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enhancer insulator

Katja M Bendtsen, Camilla Hf Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Karsten Buschard, Helene Farlov, Axel K Hansen
Disease expression in spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice depends on environmental stimuli such as stress, diet, and gut microbiota composition. We evaluated a brief, early-life gut intervention in which pups were weaned to low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We hypothesized that the mucus-reducing effect of this compound and subsequent increased host-bacterial contact would delay disease onset and decrease insulitis due to enhanced oral tolerance. However, disease incidence did not differ between groups, although median survival (time point when 50% of the mice are still alive) of the control group was 184 d compared with 205 d for DSS-treated mice...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Jiayu Wan, Jianwei Song, Zhi Yang, Dylan Kirsch, Chao Jia, Rui Xu, Jiaqi Dai, Mingwei Zhu, Lisha Xu, Chaoji Chen, Yanbin Wang, Yilin Wang, Emily Hitz, Steven D Lacey, Yongfeng Li, Bao Yang, Liangbing Hu
Composite materials with ordered microstructures often lead to enhanced functionalities that a single material can hardly achieve. Many biomaterials with unusual microstructures can be found in nature; among them, many possess anisotropic and even directional physical and chemical properties. With inspiration from nature, artificial composite materials can be rationally designed to achieve this anisotropic behavior with desired properties. Here, a metallic wood with metal continuously filling the wood vessels is developed, which demonstrates excellent anisotropic electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yu Chen, Qiang Sun
Based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the recently-synthesized 2D organometallic framework consisting of Au atoms and 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene (Au-TEB) is a magnetic 2D organic topological insulator (OTI). The charge transfer and covalent bonding character lead to ferromagnetism and half-metallicity in the framework, and the weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of C pz orbitals mediated by Au d orbitals opens modest bandgaps in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Moreover, using tight-binding model simulations, we further characterize the nonzero Chern number and edge states of Au-TEB to confirm its topological nontriviality that remains intact when the framework is supported on an insulating substrate, and applying an external strain can increase the magnitude of SOC gaps, leading to an enhanced topological nontriviality...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Javier García-Sancho, Ana Sánchez, Aurelio Vega, David C Noriega, Mercedes Nocito
BACKGROUND: The necessity for more effective therapies for chronic osteoarticular diseases has led to the development of treatments based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the natural precursors of musculoskeletal tissue. Treatments with autologous MSCs yielded excellent results, with nearly 70% improvement of pain and disability in osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Using allogeneic MSCs is logistically more convenient and would widen the pool of eligible patients, but potential immune rejection should be considered...
September 2017: Transplantation Direct
Subhranu Samanta, Sheikh Ziaur Rahaman, Anisha Roy, Surajit Jana, Somsubhra Chakrabarti, Rajeswar Panja, Sourav Roy, Mrinmoy Dutta, Sreekanth Ginnaram, Amit Prakash, Siddheswar Maikap, Hsin-Ming Cheng, Ling-Na Tsai, Jian-Tai Qiu, Samit K Ray
Formation-free multi-level resistive switching characteristics by using 10 nm-thick polycrystalline GeOx film in a simple W/GeOx/W structure and understanding of switching mechanism through redox reaction in H2O2/sarcosine sensing (or changing Ge°/Ge(4+) oxidation states under external bias) have been reported for the first time. Oxidation states of Ge(0)/Ge(4+) are confirmed by both XPS and H2O2 sensing of GeOx membrane in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structure. Highly repeatable 1000 dc cycles and stable program/erase (P/E) endurance of >10(6) cycles at a small pulse width of 100 ns are achieved at a low operation current of 0...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yi-Chieh Lai, Tzu Cheng Kuang, Bo Han Cheng, Yung-Chiang Lan, Din Ping Tsai
An electron bunch passing through a periodic metal grating can emit Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR). Recently, it has been found that SPR can be locked and enhanced at some emission wavelength and angle by excitation of surface plasmon (SP) on the metal substrate. In this work, the generation of a convergent light beam via using the SP-locked SPR is proposed and investigated by computer simulations. The proposed structure is composed of an insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) substrate with chirped gratings on the substrate...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Juliana S Cassoli, Caroline Brandão-Teles, Aline G Santana, Gustavo H M F Souza, Daniel Martins de-Souza
Oligodendrocytes are a type of neuroglia that provide trophic support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system. The genesis and maturation of oligodendrocytes are essential processes for myelination and the course of CNS development. Using ion mobility-enhanced, data-independent acquisitions and 2D-nanoUPLC fractionation operating at nanoscale flow rates, we established a comprehensive data set of proteins expressed by the human oligodendroglia cell line MO3.13. The final dataset incorporating all fractions comprised 223,531 identified peptides assigned to 10,390 protein hits, an improvement of 4,5 times on identified proteins described previously by our group using the same cell line...
