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enhancer insulator

Ehsan Shafia, Serena Esposito, Elnaz Bahadori, Marco Armandi, Maela Manzoli, Barbara Bonelli
The goal of the protocol is to synthesize Fe-doped aluminosilicate nanotubes of the imogolite type with the formula (OH)3Al2-xFexO3SiOH. Doping with Fe aims at lowering the band gap of imogolite, an insulator with the chemical formula (OH)3Al2O3SiOH, and at modifying its adsorption properties towards azo-dyes, an important class of organic pollutants of both wastewater and groundwater. Fe-doped nanotubes are obtained in two ways: by direct synthesis, where FeCl3 is added to an aqueous mixture of the Si and Al precursors, and by post-synthesis loading, where preformed nanotubes are put in contact with a FeCl3•6H2O aqueous solution...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yu Xia, Zhibing Li
To understand laser-assisted field evaporation of semiconductors and insulators at the microscopic level, we study the time evolution of the electronic and atomic structure of a MgO cluster in high electrostatic fields subjected to strong laser pulses. We find that the critical laser intensity for evaporation decreases linearly as the electrostatic field strength increases. The optical absorption enhancement in high electrostatic field is confirmed by the redshift of the optical absorption spectra, the reduction of the energy gap, and the increase of the absorption cross section...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Lirong Li, Hui Hui, Xiaolei Jia, Jie Zhang, Ying Liu, Qianyue Xu, Dalong Zhu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, little is known on whether MSC transplantation can benefit T1D patients with ketoacidosis and its potential actions. Here, we show that infusion with bone marrow MSCs preserves β-cell function in some T1D patients with ketoacidosis by decreasing exogenous insulin requirement and increasing plasma C-peptide levels up to 1-2 years. MSC transplantation increased plasma and islet insulin contents in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with severe diabetes...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tamer Ali, Marcus Krüger, Sabin Bhuju, Michael Jarek, Marek Bartkuhn, Rainer Renkawitz
Centrosomal 190 kDa protein (CP190) is a promoter binding factor, mediates long-range interactions in the context of enhancer-promoter contacts and in chromosomal domain formation. All Drosophila insulator proteins bind CP190 suggesting a crucial role in insulator function. CP190 has major effects on chromatin, such as depletion of nucleosomes, high nucleosomal turnover and prevention of heterochromatin expansion. Here, we searched for enzymes, which might be involved in CP190 mediated chromatin changes. Eighty percent of the genomic binding sites of the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 are colocalizing with CP190 binding...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Xiaozhen Hu, Weichao Xu, Lin Zhou, Yingling Tan, Yang Wang, Shining Zhu, Jia Zhu
Graphene oxide-based aerogels with carefully tailored properties are developed to enable efficient solar steam generation. Aerogels, with inherent porous structures, are excellent thermal insulators and provide channels for water supply and vapor escape. With enhanced absorption and hydrophilicity by incorporation of carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate, the resulting aerogels can enable efficient (≈83%) solar steam generation under one-sun illumination.
November 25, 2016: Advanced Materials
Shelby A Blythe, Eric F Wieschaus
During embryogenesis, the initial chromatin state is established during a period of rapid proliferative activity. We have measured with three-minute time resolution how heritable patterns of chromatin structure are initially established and maintained during the midblastula transition (MBT). We find that regions of accessibility are established sequentially, where enhancers are opened in advance of promoters and insulators. These open states are stably maintained in highly condensed mitotic chromatin to ensure faithful inheritance of prior accessibility status across cell divisions...
