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Deeksha Pal, Venkatesh Kolluru, Balaji Chanderashekar, Becca V Baby, Mazzy Aman, Suman Suman, Suman Sirimulla, Mary Ann Sanders, Praveen Seshabhatter, Houda Alatassi, Murali K Ankem, Chendil Damodaran
We have previously reported that high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme activity in breast cancer cells results in breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) properties by upregualting Notch-1 and epithelial mesenchymal markers. This results in chemoresistance in breast cancer. Here, we examined the functional and clinical significance of ALDH expression by measuring the ALDH levels in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. There was a significantly higher ALDH expression in higher grade breast cancer tumor tissues (Grade- II and III) versus normal breast tissues...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ching-Hao Li, Chen-Wei Liu, Chi-Hao Tsai, Yi-Jen Peng, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Po-Lin Liao, Chen-Chen Lee, Yu-Wen Cheng, Jaw-Jou Kang
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has been studied extensively in carcinogenesis through the genomic pathway. In recent years, AHR has also been reported to exert positive or negative effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the crucial step in tumor malignant progression. However, the detailed mechanism remains controversial. Analysis of AHR-expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissues revealed an inverse correlation between AHR protein levels and tumor cell invasion and metastasis...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Whitney A Greene, Teresa A Burke, Elaine D Por, Ramesh R Kaini, Heuy-Ching Wang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the secretion profile of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (iPS-RPE) during wound healing. iPS-RPE was used to develop an in vitro wound healing model. We hypothesized that iPS-RPE secretes cytokines and growth factors which act in an autocrine manner to promote migration and proliferation of cells during wound healing. Methods: iPS-RPE was grown in transwells until fully confluent and pigmented...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Tomoyuki Nagai, Tokuzo Arao, Kazuto Nishio, Kazuko Matsumoto, Satoru Hagiwara, Toshiharu Sakurai, Yasunori Minami, Hiroshi Ida, Kazuomi Ueshima, Naoshi Nishida, Kazuko Sakai, Nagahiro Saijo, Kanae Kudo, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Daisuke Tamura, Keiichi Aomatsu, Hideharu Kimura, Yoshihiko Fujita, Seiji Haji, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered to play a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the impact of EMT on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still elusive. In this study, we examined the relationship between the expression of EMT markers and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in HCC patients after hepatic resection. SUMMARY: The mRNA expression of 15 genes related to EMT was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in cancerous tissues from 72 patients who underwent hepatic resection of HCC between January 2005 and December 2010 at our hospital...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Yuan Seng Wu, Ivy Chung, Won Fen Wong, Atsushi Masamune, Maw Shin Sim, Chung Yeng Looi
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) secreted interleukin (IL)-6 and promoted pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell proliferation via nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2)-mediated metabolic reprogramming. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process for the metastatic cascade. To study the mechanism of PDAC progression to metastasis, we investigated the role of PSC-secreted IL-6 in activating EMT and the involvement of Nrf2 in this process...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mark Xavier Cicero, Travis Whitfill, Frank Overly, Janette Baird, Barbara Walsh, Jorge Yarzebski, Antonio Riera, Kathleen Adelgais, Garth D Meckler, Carl Baum, David Christopher Cone, Marc Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: Paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) triage pediatric disaster victims infrequently. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of a multiple-patient, multiple-simulation curriculum on accuracy of pediatric disaster triage (PDT). METHODS: Paramedics, paramedic students, and EMTs from three sites were enrolled. Triage accuracy was measured three times (Time 0, Time 1 [two weeks later], and Time 2 [6 months later]) during a disaster simulation, in which high and low fidelity manikins and actors portrayed 10 victims...
