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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228472/the-epidemiology-of-stroke-in-africa-a-systematic-review-of-existing-methods-and-new-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Mayowa Owolabi, Paul Olowoyo, Femi Popoola, Daniel Lackland, Carolyn Jenkins, Oyedunni Arulogun, Rufus Akinyemi, Odunayo Akinyemi, Onoja Akpa, Olanrewaju Olaniyan, Ezinne Uvere, Issa Kehinde, Anbesaw Selassie, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Raelle Tagge, Bruce Ovbiagele
Accurate epidemiological surveillance of the burden of stroke is direly needed to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective interventions in Africa. The authors therefore conducted a systematic review of the methodology of stroke epidemiological studies conducted in Africa from 1970 to 2017 using gold standard criteria obtained from landmark epidemiological publications. Of 1330 articles extracted, only 50 articles were eligible for review grouped under incidence, prevalence, case-fatality, health-related quality of life, and disability-adjusted life-years studies...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228467/neoadjuvant-systemic-therapy-for-regionally-advanced-melanoma
#2
James W Jakub, Jennifer M Racz, Tina J Hieken, Alexandra B Gonzalez, Lisa A Kottschade, Svetomir N Markovic, Yiyi Yan, Mathew S Block
BACKGROUND: Patients with regionally advanced melanoma are at high risk of distant failure and unlikely to be cured by surgery alone. Neoadjuvant therapy may provide benefit in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our experience with neoadjuvant systemic therapy in high-risk stage III patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with advanced stage III disease who received neoadjuvant therapy between August 2009 and August 2016 at Mayo Clinic Rochester...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228445/the-protective-effect-and-its-mechanism-of-3-n-butylphthalide-pretreatment-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#3
R-Y Yan, S-J Wang, G-T Yao, Z-G Liu, N Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effect of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) pretreatment on the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and the relevant mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 rats was divided into three groups: Sham operation group (Sham group), ischemia-reperfusion group (I-R group), and NBP pretreatment group (NBP group 75 mg·kg-1·d-1 gavage). Pre-treatment was given once a day within 1 week before establishing the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228434/functional-roles-of-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disorders-a-systematic-review
#4
H-J Sun, X-X Zhu, W-W Cai, L-Y Qiu
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of people death associated with high mortality and disability. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles containing protein, lipid, transcription factors, mRNAs, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and nucleic acid contents, which are critical players of intercellular communication via long-range signals or cell-to-cell contact. The emergence of exosomes provides favorable strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Exosomes-based molecular mechanisms are important for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular events...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228402/lymph-node-metastasis-in-early-gastric-adenocarcinoma-in-the-united-states-of-america
#5
Sridevi K Pokala, Chao Zhang, Zhengjia Chen, Anthony M Gamboa, Sarah L Cristofaro, Steven A Keilin, Qiang Cai, Field F Willingham
Background and study aims Localized approaches are being increasingly used in the management of early gastric adenocarcinoma; however, there are limited data on lymph node metastasis in the US population. This study examined the incidence and predictors of lymph node involvement for early-stage gastric adenocarcinomas in the USA. Patients and methods Data were abstracted from the national SEER database from 2004 to 2013. Exclusion criteria included: cases with unknown tumor characteristics, unknown patient characteristics, metastatic disease, neoadjuvant radiation, and lack of surgical resection or lymph node evaluation...
December 11, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228395/brain-stem-cavernous-malformations-operative-nuances-of-a-less-invasive-resection-technique
#6
Harminder Singh, Turki Elarjani, Harley Brito da Silva, Rakshith Shetty, Louis Kim, Laligam N Sekhar
BACKGROUND: Different operative techniques are reported for the resection of brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs). The senior author has previously reported on a less-invasive technique of entering the brain stem with piecemeal removal of BSCMs, especially the deep-seated ones. OBJECTIVE: To present a larger series of these lesions, emphasizing the approach to the brain stem via case selection. We discuss the nuances of the less-invasive operative technique through case illustrations and intraoperative videos...