November 23, 2016: ELife
Li-Rong Li, Xiao-Lei Jia, Hui Hui, Jie Zhang, Ying Liu, Wei-Juan Cui, Qian-Yue Xu, Da-Long Zhu
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) can promote islet β-cell replication and function, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can inhibit T cell autoimmunity. This study aimed at testing the dynamic distribution of infused human MSCs and therapeutic effect of combined MSCs and Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, on preserving β-cell function in severe non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that infused MSCs accumulated in the pancreas at 4 weeks post infusion, which was not affected by Liraglutide treatment...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Yuki Imaizumi, Tatsuro Goda, Yutaro Toya, Akira Matsumoto, Yuji Miyahara
The extracellular ionic microenvironment has a close relationship to biological activities such as by cellular respiration, cancer development, and immune response. A system composed of ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFET), cells, and program-controlled fluidics has enabled the acquisition of real-time information about the integrity of the cell membrane via pH measurement. Here we aimed to extend this system toward floating cells such as T lymphocytes for investigating complement activation and pharmacokinetics through alternations in the plasma membrane integrity...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
M A Lourenço, M M Milošević, A Gorin, R M Gwilliam, K P Homewood
We report on the super enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er emission in erbium doped silicon-on-insulator when codoped with oxygen at a ratio of 1:1. This is attributed to a more favourable crystal field splitting in the substitutional tetrahedral site favoured for the singly coordinated case. The results on these carefully matched implant profiles show that optical response is highly determined by the amount and ratio of erbium and oxygen present in the sample and ratios of O:Er greater than unity are severely detrimental to the Er emission...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Orsolya Symmons, Leslie Pan, Silvia Remeseiro, Tugce Aktas, Felix Klein, Wolfgang Huber, François Spitz
Gene expression often requires interaction between promoters and distant enhancers, which occur within the context of highly organized topologically associating domains (TADs). Using a series of engineered chromosomal rearrangements at the Shh locus, we carried out an extensive fine-scale characterization of the factors that govern the long-range regulatory interactions controlling Shh expression. We show that Shh enhancers act pervasively, yet not uniformly, throughout the TAD. Importantly, changing intra-TAD distances had no impact on Shh expression...
November 16, 2016: Developmental Cell
Denes Hnisz, Daniel S Day, Richard A Young
Understanding how transcriptional enhancers control over 20,000 protein-coding genes to maintain cell-type-specific gene expression programs in all human cells is a fundamental challenge in regulatory biology. Recent studies suggest that gene regulatory elements and their target genes generally occur within insulated neighborhoods, which are chromosomal loop structures formed by the interaction of two DNA sites bound by the CTCF protein and occupied by the cohesin complex. Here, we review evidence that insulated neighborhoods provide for specific enhancer-gene interactions, are essential for both normal gene activation and repression, form a chromosome scaffold that is largely preserved throughout development, and are perturbed by genetic and epigenetic factors in disease...
November 17, 2016: Cell
Jiadong Zhou, Fucai Liu, Junhao Lin, Xiangwei Huang, Juan Xia, Bowei Zhang, Qingsheng Zeng, Hong Wang, Chao Zhu, Lin Niu, Xuewen Wang, Wei Fu, Peng Yu, Tay-Rong Chang, Chuang-Han Hsu, Di Wu, Horng-Tay Jeng, Yizhong Huang, Hsin Lin, Zexiang Shen, Changli Yang, Li Lu, Kazu Suenaga, Wu Zhou, Sokrates T Pantelides, Guangtong Liu, Zheng Liu
Large-area and high-quality 2D transition metal tellurides are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown WTe2 maintains two different stacking sequences in the bilayer, where the atomic structure of the stacking boundary is revealed by scanning transmission electron microscope. The low-temperature transport measurements reveal a novel semimetal-to-insulator transition in WTe2 layers and an enhanced superconductivity in few-layer MoTe2 .
November 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Yoshinori Kawabe, Takanori Inao, Shodai Komatsu, Guan Huang, Akira Ito, Takeshi Omasa, Masamichi Kamihira
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the most useful host cell lines for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Although a series of production processes have been refined to improve protein productivity and cost performance, establishing producer cells is still time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recombinase-mediated site-specific gene integration into a predetermined chromosomal locus may enable predictable protein expression, reducing the laborious process of cell screening. We previously developed an accumulative site-specific gene integration system (AGIS) using Cre recombinase and mutated loxP sites for transgene integration and amplification in the CHO cell genome...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Zhi Yang, Lihui Zhou, Wei Luo, Jiayu Wan, Jiaqi Dai, Xiaogang Han, Kun Fu, Doug Henderson, Bao Yang, Liangbing Hu
Phase change materials (PCMs) possessing ideal properties, such as superior mass specific heat of fusion, low cost, light weight, excellent thermal stability as well as isothermal phase change behavior, have drawn considerable attention for thermal management systems. Currently, the low thermal conductivity of PCMs (usually less than 1 W mK(-1)) greatly limits their heat dissipation performance in thermal management applications. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional material known for its excellent thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties, which make it a promising candidate to be used in electronic systems for thermal management...
