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Susanne Bartel, Heike Ohlbrecht
OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the theory-practice transfer in the field of research on participation in working life (LTA). The aim was to determine what expectations are prevalent on the part of service providers, how they access scientific knowledge, how the transfer into practice takes place and what research gaps exist. At the same time, representatives of the German Statutory Pension Insurance were asked about internal structures for identifying research topics and evaluating research results as well as for knowledge transfer...
June 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Min He, Xin Huang, Shuying Liu, Chunsheng Guo, Yufei Xie, Annemarie H Meijer, Mei Wang
Ginseng Radix ( Panax ginseng ) is one of the most commonly used herbs worldwide for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases among others, supported by ancient historical records. Throughout this long history, the large-scale cultivation of ginseng created an increasing demand for long-term storage of the harvested plant material, accelerating the development of post-harvesting procedures. Dried white ginseng and processed (steamed) red ginseng are the products of the two most common traditional post-harvest processes...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
Yuri Quintana, Eduardo A Gonzalez Martorell, Darren Fahy, Charles Safran
OBJECTIVE:  Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is paramount to successful long-term suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For poorly adherent patients with HIV, barriers to remaining adherent may be overcome by the implementation of targeted interventions delivered via mobile devices. This systematic review is focused specifically on mobile phone technologies to deliver adherence interventions in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) populations. METHODS:  This review (PROSPERO #CRD42017065131) systematically extracted data from published literature from five databases on mobile phone interventions to improve adherence to ART for HIV...
April 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Danielle Groat, Hiral Soni, Maria Adela Grando, Bithika Thompson, David Kaufman, Curtiss B Cook
BACKGROUND:  Type 1 diabetes (T1D) care requires multiple daily self-management behaviors (SMBs). Preliminary studies on SMBs rely mainly on self-reported survey and interview data. There is little information on adult T1D SMBs, along with corresponding compensation techniques (CTs), gathered in real-time. OBJECTIVE:  The article aims to use a patient-centered approach to design iDECIDE, a smartphone application that gathers daily diabetes SMBs and CTs related to meal and alcohol intake and exercise in real-time, and contrast patients' actual behaviors against those self-reported with the app...
April 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Cristina Santoro, Gabriele Quintavalle, Giancarlo Castaman, Erminia Baldacci, Antonietta Ferretti, Federica Riccardi, Annarita Tagliaferri
Hemophilia B (HB) is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of factor IX (FIX). Patients with the severe form (FIX <1%) account approximately for 30 to 45% of persons with HB and usually suffer from recurrent joint, soft-tissue, and muscle bleeds. The availability of safe plasma-derived and recombinant products has virtually abolished the risk of viral infections and the adoption of prophylactic regimens has attenuated the impact of hemophilic arthropathy. Therefore, the development of an inhibitor against FIX is currently the most serious complication that can still occur in the new generations of HB patients...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Bronwyn McGill, Blythe J O'Hara, Philayrath Phongsavan
Objectives and importance of study: Low program completion rates can undermine the public health impact of even the most effective program. Participant experiences with lifestyle programs are not well reported, but are important for program improvement and retention. The purpose of this study was to understand participant perceptions of the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service (GHS), a 6-month telephone-based health coaching program to promote lifestyle change. We were particularly interested in participants' initial expectations, their actual experience and, for those who did not complete the program, what influenced their withdrawal...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Mariacristina Vecchio, A Iroz, I Seksek
As a preventive strategy, increased water intake is often recommended to women affected by recurrent cystitis; however, clinical data are sparse and conflicting. This review evaluates the preventive approaches used as alternatives to obtain relief from the burden of cystitis and focuses on the effect of fluid intake on urinary tract infection.