September 1, 2017: Proteomics
Kalpataru Pradhan, Subrat K Das
We investigate the magnetic and the transport properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors using a spin-fermion Monte-Carlo method on a simple cubic lattice in the intermediate coupling regime. The ferromagnetic transition temperature T c shows an optimization behavior with respect to the absolute carrier density p abs and the magnetic impurity concentration x as seen in the experiments. Our calculations also show an insulator-metal-insulator transition across the optimum p abs where the T c is maximum. Remarkably, the optimum p abs values lie in a narrow range around 0...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Romain Meinier, Rodolphe Sonnier, Pascal Zavaleta, Sylvain Suard, Laurent Ferry
Fires involving electrical cables are one of the main hazards in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Cables are complex assemblies including several polymeric parts (insulation, bedding, sheath) constituting fuel sources. This study provides an in-depth characterization of the fire behavior of two halogen-free flame retardant cables used in NPPs using the cone calorimeter. The influence of two key parameters, namely the external heat flux and the spacing between cables, on the cable fire characteristics is especially investigated...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Seun Lee, Gwang-Hee Lee, Hack Jun Lee, Mushtaq Ahmad Dar, Dong-Wan Kim
Lithium-oxygen batteries promise high energy densities, but are confronted with challenges, such as high overpotentials and sudden death during discharge-charge cycling, because the oxygen electrode is covered with the insulating discharge product, Li2O2. Here, we synthesized low-cost Fe-based nanocomposites via an electrical wire pulse process, as a hybrid electrocatalyst for the oxygen electrode of Li-O2 batteries. Fe3O4-Fe nanohybrids-containing electrodes exhibited a high discharge capacity (13,890 mA h gc(-1) at a current density of 500 mA gc(-1)), long cycle stability (100 cycles at a current rate of 500 mA gc(-1) and fixed capacity regime of 1,000 mA h gc(-1)), and low overpotential (1...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marimar Hernandez-Perez, Gaurav Chopra, Jonathan Fine, Abass M Conteh, Ryan M Anderson, Amelia K Linnemann, Chanelle Benjamin, Jennifer B Nelson, Kara S Benninger, Jerry L Nadler, David J Maloney, Sarah A Tersey, Raghavendra G Mirmira
Islet β-cell dysfunction and aggressive macrophage activity are early features in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is induced in β cells and macrophages during T1D and produces pro-inflammatory lipids and lipid peroxides that exacerbate β-cell dysfunction and macrophage activity. Inhibition of 12/15-LOX provides a potential therapeutic approach to prevent glycemic deterioration in T1D. Two inhibitors recently identified by our groups through screening efforts, ML127 and ML351, have been shown to selectively target 12/15-LOX with high potency...
August 25, 2017: Diabetes
Qingduan Li, Jianwei Yang, Shuangshuang Chen, Jizhao Zou, Weiguang Xie, Xierong Zeng
Efficient Si/organic hybrid solar cells were fabricated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and surfactant-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene (PEDOT:PSS). A post-treatment on PEDOT:PSS films with polar solvent was performed to increase the device performance. We found that the performance of hybrid solar cells increase with the polarity of solvent. A high conductivity of 1105 S cm(- 1) of PEDOT:PSS was achieved by adopting methanol treatment, and the best efficiency of corresponding hybrid solar cells reaches 12...