December 8, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228389/high-resolution-melting-analysis-a-novel-approach-for-clade-differentiation-in-pythium-insidiosum-and-pythiosis
#7
Navaporn Worasilchai, Nitipong Permpalung, Ariya Chindamporn
Pythium insidiosum causes life-threatening human pythiosis. Based on phylogenetic analysis using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase II (COX2) gene, intergenic spacer (IGS) region and exo-1,3-β-glucanase gene (exo1), P. insidiosum is classified into clade ATH, BTH, and CTH related to geographic distribution. At present, polymerase chain reaction in any of these specific regions with DNA sequencing is the only technique to provide clade diagnosis. In this study, P. insidiosum-specific primers targeting COX2 gene were designed and used in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with subsequent high-resolution melting (HRM) to provide rapid identification as well as clade classification for P...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228382/long-term-neurological-and-radiological-results-of-consecutive-63-unruptured-anterior-communicating-artery-aneurysms-clipped-via-lateral-supraorbital-keyhole-minicraniotomy
#8
Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Naoki Otani, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Satoshi Tomura, Satoru Takeuchi, Takuji Yamamoto, Yasuaki Nakao, Hajime Arai
BACKGROUND: Treatments for unruptured anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysm have relatively high morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To assess the lateral supraorbital keyhole approach for safe and complete clipping of unruptured AcomA aneurysm and evaluate the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes, including cognitive and depressive status. METHODS: A total of 63 patients (aged 41-79 yr, mean 64 yr) with relatively small AcomA aneurysms clipped via the lateral supraorbital approach were retrospectively analyzed among the 105 AcomA aneurysms treated by clipping from 2005 to 2014...
December 7, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228374/quantitative-trait-loci-mapping-of-western-corn-rootworm-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-host-plant-resistance-in-two-populations-of-doubled-haploid-lines-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#9
Martin O Bohn, Juan J Marroquin, Sherry Flint-Garcia, Kenton Dashiell, David B Willmot, Bruce E Hibbard
Over the last 70 yr, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Selected genotypes were mostly characterized by large root systems and superior root regrowth after root damage caused by western corn rootworm larvae. However, no hybrids claiming native (i...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228373/medical-treatment-or-surgery-for-colorectal-endometriosis-results-of-a-shared-decision-making-approach
#10
Paolo Vercellini, Maria Pina Frattaruolo, Riccardo Rosati, Dhouha Dridi, Anna Roberto, Paola Mosconi, Olga De Giorgi, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Edgardo Somigliana
STUDY QUESTION: What is the degree of patient satisfaction in women with symptomatic colorectal endometriosis who choose medical or surgical treatment after a shared decision-making (SDM) process? SUMMARY ANSWER: The degree of satisfaction with treatment was high both in women who chose medical treatment with a low-dose oral contraceptive (OCP) or a progestin, and in those who chose to undergo surgical resection of bowel endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hormonal therapies and surgery for colorectal endometriosis have been investigated in non-comparative studies with inconsistent results...
December 8, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228370/a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signature-predicts-low-grade-glioma-prognosis-a-precision-medicine-approach-based-on-patient-derived-stem-cells
#11
Tamara Ius, Yari Ciani, Maria Elisabetta Ruaro, Miriam Isola, Marisa Sorrentino, Michela Bulfoni, Veronica Candotti, Cecilia Correcig, Evgenia Bourkoula, Ivana Manini, Enrico Pegolo, Damiano Mangoni, Stefania Marzinotto, Slobodanka Radovic, Barbara Toffoletto, Federica Caponnetto, Andrea Zanello, Laura Mariuzzi, Carla Di Loreto, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Silvano Piazza, Miran Skrap, Daniela Cesselli
Background: While recent genome wide association studies have suggested novel low-grade glioma (LGG) stratification models based on a molecular classification, we explored the potential clinical utility of patient-derived cells. Specifically, we assayed glioma-associated stem cells (GASC) that are patient-derived stem cells representative of the glioma microenvironment. Methods: By next generation sequencing, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of GASC derived from patients that underwent anaplastic transformation either within 48 months (GASC-BAD) or ≥7 years (GASC-GOOD) after surgery...
December 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228369/nicotine-gum-as-a-therapeutic-approach-for-low-blood-pressure-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-pilot-study
#12
Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue, Min-Kyung Jung, Adena Leder
Introduction: One cause for low blood pressure (BP) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is denervation of the sympathetic nervous system and reduced levels of norepinephrine. Nicotine increases heart rate and BP acutely by causing sympathetic stimulation. The absorption rate of nicotine gum is relatively quick and is absorbed at a constant rate. Our objective was to evaluate how nicotine gum affects acute low BP in PD. Methods: Ten subjects (age 69.3±8.8) completed this double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design trial using nicotine gum (4 mg) and placebo gum on two separate days...