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Conor F Underwood, Jacqueline K Phillips, Cara M Hildreth
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a group of monogenetic conditions characterised by the progressive accumulation of multiple renal cysts and hypertension. One of the earliest features of PKD is a reduction in urinary concentrating capacity that impairs extracellular fluid conservation. Urinary concentrating impairment predisposes PKD patients to periods of hypohydration when fluid loss is not adequately compensated by fluid intake. The hypohydrated state provides a blood hyperosmotic stimulus for vasopressin release to minimise further water loss...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Daniel C V R Silva, Cristiano V M Araújo, Rodrigo J Marassi, Sheila Cardoso-Silva, Morun B Neto, Gilmar C Silva, Rui Ribeiro, Flávio T Silva, Teresa C B Paiva, Marcelo L M Pompêo
An increasing number of studies have shown the ability of organisms to escape from toxic effects due to contamination, by moving spatially towards less contaminated habitats. However, this issue has been investigated in monospecific scenarios, without considering possible interactions between species during the contamination avoidance process. It is widely known that the spatial distribution of one species can be affected by another one, in different ways. Therefore, the main question addressed in the present study was as follows: Might interspecific interaction between the freshwater fish Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Poecilia reticulata (guppy) change their behavior patterns in terms of avoidance in the presence of a copper gradient? Zebrafish and guppies exposed to a copper gradient were tested for avoidance responses in a free-choice, non-forced, static, multi-compartmented exposure system, using two distinct approaches: (1) monospecific tests, in which only one species was exposed to the copper gradient, at two different population densities; and (2) multispecific tests, in which both species were tested simultaneously...
June 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Evan E Santo, Jihye Paik
The rapid development of CRISPR technology is revolutionizing molecular approaches to the dissection of complex biological phenomena. Here we describe an alternative generally applicable implementation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system that allows for selective knockdown of extremely homologous genes. This strategy employs the lentiviral delivery of paired sgRNAs and nickase Cas9 (Cas9D10A) to achieve targeted deletion of splice junctions. This general strategy offers several advantages over standard single-guide exon-targeting CRISPR-Cas9 such as greatly reduced off-target effects, more restricted genomic editing, routine disruption of target gene mRNA expression and the ability to differentiate between closely related genes...
June 17, 2018: Gene
Gabrielle de Wit, David Albrecht, Helge Ewers, Philipp Kukura
The spatiotemporal organization and dynamics of the plasma membrane and its constituents are central to cellular function. Fluorescence-based single-particle tracking has emerged as a powerful approach for studying the single molecule behavior of plasma-membrane-associated events because of its excellent background suppression, at the expense of imaging speed and observation time. Here, we show that interferometric scattering microscopy combined with 40 nm gold nanoparticle labeling can be used to follow the motion of membrane proteins in the plasma membrane of live cultured mammalian cell lines and hippocampal neurons with up to 3 nm precision and 25 μs temporal resolution...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Victor De La Rosa, Ian Scott Ramsey
The Hv1 proton channel shares striking structural homology with fourth transmembrane helical segment-type voltage-sensor (VS) domains but manifests distinctive functional properties, including a proton-selective "aqueous" conductance and allosteric control of voltage-dependent gating by changes in the transmembrane pH gradient. The mechanisms responsible for Hv1's functional properties remain poorly understood, in part because methods for measuring gating currents that directly report VS activation have not yet been described...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Justin A Drake, B Montgomery Pettitt
Conformational entropy is expected to contribute significantly to the thermodynamics of structural transitions in intrinsically disordered proteins or regions in response to protein/ligand binding, posttranslational modifications, and environmental changes. We calculated the backbone (dihedral) conformational entropy of oligoglycine (GlyN ), a protein backbone mimic and model intrinsically disordered region, as a function of chain length (N=3, 4, 5, 10, and 15) from simulations using three different approaches...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Le Yan, Riccardo Ravasio, Carolina Brito, Matthieu Wyart
Allosteric proteins transmit a mechanical signal induced by binding a ligand. However, understanding the nature of the information transmitted and the architectures optimizing such transmission remains a challenge. Here we show, using an in silico evolution scheme and theoretical arguments, that architectures optimized to be cooperative, which efficiently propagate energy, qualitatively differ from previously investigated materials optimized to propagate strain. Although we observe a large diversity of functioning cooperative architectures (including shear, hinge, and twist designs), they all obey the same principle of displaying a mechanism, i...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Navratan Bagwan, Elena Bonzon-Kulichenko, Enrique Calvo, Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco, Spiros Michalakopoulos, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Iakes Ezkurdia, José Manuel Rodríguez, Ricardo Magni, Ana Latorre-Pellicer, José Antonio Enríquez, Jesús Vázquez
