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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033401/construction-of-c35-gene-bait-recombinants-and-t47d-cell-cdna-library
#2
Kun Yin, Chao Xu, Gui-Hua Zhao, Ye Liu, Ting Xiao, Song Zhu, Ge Yan
C35 is a novel tumor biomarker associated with metastasis progression. To investigate the interaction factors of C35 in its high expressed breast cancer cell lines, we constructed bait recombinant plasmids of C35 gene and T47D cell cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid screening. Full length C35 sequences were subcloned using RT-PCR from cDNA template extracted from T47D cells. Based on functional domain analysis, the full-length C351-348bp was also truncated into two fragments C351-153bp and C35154-348bp to avoid auto-activation...
October 16, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974577/molecular-mechanisms-for-enhancement-of-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-induced-chemotaxis-by-platelet-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-pecam-1
#3
Yoshihiro Umezawa, Hiroki Akiyama, Keigo Okada, Shinya Ishida, Ayako Nogami, Gaku Oshikawa, Tetsuya Kurosu, Osamu Miura
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) is a cell adhesion protein involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Interestingly, several PECAM-1-deficient hematopoietic cells exhibit impaired chemotactic responses to stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a chemokine essential for B lymphopoiesis and bone marrow myelopoiesis. However, whether PECAM-1 is involved in SDF-1-regulated chemotaxis is unknown. We report here that SDF-1 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 at its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs in several hematopoietic cell lines via the Src family kinase Lyn, BTK, and JAK2 and that inhibition of these kinases reduced chemotaxis...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945004/tlr3-contributes-to-persistent-autophagy-and-heart-failure-in-mice-after-myocardial-infarction
#4
Ting Gao, Shao-Ping Zhang, Jian-Fei Wang, Li Liu, Yin Wang, Zhi-Yong Cao, Qi-Kuan Hu, Wen-Jun Yuan, Li Lin
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential immunoreceptors involved in host defence against invading microbes. Recent studies indicate that certain TLRs activate immunological autophagy to eliminate microbes. It remains unknown whether TLRs regulate autophagy to play a role in the heart. This study examined this question. The activation of TLR3 in cultured cardiomyocytes was observed to increase protein levels of autophagic components, including LC3-II, a specific marker for autophagy induction, and p62/SQSTM1, an autophagy receptor normally degraded in the final step of autophagy...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923946/immunoreceptor-tyrosine-based-inhibitory-motif-dependent-functions-of-an-mhc-class-i-specific-nk-cell-receptor
#5
Michael D Bern, Diana L Beckman, Takashi Ebihara, Samantha M Taffner, Jennifer Poursine-Laurent, J Michael White, Wayne M Yokoyama
Natural killer (NK) cells express MHC class I (MHC-I)-specific receptors, such as Ly49A, that inhibit killing of cells expressing self-MHC-I. Self-MHC-I also "licenses" NK cells to become responsive to activating stimuli and regulates the surface level of NK-cell inhibitory receptors. However, the mechanisms of action resulting from these interactions of the Ly49s with their MHC-I ligands, particularly in vivo, have been controversial. Definitive studies could be derived from mice with targeted mutations in inhibitory Ly49s, but there are inherent challenges in specifically altering a single gene within a multigene family...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912774/therapeutic-antibodies-to-kir3dl2-and-other-target-antigens-on-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphomas
#6
REVIEW
Christian Schmitt, Anne Marie-Cardine, Armand Bensussan
KIR3DL2 is a member of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family that was initially identified at the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. KIR3DL2, also known as CD158k, is expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer. Each chain is composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail containing two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. Beside its expression on NK cells, it is also found on rare circulating T lymphocytes, mainly CD8(+). Although the KIR gene number varies between haplotype, KIR3DL2 is a framework gene present in all individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893902/the-cytosolic-domain-of-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-associates-with-membranes-in-a-dynamic-equilibrium-and-deeply-penetrates-the-bilayer
#7
Kerstin Zimmermann, Rebecca Eells, Frank Heinrich, Stefanie Rintoul, Brian Josey, Prabhanshu Shekhar, Mathias Lösche, Lawrence J Stern
Interactions between lipid bilayers and the membrane-proximal regions of membrane-associated proteins play important roles in regulating membrane protein structure and function. The T-cell antigen receptor is an assembly of eight single-pass membrane-spanning subunits on the surface of T lymphocytes that initiates cytosolic signaling cascades upon binding antigens presented by MHC-family proteins on antigen-presenting cells. Its ζ-subunit contains multiple cytosolic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs involved in signal transduction, and this subunit by itself is sufficient to couple extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888895/regulation-of-platelet-activation-and-thrombus-formation-by-reactive-oxygen-species
#8
Jianlin Qiao, Jane F Arthur, Elizabeth E Gardiner, Robert K Andrews, Lingyu Zeng, Kailin Xu
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated within activated platelets and play an important role in regulating platelet responses to collagen and collagen-mediated thrombus formation. As a major collagen receptor, platelet-specific glycoprotein (GP)VI is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, with two extracellular Ig domains, a mucin domain, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail. GPVI forms a functional complex with the Fc receptor γ-chain (FcRγ) that, following receptor dimerization, signals via an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), leading to rapid activation of Src family kinase signaling pathways...