October 17, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Shuitu Feng, Zhigao Zheng, Lihua Feng, Lihong Yang, Zuhong Chen, Yubiao Lin, Yingqin Gao, Yide Chen
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that a small subset of cancer cells possess stem cell properties and plays a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and resistance to anticancer therapy. Exploration of the specific therapies targeting at CSCs has been a crucial issue in antitumor research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells often exist in an ischemic microenvironment with acidic conditions in vivo, thus maintenance of cellular pH homeostasis is important for the survival and function of GC cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may prevent intracellular proton extrusions which consequently reduce cancer cell survival under acidic conditions...
October 7, 2016: Oncology Reports
Di Che, Ti Zhou, Yuqing Lan, Jinye Xie, Haijun Gong, Chaoyang Li, Juan Feng, Honghai Hong, Weiwei Qi, Caiqi Ma, Qiyuan Wu, Xia Yang, Guoquan Gao
It has been reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediates multiple physiological and pathological processes. However, the occurrence and the pathogenic role of high glucose-induced EMT in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of high glucose on EMT in RPE cells. Cultured RPE cells were exposed to 25 mM D-glucose. A vector encoding the Snail gene and siRNA targeting Snail (Snail siRNA) were transfected into the cells to induce the overexpression or silencing of Snail, respectively...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xiaoxiao Lu, Honglan Guo, Xi Chen, Jian Xiao, Yong Zou, Wei Wang, Qiong Chen
According to recent research, Ras homolog gene family member C (RhoC) is confirmed to have a powerful regulatory effect on cell motility mediated by the cytoskeleton, and this process is closely associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In addition, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process which causes cytoskeleton rearrangement, also plays a pivotal role in tumor invasion and metastasis.Consequently, in the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether RhoC has an effect on the EMT process induced by TGF-β1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells and whether RhoC promotes tumor invasion by mediating the occurrence of EMT...
October 4, 2016: Oncology Reports
Jia Guo, Lili Yang, Yingjin Qiao, Zhangsuo Liu
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells, which form a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier. Podocyte damage has been suggested to be the primary mechanism behind the albuminuria associated with DN. The present study aimed to determine the function of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)‑3β in EMT and barrier dysfunction of mouse podocytes exposed to high glucose (HG) conditions. Matured and differentiated podocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG), HG or NG + mannitol...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Gengqiang Ling, Qiao Ji, Wei Ye, Dongying Ma, Yuena Wang
TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tumor progression. We assessed whether the TGF-β-induced EMT contributed to vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation in glioma, we established an SHG44 cell line stably transfected with TGF-β cDNA loaded lentivirus. SB203580 was employed to inhibit the TGF-β-induced EMT. The results showed that the VM forming ability of cells could be improved by TGF-β over-expression. The migration and invasion capabilities of cells were also enhanced due to EMT...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Raimonda Kubiliūtė, Indrė Šulskytė, Kristina Daniūnaitė, Rimantas Daugelavičius, Sonata Jarmalaitė
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Resistance to chemotherapy is the key obstacle to the effective treatment of various cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests significant involvement of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the chemoresistance of most cancer types. This study aimed at analyzing the gene expression profile of doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant colorectal cancer cells CX-1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DOX-resistant CX-1 cell sublines were acquired by stepwise increment of DOX concentrations in cell growth media...
September 29, 2016: Medicina
Yi Zhi, Jinhong Pan, Wenhao Shen, Peng He, Ji Zheng, Xiaozhou Zhou, Gensheng Lu, Zhiwen Chen, Zhansong Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ginkgolide B (GB) is currently used as an anticancer drug for treatment of some malignant cancers. However, whether it may have therapeutic effects on bladder cancer remains unknown. Here, we studied the effects of GB on bladder cancer cells. METHODS: Bladder cells were treated with different doses of GB, and the effects on ZEB1 and microRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) were analyzed by RT-qPCR and/or Western blot. Prediction of a regulatory relationship between miR-93 and 3'-UTR of Beclin-1 mRNA was performed by a bioinformatics algorithm and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jing Song, Yue Li
Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has recently been proposed as an important contributor of drug resistance in cervical cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. MicroRNAs play a crucial role in regulating EMT. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of miR-25-3p in regulating EMT in cisplatin-resistant (CR) cervical cancer cells. To this end, we established stable CR cervical cancer cells, HeLa-CR and CaSki-CR, and investigated the function of miR-25-3p in regulating EMT...