November 11, 2016: Nanoscale
Se Jin Jeon, Jong Hoon Ryu, Geon Ho Bahn
Myelin is a specialized structure of the nervous system that both enhances electrical conductance and insulates neurons from external risk factors. In the central nervous system, polarized oligodendrocytes form myelin by wrapping processes in a spiral pattern around neuronal axons through myelin-related gene regulation. Since these events occur at a distance from the cell body, post-transcriptional control of gene expression has strategic advantage to fine-tune the overall regulation of protein contents in situ...
November 8, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Young-Ho Jin, Byoung Jun Park, Myung-Ki Kim
We propose a novel design for a sub-5-nm-gap plasmonic cavity to couple it efficiently with an integrated low loss silicon waveguide. We numerically obtain over 90% efficient coupling between a nano-gap plasmonic cavity with a modal volume of less than 10<sup>-7</sup>λ<sup>3</sup> and a conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide by utilizing the anti-symmetric second-order resonance mode of the cavity and engineering its geometry to reduce the modal size to less than 5 nm. The electromagnetic field efficiently coupled to the small cavity, leading to extreme enhancement of the field intensity...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
Kuanguo Li, Yong Wang, Kang Jiang, Yuan Ren, Yanqiu Dai, Yonghua Lu, Pei Wang
Vertically coupled plasmonic structure is of great interest for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this paper, a large-area reproducible SERS substrate is fabricated and demonstrated by a vertically coupled structure composed of Ag triangle arrays on Ag films separated by a nanometric dielectric layer. This metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanostructure has broadband resonance covering both the laser excitation and Stokes frequencies. Thanks to the convenience of controlling the gap distance by thin dielectric film, the SERS substrate is optimized to yield the best enhancement...
November 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
Yang-Yen Yu, Ai-Hua Jiang, Wen-Ya Lee
The organic material soluble polyimide (PI) and organic-inorganic hybrid PI-barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticle dielectric materials (IBX, where X is the concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a PI matrix) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The effects of various BaTiO3 contents on the hybrid film performance and performance optimization were investigated. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with PI-BaTiO3/polymethylmethacrylate or cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-modified gate dielectrics were fabricated and examined...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Li Ji, Hsien-Yi Hsu, Xiaohan Li, Kai Huang, Ye Zhang, Jack C Lee, Allen J Bard, Edward T Yu
Silicon-based photoelectrodes for solar fuel production have attracted great interest over the past decade, with the major challenge being silicon's vulnerability to corrosion. A metal-insulator-semiconductor architecture, in which an insulator film serves as a protection layer, can prevent corrosion but must also allow low-resistance carrier transport, generally leading to a trade-off between stability and efficiency. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a general method to decouple the two roles of the insulator by employing localized dielectric breakdown...
November 7, 2016: Nature Materials
Daniele Conti, Andrea Lamberti, Samuele Porro, Paola Rivolo, Alessandro Chiolerio, Candido Fabrizio Pirri, Carlo Ricciardi
This work investigates titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2-NTA) grown by anodic oxidation as an active material for memristive applications. In particular, metal-insulator-metal structures made of vertically oriented amorphous TiO2-NTA grown on titanium foil were exploited in Ti/TiO2-NTA/Pt devices. The deposition of a polymeric thin film between NTA and top electrodes significantly improved the stability of the devices and increased by more than double the off/on resistance ratio. The resistive switching of TiO2-NTA samples crystallised by thermal annealing was also studied...
December 2, 2016: Nanotechnology
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