, M Radhakrishna Pillai, C C Kartha
Growing evidence implicates cyclophilin A secreted by vascular wall cells and monocytes as a key mediator in atherosclerosis. Cyclophilin A in addition to its proliferative effects, during hyperglycaemic conditions, increases lipid uptake in macrophages by increasing scavenger receptors on the cell's surface. It also promotes macrophage migration across endothelial cells and conversion of macrophages to foam cells. Given the known effects of metformin in reducing vascular complications of diabetes, we investigated the effect of metformin on cyclophilin A action in macrophages...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375041/chronic-orexin-a-hypocretin-1-treatment-of-type-2-diabetic-rats-improves-glucose-control-and-beta-cell-functions
#10
P Kaczmarek, M Skrzypski, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, M Sassek, P A Kolodziejski, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, P Maechler, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexin regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Here, we test the ability of orexin-A (OXA, hypocretin-1) at improving metabolic control in type 2 diabetic animals and elaborate potential mechanisms of action. Rats with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes by a combination of streptozotocin injection and high-fat diet feeding were chronically infused with OXA. In vitro experiments were conducted on isolated pancreatic islets, primary adipocytes and insulin secreting INS-1E cells. OXA improved glucose control, enhanced insulin sensitivity and attenuated pancreatic β-cell loss in type 2 diabetic rats...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374192/novel-mechanisms-of-collagenase-santyl-ointment-cso-in-wound-macrophage-polarization-and-resolution-of-wound-inflammation
#11
Amitava Das, Soma Datta, Eric Roche, Scott Chaffee, Elizabeth Jose, Lei Shi, Komel Grover, Savita Khanna, Chandan K Sen, Sashwati Roy
Collagenases are useful in enzymatic wound debridement. Clostridial collagenase, marketed as Collagenase Santyl Ointment (CSO), is FDA approved for such use. Building on the scientific premise that collagenases as well as collagen degradation products may regulate immune cell function, we sought to investigate the potential role of CSO in wound inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to enacting debridement, CSO contributes to the resolution of persistent wound inflammation. Wound macrophages were isolated from PVA sponges loaded with CSO or petrolatum and implanted in mice...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371036/mechanisms-of-arterial-calcification-the-role-of-matrix-vesicles
#12
Luca Zazzeroni, Gianluca Faggioli, Gianandrea Pasquinelli
Vascular calcification is related to vascular diseases, for example, atherosclerosis, and its comorbidities, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. In each condition, a distinctive histological pattern can be recognised that may influence technical choices, possible intra-operative complications, and procedure outcomes, no matter if the intervention is performed by open or endovascular means. This review considers the classification and initiating mechanisms of vascular calcification. Dystrophic and metastatic calcifications, Monckeberg's calcification, and genetic forms are firstly outlined, followed by their alleged initiation mechanisms; these include (a) ineffective macrophage efferocytosis; (b) ectopic osteogenesis driven by modified resident or circulating osteoprogenitors...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362846/roles-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-human-diseases-from-diabetes-to-cancers-and-infection
#13
REVIEW
Udom Lao-On, Paul V Attwood, Sarawut Jitrapakdee
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), an anaplerotic enzyme, plays an essential role in various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, de novo fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Deregulation of PC expression or activity has long been known to be associated with metabolic syndrome in several rodent models. Accumulating data in the past decade clearly showed that deregulation of PC expression is associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, while targeted inhibition of PC expression in a mouse model reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced type 2 diabetes...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362490/publisher-correction-functional-coupling-of-human-pancreatic-islets-and-liver-spheroids-on-a-chip-towards-a-novel-human-ex-vivo-type-2-diabetes-model
#14
Sophie Bauer, Charlotte Wennberg Huldt, Kajsa P Kanebratt, Isabell Durieux, Daniela Gunne, Shalini Andersson, Lorna Ewart, William G Haynes, Ilka Maschmeyer, Annika Winter, Carina Ämmälä, Uwe Marx, Tommy B Andersson
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354930/-skin-needle-embedding-for-obese-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#15
Jinghua Liang, Zhendi Feng, Shengkui Feng, Shude Bao, Kejia Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect difference between the skin needle embedding therapy and western medication for obese impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: A total of 300 cases of obese IGT were assigned into an embedding group and a western medication group by random number table, 150 cases in each one. Standardized diagnosis and treatment programs were applied to reduce blood pressure, lipid, weight, and exercise and scientific diet management were used...
January 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348573/exendin-4-encapsulated-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-efficient-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
Shayan Fakhraei Lahiji, Yoojung Jang, Inyoung Huh, Huisuk Yang, Mingyu Jang, Hyungil Jung
Dissolving microneedles (DMNs) are microscopic needles capable of delivering encapsulated compounds and releasing them into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. Most studies indicate that encapsulating therapeutics in DMNs is an efficacious approach; however, the importance of evaluating the activity of encapsulated compounds, during the fabrication process, has not been examined in detail. Conducting an analysis of thermal, chemical, and physical stress factors, including temperature, pH, and the interaction of the polymer and therapeutics mixture during preparation, is essential for retaining the activity of encapsulated therapeutics during and after fabrication...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341416/resveratrol-influences-pancreatic-islets-by-opposing-effects-on-electrical-activity-and-insulin-release
#17
Simone Brouwer, Theresa Hoffmeister, Anne Gresch, Lisa Schönhoff, Martina Düfer
SCOPE: Resveratrol is suggested to improve glycemic control by activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and has already been tested clinically. Our investigation characterizes the targets of resveratrol in pancreatic beta cells and their contribution to short- and long-term effects on insulin secretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Islets or beta cells were isolated from C57Bl/6N mice. Electrophysiology was performed with microelectrode arrays and patch-clamp technique, insulin secretion and content were determined by radioimmunoassay, cAMP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by fluorescence methods...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318442/an-exudate-detection-method-for-diagnosis-risk-of-diabetic-macular-edema-in-retinal-images-using-feature-based-and-supervised-classification
#18
D Marin, M E Gegundez-Arias, B Ponte, F Alvarez, J Garrido, C Ortega, M J Vasallo, J M Bravo
The present paper aims at presenting the methodology and first results of a detection system of risk of diabetic macular edema (DME) in fundus images. The system is based on the detection of retinal exudates (Ex), whose presence in the image is clinically used for an early diagnosis of the disease. To do so, the system applies digital image processing algorithms to the retinal image in order to obtain a set of candidate regions to be Ex, which are validated by means of feature extraction and supervised classification techniques...
January 10, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317116/giant-coronary-aneurysm-culprit-of-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#19
Iván J Núñez-Gil, Pedro Marcos Alberca, Nieves Gonzalo, Luis Nombela-Franco, Pablo Salinas, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz
A 66-year-old male ex-smoker with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia was admitted due to a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. The catheterisation depicted an extensive and calcified disease: chronic total obstruction of the right coronary and severe disease with a giant aneurysm at the first marginal branch as the culprit vessel. After discussion, the right coronary was treated before the circumflex-giant aneurysm was closed with a stent graft and its multiple severe stenosis solved with two drug-eluting stents...
January 6, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316701/the-effect-of-cryopreserved-human-placental-tissues-on-biofilm-formation-of-wound-associated-pathogens
#20
Yong Mao, Anya Singh-Varma, Tyler Hoffman, Sandeep Dhall, Alla Danilkovitch, Joachim Kohn
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and reduction of wound-related infections. Our previous study demonstrated that CVAM possesses intrinsic antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of wound-associated bacteria under planktonic culture conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CVAM and cryopreserved viable umbilical tissue (CVUT) on biofilm formation of S...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
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