Post-translational modifications hugely increase the functional diversity of proteomes. Recent algorithms based on ultratolerant database searching are forging a path to unbiased analysis of peptide modifications by shotgun mass spectrometry. However, these approaches identify only one-half of the modified forms potentially detectable and do not map the modified residue. Moreover, tools for the quantitative analysis of peptide modifications are currently lacking. Here, we present a suite of algorithms that allows comprehensive identification of detectable modifications, pinpoints the modified residues, and enables their quantitative analysis through an integrated statistical model...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Mohsen Hosseini, Léa Dousset, Walid Mahfouf, Martin Serrano-Sanchez, Isabelle Redonnet-Vernhet, Samir Mesli, Zeinab Kasraian, Emilie Obre, Marc Bonneu, Stephane Claverol, Marija Vlaski, Zoran Ivanovic, Walid Rachidi, Thierry Douki, Alain Taieb, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Rodrigue Rossignol, Hamid Reza Rezvani
Although growing evidence indicates that bioenergetic metabolism plays an important role in the progression of tumorigenesis, little information is available on the contribution of reprogramming of energy metabolism in cancer initiation. By applying a quantitative proteomic approach and targeted metabolomics, we find that specific metabolic modifications precede primary skin tumor formation. Using a multistage model of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced skin cancer, we show that glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and fatty acid β-oxidation are decreased at a very early stage of photocarcinogenesis, while the distal part of the electron transport chain (ETC) is upregulated...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
DarrenM Hutt, Salvatore Loguercio, Alexandre Rosa Campos, William E Balch
The advent of precision medicine for genetic diseases has been hampered by the large number of variants that cause familial and somatic disease, a complexity that is further confounded by the impact of genetic modifiers. To begin to understand differences in onset, progression and therapeutic response that exist among disease-causing variants, we present the proteomic variant approach (ProVarA), a proteomic method that integrates mass spectrometry with genomic tools to dissect the etiology of disease. To illustrate its value, we examined the impact of variation in cystic fibrosis (CF), where 2025 disease-associated mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have been annotated and where individual genotypes exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity and response to therapeutic intervention...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Yongjian Wang, Palma Rico-Lastres, Ainhoa Lezamiz, Marc Mora, Carles Solsona, Guillaume Stirnemann, Sergi Garcia-Manyes
Understanding the molecular mechanisms governing protein-nucleic acid interactions is fundamental to many nuclear processes. However, how nucleic acid binding affects the conformation and dynamics of the substrate protein remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of single molecule force spectroscopy AFM and biochemical assays to show that the binding of TG-rich ssDNA triggers a mechanical switch in the RRM1 domain of TDP-43, toggling between an entropic spring devoid of mechanical stability and a shock absorber bound-form that resists unfolding forces of 40 pN...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Manuel Antuch Cubillas, Pierre Millet
The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is the focus of much attention by the scientific community because of the increasing energetic demands of modern society for clean and renewable energy sources. Molecular complexes of 3d-transition metals, such as cobalt, are potential alternative candidates to platinum for the HER in acidic media. Among these, cage complexes such as tris-dioximate metal clathrochelates have shown high HER catalytic properties. However, it is not clear either the catalytic activity of this molecule is due to metal-centered activation of H+, due to a low oxidation state of the metal stabilized by the surrounding organic cage, or if it is the organic cage who has a further cooperative role in bringing protons together...
June 20, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Ira Kantrowitz-Gordon, Shannon Abbott, Rachel Hoehn
INTRODUCTION: The postpartum period can be a challenging experience for many women as they adjust to the physical and social changes after childbirth. Mindfulness-based interventions have been developed for stress reduction in a variety of health contexts, including pregnancy. These interventions provide strategies that may help new mothers handle the physical, emotional, and relationship challenges of the postpartum period and increase acceptance of postpartum physical changes and body image...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
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