September 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855691/immunology-balancing-immunoreceptor-signalling
#9
Jessica McHugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855374/differential-mast-cell-outcomes-are-sensitive-to-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-syk-binding-kinetics
#10
Samantha L Schwartz, Cédric Cleyrat, Mark J Olah, Peter K Relich, Genevieve K Phillips, William S Hlavacek, Keith A Lidke, Bridget S Wilson, Diane S Lidke
Crosslinking of IgE-bound FcεRI triggers multiple cellular responses, including degranulation and cytokine production. Signaling is dependent on recruitment of Syk via docking of its dual SH2 domains to phosphorylated tyrosines within the FcεRI immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. Using single molecule imaging in live cells, we directly visualized and quantified the binding of individual mNeonGreen-tagged Syk molecules as they associated with the plasma membrane after FcεRI activation. We found that Syk colocalizes transiently to FcεRI and that Syk-FcεRI binding dynamics are independent of receptor aggregate size...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837205/triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-a-new-player-in-platelet-aggregation
#11
Lucie Jolly, Jeremie Lemarie, Kevin Carrasco, Batric Popovic, Marc Derive, Amir Boufenzer, Sebastien Gibot
Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is an immunoreceptor initially known to be expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. TREM-1 acts as an amplifier of the inflammatory response during both infectious and aseptic inflammatory diseases. Another member of the TREM family, The Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells Like Transcript-1 (TLT-1) is exclusively expressed in platelets and promotes platelet aggregation. As the gene that encodes for TLT-1 is located in the TREM-1 gene cluster, this prompted us to investigate the expression of TREM-1 on platelets...
August 30, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835437/clec-2-contributes-to-hemostasis-independently-of-classical-hemitam-signaling-in-mice
#12
Elizabeth J Haining, Deya Cherpokova, Karen Wolf, Isabelle C Becker, Sarah Beck, Johannes A Eble, David Stegner, Steve P Watson, Bernhard Nieswandt
C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC 2) is a platelet receptor that is critical during development in blood-lymph separation and implicated in thrombus stability in thrombosis and hemostasis. It is the only known platelet activatory receptor that participates in both these aspects of platelet function and is the only one to signal through a hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM). Current investigations into the function of CLEC 2 in vivo have focused on knock-out studies in which both the receptor and its signaling are deleted, making it impossible to explore the possible signaling independent functions of the receptor which are indicated by its only known physiological ligand, podoplanin, being an integral membrane protein...
August 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811476/lyn-and-fyn-function-as-molecular-switches-that-control-immunoreceptors-to-direct-homeostasis-or-inflammation
#13
Sanae Ben Mkaddem, Amaya Murua, Héloise Flament, Dimitri Titeca-Beauport, Carine Bounaix, Luca Danelli, Pierre Launay, Marc Benhamou, Ulrich Blank, Eric Daugas, Nicolas Charles, Renato C Monteiro
Immunoreceptors can transduce either inhibitory or activatory signals depending on ligand avidity and phosphorylation status, which is modulated by the protein kinases Lyn and Fyn. Here we show that Lyn and Fyn control immune receptor signaling status. SHP-1 tyrosine 536 phosphorylation by Lyn activates the phosphatase promoting inhibitory signaling through the immunoreceptor. By contrast, Fyn-dependent phosphorylation of SHP-1 serine 591 inactivates the phosphatase, enabling activatory immunoreceptor signaling...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794231/cutting-edge-murine-nk-cells-degranulate-and-retain-cytotoxic-function-without-store-operated-calcium-entry
#14
Jacquelyn Freund-Brown, Ruth Choa, Brenal K Singh, Tanner Ford Robertson, Gabrielle M Ferry, Eric Viver, Hamid Bassiri, Janis K Burkhardt, Taku Kambayashi
Sustained Ca(2+) signaling, known as store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), occurs downstream of immunoreceptor engagement and is critical for cytotoxic lymphocyte signaling and effector function. CD8(+) T cells require sustained Ca(2+) signaling for inflammatory cytokine production and the killing of target cells; however, much less is known about its role in NK cells. In this study, we use mice deficient in stromal interacting molecules 1 and 2, which are required for SOCE, to examine the contribution of sustained Ca(2+) signaling to murine NK cell function...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768156/the-syk-kinases-orchestrate-cerebellar-granule-cell-tangential-migration
#15
Aurélien Benon, Choua Ya, Laurent Martin, Chantal Watrin, Naura Chounlamountri, Iness Jaaoini, Jérôme Honnorat, Véronique Pellier-Monnin, Nelly Noraz
The tyrosine kinases of the Syk family are essential components of the well-characterized immunoreceptor ITAM-based signaling pathway. However, ITAM-based signaling typically does not function in isolation. Instead, it is enmeshed in the molecular network controlling cellular adhesion and chemotaxis. Consistent with the increasing number of data involving ITAM-bearing molecules in neuronal functions, we previously depicted a role for Syk kinases in the establishment of neuronal connectivity. In the developing cerebellum, we found that Syk is essentially expressed in the granule cells (GC) and more importantly, phosphorylated on tyrosine residues representative of an active form of the kinase in tangentially migrating GC...