August 23, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Abhijeet Bagal, Xu A Zhang, Rahnuma Shahrin, Erinn C Dandley, Junjie Zhao, Felipe R Poblete, Christopher J Oldham, Yong Zhu, Gregory N Parsons, Christopher Bobko, Chih-Hao Chang
We present an engineered nanolattice material with enhanced mechanical properties that can be broadly applied as a thin film over large areas. The nanolattice films consist of ordered, three-dimensional architecture with thin-shell tubular elements, resulting in favorable modulus-density scaling (n ~ 1.1), enhanced energy dissipation, and extremely large material recoverability for strains up to 20% under normal compressive loading. At 95.6% porosity, the nanolattice film has demonstrated modulus of 1.19 GPa and specific energy dissipation of 325...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Oliver Lung, Stephanie A Reimer, Cameron P Goater
Portable user-friendly diagnostic tests can benefit detection and surveillance of wildlife diseases. Here, the performance of a compact POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer for detection of Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), an emerging Iridovirus that is associated with high host mortality in the western tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) in North America was assessed. Tissue samples from 188 larval tiger salamanders collected from sites in Alberta, Canada were tested by both iiPCR and by conventional PCR. Results of the two assays showed 96...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
H Yamakawa, T Miyamoto, T Morimoto, T Terashige, H Yada, N Kida, M Suda, H M Yamamoto, R Kato, K Miyagawa, K Kanoda, H Okamoto
The transition of a Mott insulator to metal, the Mott transition, can occur via carrier doping by elemental substitution, and by photoirradiation, as observed in transition-metal compounds and in organic materials. Here, we show that the application of a strong electric field can induce a Mott transition by a new pathway, namely through impulsive dielectric breakdown. Irradiation of a terahertz electric-field pulse on an ET-based compound, κ-(ET) 2Cu[N(CN) 2]Br (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene), collapses the original Mott gap of ∼30 meV with a ∼0...
August 21, 2017: Nature Materials
Wei Cai, Zhennan Zhu, Jinglin Wei, Zhiqiang Fang, Honglong Ning, Zeke Zheng, Shangxiong Zhou, Rihui Yao, Junbiao Peng, Xubing Lu
Solution-processed high-k dielectric TFTs attract much attention since they cost relatively little and have a simple fabrication process. However, it is still a challenge to reduce the leakage of the current density of solution-processed dielectric TFTs. Here, a simple solution method is presented towards enhanced performance of ZrO₂ films by intentionally increasing the concentration of precursor. The ZrO₂ films not only exhibit a low leakage current density of 10(-6) A/cm² at 10 V and a breakdown field of 2...
August 21, 2017: Materials
Xiaoxing Zhang, Jun Zhang, Xingchen Dong, Hao Cui
Gas insulated switchgear (GIS) plays an important role in the transmission and distribution of electric energy. Detecting and analyzing the decomposed components of SF₆ is one of the important methods to realize the on-line monitoring of GIS equipment. In this paper, considering the performance limits of intrinsic TiO₂ nanotube gas sensor, the adsorption process of H₂S, SO₂, SOF₂ and SO₂F₂ on fluoride-doped TiO₂ crystal plane was simulated by the first-principle method. The adsorption mechanism of these SF₆ decomposition components on fluorine-doped TiO₂ crystal plane was analyzed from a micro perspective...
August 18, 2017: Sensors
Wenxuan Wang, Ying Yang
A new method of increasing the durability and reliability of polymer dielectrics has been proposed by designing a composite structure of the micro and nano particles. The synergistic effects of the micro particles and nano particles are found to enhance the resistance to electrical tree and extend the lifetime of polymer dielectrics for insulations. Epoxy loaded with the micro and nano SiO2 particles at different concentrations are prepared as micro-nano composites. The micro particles show the blocking effects on the electrical tree channel and the interfaces of the nano particles lead to the inhibiting effects on the tree inception and propagation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fabio A Scholl, Paulo V Morais, Rayla C Gabriel, Michael J Schöning, José R Siqueira, Luciano Caseli
In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated in penicillinase-phospholipid Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films to enhance the enzyme catalytic properties. Adsorption of the penicillinase and CNTs at dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) monolayers at the air-water interface was investigated by surface pressure-area isotherms, vibrational spectroscopy, and Brewster angle microscopy. The floating monolayers were transferred to solid supports through the LB technique, forming mixed DMPA-CNTs-PEN films, which were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance, vibrational spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Caiyun Liang, Zhenfeng Wang, Lina Wu, Xiaochen Zhang, Huan Wang, Zhijiang Wang
A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture was fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization followed by carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso- and nanopores in a microsized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, thermal insulation, and mechanical properties. The microsized skeleton withstands high stress. The meso- and nanosized pores enhance multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer...
August 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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