December 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228368/the-oncolytic-virus-mg1-targets-and-eliminates-latently-hiv-1-infected-cells-implications-for-an-hiv-cure
#13
Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S Sandstrom, Stephanie C Burke Schinkel, Sandra C Côté, Jonathan B Angel
Latently HIV-infected cells evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbour intracellular signalling defects including impairment of the antiviral, type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers, and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate latently HIV-1-infected cells, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in latently HIV-1-infected cell lines...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228341/response-to-letter-from-rainer-otter-regarding-albert-o-et-al-2017-identifying-greener-and-safer-plasticizers-a-four-step-approach
#14
Océane Albert, Thomas C Nardelli, Barbara Hales, Bernard Robaire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228323/evaluation-of-a-genus-specific-elisa-and-a-commercial-aspergillus-western-blot-igg%C3%A2-immunoblot-kit-for-the-diagnosis-of-aspergillosis-in-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#15
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolina Le-Bert, Vanessa Fravel, Tonya Clauss, Alexa J Delaune, Jeny Soto, Eric D Jensen, Jennifer E Flower, Randall Wells, Gregory D Bossart, Carolyn Cray
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection with high mortality and morbidity rates. As in humans, its definitive diagnosis is difficult in animals, and thus new laboratory tools are required to overcome the diagnostic limitations due to low specificity and lack of standardization. In this study of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), we evaluated the diagnostic performance of a new commercial immunoblot kit that had been initially developed for the serologic diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis in humans...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228319/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-albert-o-et-al-2017-identifying-greener-and-safer-plasticizers-a-four-step-approach
#16
Rainer Otter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228311/a-new-method-for-post-translationally-labeling-proteins-in-live-cells-for-fluorescence-imaging-and-tracking
#17
M Hinrichsen, M Lenz, J M Edwards, O K Miller, S G J Mochrie, P S Swain, U Schwarz-Linek, L Regan
We present a novel method to fluorescently label proteins, post-translationally, within live Saccharomycescerevisiae. The premise underlying this work is that fluorescent protein (FP) tags are less disruptive to normal processing and function when they are attached post-translationally, because target proteins are allowed to fold properly and reach their final subcellular location before being labeled. We accomplish this post-translational labeling by expressing the target protein fused to a short peptide tag (SpyTag), which is then covalently labeled in situ by controlled expression of an open isopeptide domain (SpyoIPD, a more stable derivative of the SpyCatcher protein) fused to an FP...
December 7, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228286/cut-and-paste-transposons-in-fungi-with-diverse-lifestyles
#18
Anna Muszewska, Kamil Steczkiewicz, Marta Stepniewska-Dziubinska, Krzysztof Ginalski
Transposons (TEs) shape genomes via recombination and transposition, lead to chromosomal rearrangements, create new gene neighbourhoods and alter gene expression. They play key roles in adaptation either to symbiosis in Amanita genus or to pathogenicity in Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Despite growing evidence of their importance, the abundance and distribution of mobile elements replicating in a "cut and paste" fashion is barely described so far. In order to improve our knowledge on this old and ubiquitous class of transposable elements, 1,730 fungal genomes were scanned using both de novo and homology-based approaches...
December 8, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228281/the-intriguing-evolution-of-effect-sizes-in-biomedical-research-over-time-smaller-but-more-often-statistically-significant
#19
Paul Monsarrat, Jean-Noel Vergnes
Background: In medicine, effect sizes (ESs) allow the effects of independent variables (including risk/protective factors, or treatment interventions) on dependent variables (e.g., health outcomes) to be quantified. Given that many public health decisions and health care policies are based on ES estimates, it is important to assess how ESs are used in the biomedical literature and to investigate potential trends in their reporting over time. Results: Through a big data approach, the text mining process automatically extracted 814 120 ESs from 13 322 754 PubMed abstracts...
December 6, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228255/community-wide-intervention-and-population-level-physical-activity-a-5-year-cluster-randomized-trial
#20
Masamitsu Kamada, Jun Kitayuguchi, Takafumi Abe, Masataka Taguri, Shigeru Inoue, Yoshiki Ishikawa, Adrian Bauman, I-Min Lee, Motohiko Miyachi, Ichiro Kawachi
Background: Evidence from a limited number of short-term trials indicates the difficulty in achieving population-level improvements in physical activity (PA) through community-wide interventions (CWIs). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-year CWI for promoting PA in middle-aged and older adults using a cluster randomized design. Methods: We randomized 12 communities in Unnan, Japan, to either intervention (9) or control (3). Additionally, intervention communities were randomly allocated to three subgroups by different PA types promoted...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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