July 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767218/selective-binders-of-the-tandem-src-homology-2-domains-in-syk-and-zap70-protein-kinases-by-dna-programmed-spatial-screening
#16
Michaela Marczynke, Katharina Gröger, Oliver Seitz
Members of the Syk family of tyrosine kinases arrange Src homology 2 (SH2) domains in tandem to allow the firm binding of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based interaction motifs (ITAMs). While the advantages provided by the bivalency enhanced interactions are evident, the impact on binding specificity is less-clear. For example, the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and the ζ-chain-associated protein kinase (ZAP-70) recognize the consensus sequence pYXXI/L(X)6-8 pYXXI/L with near-identical nanomolar affinity. The nondiscriminatory recognition, on the one hand, poses a specificity challenge for the design of subtype selective protein binders and, on the other hand, raises the question as to how differential activation of Syk and ZAP-70 is ensured when both kinases are co-expressed...
September 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765954/in%C3%A2-vitro-reconstitution-of-interactions-in-the-card9-signalosome
#17
Jin Hee Park, Jae Young Choi, Mir Faisal Mustafa, Hyun Ho Park
The caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD)‑containing protein 9 (CARD9) signalosome is composed of CARD9, B‑cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1). The CARD9 signalosome has been reported to exert critical functions in the immunoreceptor tyrosine‑based activation motif‑coupled receptor‑mediated activation of myeloid cells, through nuclear factor‑κB pathways during innate immunity processes. During CARD9 signalosome assembly, BCL10 has been revealed to function as an adaptor protein and to interact with CARD9 via CARD‑CARD interactions; BCL10 also interacts with MALT1 via its C‑terminal Ser/Thr‑rich region and the first immunoglobulin domain of MALT1...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743740/multiple-e2-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzymes-regulate-human-cytomegalovirus-us2-mediated-immunoreceptor-downregulation
#18
Michael L van de Weijer, Anouk B C Schuren, Dick J H van den Boomen, Arend Mulder, Frans H J Claas, Paul J Lehner, Robert Jan Lebbink, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz
Misfolded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are dislocated towards the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in a process called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the viral US2 protein targets HLA class I molecules (HLA-I) for degradation via ERAD to avoid elimination by the immune system. US2-mediated degradation of HLA-I serves as a paradigm of ERAD and has facilitated the identification of TRC8 (also known as RNF139) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734845/leveraging-siglec-8-endocytic-mechanisms-to-kill-human-eosinophils-and-malignant-mast-cells
#19
Jeremy A O'Sullivan, Daniela J Carroll, Yun Cao, Adriano N Salicru, Bruce S Bochner
BACKGROUND: Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is a cell-surface protein expressed selectively on human eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils, making it an ideal target for the treatment of diseases involving these cell types. However, the effective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells requires an understanding of the dynamics of Siglec-8 surface expression. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether Siglec-8 is endocytosed in human eosinophils and malignant mast cells, identify mechanisms underlying its endocytosis, and demonstrate whether a toxin can be targeted to Siglec-8-bearing cells to kill these cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677817/inhibition-of-the-hdac-suv39-g9a-pathway-restores-the-expression-of-dna-damage-dependent-major-histocompatibility-complex-class%C3%A2-i-related-chain%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-b-in-cancer-cells
#20
Nakako Izumi Nakajima, Atsuko Niimi, Mayu Isono, Takahiro Oike, Hiro Sato, Takashi Nakano, Atsushi Shibata
Immunotherapy is expected to be promising as a next generation cancer therapy. Immunoreceptors are often activated constitutively in cancer cells, however, such levels of ligand expression are not effectively recognized by the native immune system due to tumor microenvironmental adaptation. Studies have demonstrated that natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D), a major activating immunoreceptor, responds to DNA damage. The upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B) (members of NKG2D ligands) expression after DNA damage is associated with NK cell-mediated killing of cancer cells...
August 2017: Oncology Reports
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