October 15, 2016: Cancer Science
Xiaoting Gu, Chunxiao Lu, Dongxu He, Yangfan Lu, Jian Jin, Dequan Liu, Xin Ma
To define the role of the NOTCH signaling pathway in the development of chemoresistance and the associated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we investigated the effect of Notch3 on adriamycin (ADM)-resistant human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADM cells). We found that Notch3 was downregulated and involved in the chemoresistance of MCF-7/ADM cells, while forced expression of Notch3 reversed the chemoresistance. Furthermore, fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) was negatively regulated by Notch3 and was highly expressed in MCF-7/ADM cells...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Ajaz A Bhat, Rizwan Ahmad, SrijayaPrakash B Uppada, Amar B Singh, Punita Dhawan
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important mechanism in cancer progression and malignancy including colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, inflammatory mediators are critical constituents of the local tumor environment and an intimate link between CRC progression and inflammation is now validated. We and others have reported key role of the deregulated claudin-1 expression in colon carcinogenesis including colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). However, the causal association between claudin-1 expression and inflammation-induced colon cancer progression remains unclear...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Jin Ling Yang, De Xiang Liu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan, Cyrus Sh Ho, Roger Cm Ho
Leptin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and depression via the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). An animal model of comorbid obesity and depression induced by high-fat diet (HFD) combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was developed to study the relationship between depression/anxiety-like behavior, levels of plasma leptin and LepRb in the brains between four groups of rats, the combined obesity and CUMS (Co) group, the obese (Ob) group, the CUMS group and controls. Our results revealed that the Co group exhibited most severe depression-like behavior in the open field test (OFT), anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test (EMT) and cognitive impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM)...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Agata Stryjewska, Ruben Dries, Tim Pieters, Griet Verstappen, Andrea Conidi, Kathleen Coddens, Annick Francis, Lieve Umans, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Geert Berx, Leo A van Grunsven, Frank Grosveld, Steven Goossens, Jody J Haigh, Danny Huylebroeck
In human ESCs the transcription factor Zeb2 regulates neuroectoderm versus mesendoderm formation, but it is unclear how Zeb2 affects the global transcriptional regulatory network in these cell-fate decisions. We generated Zeb2 knockout (KO) mouse ESCs, subjected them as embryoid bodies (EBs) to neural and general differentiation and carried out temporal RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis in neural differentiation. This shows that Zeb2 acts preferentially as a transcriptional repressor associated with developmental progression and that Zeb2 KO ESCs can exit from their naïve state...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells
Jing Zuo, Dahu Wang, Haitao Shen, Fengling Liu, Jing Han, Xianghong Zhang
One of the important mediators of Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the Snail1 protein (encoded by SNAI1) which facilitates transition to mesenchymal state by transcriptionally repressing the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. Given its central role in EMT and tumor metastasis, the cell has evolved multiple levels of regulatory mechanism at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational level to regulate SNAI1 expression. Recently, miR-153 has been shown to regulate SNAI1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma...
October 13, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Hongwei Tan, Zhaoyang Liu, Jin Qi, Guanghua Chu
Tripartite motif 16 (TRIM16), a member of the RING B-box coiled-coil (RBCC)/tripartite totif (TRIM) protein family, has been shown to play a role in tumor development and progression. However, the role of TRIM16 in ovarian cancer has never been revealed. Thus, in this study, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of TRIM16 in ovarian cancer. Our results demonstrated that TRIM16 expression was low in ovarian cancer cell lines. In addition, overexpression of TRIM16 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion in vitro, as well as suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in ovarian cancer cells...
October 12, 2016: Oncology Research
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