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Lalit Agrawal, Swati Gupta, Shashank K Mishra, Garima Pandey, Susheel Kumar, Puneet S Chauhan, Debasis Chakrabarty, Chandra S Nautiyal
Along with many adaptive strategies, dynamic changes in protein abundance seem to be the common strategy to cope up with abiotic stresses which can be best explored through proteomics. Understanding of drought response is the key to decipher regulatory mechanism of better adaptation. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) proteome represents a phenomenal source of proteins that govern traits of agronomic importance, such as drought tolerance. In this study, a comparison of root cytoplasmic proteome was done for a drought tolerant rice (Heena) cultivar in PEG induced drought conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
David R Williams, Andrew F Donnell, David C Kammler, Sarah A Ward, Levin Taylor
Studies describe formation of the lithium enolate of N-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)azetidin-2-one (1), and characterization of representative aldol reactions with aldehydes and ketones. Diastereoselectivity features the production of anti-aldol adducts from alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and alpha-branched aliphatic aldehydes. The stereoselectivity is rationalized via closed, six-membered transition state arrangements leading to the formation of Felkin-Anh and anti-Felkin products. Examples illustrate the direct incorporation of monocyclic beta-lactams into a variety of molecular architectures...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Floris C Wardenaar, Ingrid Jm Ceelen, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Roland Wj Hangelbroek, Lore Van Roy, Britte Van der Pouw, Jeanne Hm De Vries, Marco Mensink, Renger F Witkamp
The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counselling as compared to athletes not receiving dietary counselling...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Caroline de Andrade Kratz, Vitor de Salles Painelli, Kleiner Márcio de Andrade Nemezio, Rafael Pires da Silva, Emerson Franchini, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Bruno Gualano, Guilherme Giannini Artioli
OBJECTIVES: In official judo competitions, athletes usually engage in 5-7 matches in the same day, performing numerous high-intensity efforts interspersed by short recovery intervals. Thus, glycolytic demand in judo is high and acidosis may limit performance. Carnosine is a relevant intracellular acid buffer whose content is increased with beta-alanine supplementation. Thus, we hypothesized that beta-alanine supplementation could attenuate acidosis and improve judo performance. DESIGN: Twenty-three highly-trained judo athletes were randomly assigned to receive either beta-alanine (6...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Daniel A Jaffe, Tracey D Matthews, Vincent J Paolone, Sara M Mazur, Brian A Thompson, Samuel A E Headley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Morten Hostrup, Jens Bangsbo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Jan Budczies, Carsten Denkert
Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics have been developed into mature technologies that can be utilized to analyze hundreds of biological samples in a high-throughput manner. Over the past few years, both technologies were utilized to analyze large cohorts of fresh frozen breast cancer tissues. Metabolite biomarkers were shown to separate breast cancer tissues from normal breast tissues with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the metabolome differed between hormone receptor positive (HR+) and hormone receptor negative (HR-) breast cancer, but was unchanged in HER2+ tumors compared to HER2- tumors...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Theodoros G Chatzimitakos, Constantine D Stalikas
Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have proven to be more toxic than bulk analogues of the same chemical composition due to their unique physical properties. The NPs, lately, have drawn the attention of researchers because of their antibacterial and biocidal properties. In an effort to shed light on the mechanism through which the bacteria elimination is achieved and the metabolic changes they undergo, an untargeted metabolomic fingerprint study was carried out on Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria species...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Priscila Berti Zanella, Fernanda Donner Alves, Carolina Guerini DE Souza
BACKGROUND: Beta-alanine (BA) is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized in the liver and obtained from diet, particularly from white and red meat. Increased availability of BA via dietary supplement, may improve performance of athletes. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of the use of BA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve performance and fatigue resistance in athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: In this systematic review, a search in PubMed and Bireme databases was performed for the terms "beta-alanine", "beta-alanine and exercise", "carnosine" or "carnosine and exercise" in the titles or abstracts...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Justin D Guy, Storm T Warner, Andrew M Foran, Jason D Wagganer, Jeremy J Barnes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Christopher H Bailey, Joseph F Signorile, Amanda M Luiso, Caitlin A Lowe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
D Chesnoy-Marchais
In hypoglossal motoneurons, a sustained anionic current, sensitive to a blocker of ρ-containing GABA receptors, (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) and insensitive to bicuculline, was previously shown to be activated by gabazine. In order to better characterize the receptors involved, the sensitivity of this atypical response to pentobarbital (30μM), allopregnanolone (0.3μM) and midazolam (0.5μM) was first investigated. Pentobarbital potentiated the response, whereas the steroid and the benzodiazepine were ineffective...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
Muaz Belviranli, Nilsel Okudan, Serkan Revan, Serdar Balci, Hakki Gokbel
BACKGROUND: Carnosine is a dipeptide formed from the β-alanine and histidine amino acids and found in mainly in the brain and muscle, especially fast twitch muscle. Carnosine and creatine has an antioxidant effect and carnosine accounts for about 10% of the muscle's ability to buffer the H(+) ions produced by exercise. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of beta alanine and/or creatine supplementation on oxidant and antioxidant status during repeated Wingate tests (WTs)...
March 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Dominik Kaczmarek, Dawid Łochyński, Inge Everaert, Maciej Pawlak, Wim Derave, Jan Celichowski
The physiological role of the muscle histidyl dipeptides carnosine and anserine in contractile function of various types of muscle fibers in vivo is poorly understood. Ten adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: control and supplemented for 10 wk with beta-alanine, the precursor of carnosine (∼640 mg·kg body wt(-1)·day(-1)). Thereafter, contractile properties and fatigability of isolated fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant to fatigue (FR), and slow motor units (MUs) from the medial gastrocnemius were determined in deeply anaesthetized animals...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Céline Poupeau, Cynthia Tanguay, Caroline Plante, Sébastien Gagné, Nicolas Caron, Jean-François Bussières
PURPOSE: There are health risks to workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. We hypothesized that implementing a biological monitoring program would be feasible. The goal was to present the results of our pilot cross-sectional study of biological monitoring of four antineoplastic drugs. METHODS: We recruited workers from the hematology-oncology department and control workers in a mother-child university health center. This study was preceded by an information period during which we aimed at enhancing the workers' awareness and knowledge of the risks of occupational exposure...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Gang Yang, Hua Zhang, Tingmei Chen, Weiwen Zhu, Shijia Ding, Kaiming Xu, Zhongwei Xu, Yanlei Guo, Jian Zhang
Osteoarthritis (OA), one of the most widespread musculoskeletal joint diseases among the aged, is characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage and continuous changes in subchondral bone. The exact pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is not completely clear. In this work, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was applied to analyze the metabolic profiling of subchondral bone from 42 primary osteoarthritis patients...
June 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Laura Blancquaert, Shahid P Baba, Sebastian Kwiatkowski, Jan Stautemas, Sanne Stegen, Silvia Barbaresi, Weiliang Chung, Adjoa A Boakye, J David Hoetker, Aruni Bhatnagar, Joris Delanghe, Bert Vanheel, Maria Veiga-da-Cunha, Wim Derave, Inge Everaert
KEY POINTS: Using recombinant DNA technology, the present study provides the first strong and direct evidence indicating that β-alanine is an efficient substrate for the mammalian transaminating enzymes 4-aminobutyrate-2-oxoglutarate transaminase and alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. The concentration of carnosine and anserine in murine skeletal and heart muscle depends on circulating availability of β-alanine, which is in turn controlled by degradation of β-alanine in liver and kidney...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
R Rackwitz, G Gäbel
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) represents the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. GABA is also produced in plants and/or by the microbial conversion of amino acids. Thus, ruminants may be forced to take up significant amounts of GABA from their diet. However, it is not known whether exogenously acquired GABA might permeate the gastrointestinal barrier in such quantities as to induce systemic alterations. Thus, this study pursues the question of where within the ruminant's GI tract and by which pathways GABA may be taken up from the ingesta...
March 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Chan Woo Song, Je Woong Kim, In Jin Cho, Sang Yup Lee
Escherichia coli was metabolically engineered to produce industrially important platform chemicals, 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and malonic acid (MA), through the beta-alanine (BA) route. First, various combinations of downstream enzymes were screened and BA pyruvate transaminase (encoded by pa0132) from P. aeruginosa was selected to generate malonic semialdehyde (MSA) from BA. This platform strain was engineered by introducing E. coli MSA reductase (encoded by ydfG) to reduce MSA to 3-HP. Replacement of native promoter of the sdhC gene with the strong trc promoter in the genome increased 3-HP production to 3...
February 29, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Shirin Parvazi, Sedigheh Sadeghi, Mehri Azadi, Maryam Mohammadi, Mohammad Arjmand, Farideh Vahabi, Somye Sadeghzadeh, Zahra Zamani
Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using (1)HNMR spectroscopy...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
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