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enhancer insulator

Bo-Jun Huang, Jun-Han Lin, H H Cheng, Guo-En Chang
We report GeSn p-i-n resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetectors (RCEPDs) grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates. A vertical cavity, composed of a buried oxide as the bottom reflector and a deposited SiO2 layer on the top surface as the top reflector, is created for the GeSn p-i-n structure to enhance the light-matter interaction. The responsivity experiments demonstrate that the photodetection range is extended to 1820 nm, completely covering all the telecommunication bands, because of the introduction of 2...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Hao Huang, Xiaohui Ren, Zhongjun Li, Huide Wang, Zongyu Huang, Hui Qiao, Pinghua Tang, Jinlai Zhao, Weiyuan Liang, Yanqi Ge, Jie Liu, Jianqing Li, Xiang Qi, Han Zhang
Two dimensional (2D) Bi nano-sheets had been employed to fabricate electrodes for broadband photo-detection. A series of characterization techniques including SEM and HRTEM verify that Bi nanosheets with intact lamellar structure have been obtained after facile liquid phase exfoliation. In the meanwhile, UV-Vis and Raman spectra are also carried out and confirm the inherent optical and physical properties of Bi nanosheets. Inherited from the topological characteristics of Bi bulk counterpart, the resultant Bi nanosheet-based photo-detector exhibits preferable photo-response activity as well as environmental robustness...
March 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Chan-Chieh Lin, Gareoung Kim, Dianta Ginting, Kyunghan Ahn, Jong Soo Rhyee
Topological insulators generally share commonalities with good thermoelectric materials because of their narrow band gaps and heavy constituent elements. Here we propose that a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) could exhibit a high thermoe-lectric performance by breaking its crystalline symmetry and tuning chemical potential by elemental doping. As a candidate material, we investigate thermoelectric properties of the Cl-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.7Sn0.3Se. The infrared absorption spectra reveal that the band gap is increased from 0...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shinpei Ogawa, Masaaki Shimatani, Shoichiro Fukushima, Satoshi Okuda, Kazuhiko Matsumoto
Metal-insulator-metal-based plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MIM-PMAs) generate strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on their surfaces. Therefore, MIM-PMAs are expected to enhance the absorption of graphene coated on their surfaces. Graphene-coated MIM-PMAs (GMIM-PMAs) were developed and their optical properties were investigated both experimentally and numerically at infrared wavelengths. Significant modification of the absorption of GMIM-PMAs was achieved only in the main LSPR wavelength region, where the insulator is lossless...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Ziwei Dou, Sei Morikawa, Alessandro Cresti, Shu-Wei Wang, Charles G Smith, Christos Melios, Olga Kazakova, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Satoru Masubuchi, Tomoki Machida, Malcolm Richard Connolly
Van der Waals structures formed by aligning monolayer graphene with insulating layers of hexagonal boron nitride exhibit a moiré superlattice that is expected to break sublattice symmetry. Despite an energy gap of several tens of millielectronvolts opening in the Dirac spectrum, electrical resistivity remains lower than expected at low temperature and varies between devices. While subgap states are likely to play a role in this behavior, their precise nature is unclear. We present a scanning gate microscopy study of moiré superlattice devices with comparable activation energy but with different charge disorder levels...
March 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Hitomi Mukaibo, Tonghui Wang, Victor H Perez-Gonzalez, Jirachai Getpreecharsawas, Jack T Wurzer, Blanca Lapizco-Encinas, James L McGrath
Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a simple, scalable mechanism that can be used for directly manipulating particle trajectories in pore-based filtration and separation processes. However, iDEP manipulation of nanoparticles presents unique challenges as the dielectrophoretic force (<b><i>F</i></b><sub>DEP</sub>) exerted on the nanoparticles can easily be overshadowed by opposing kinetic forces. In this study, a molecularly thin, SiN-based nanoporous membrane (NPN) is explored as a breakthrough technology that enhances <b><i>F</i></b><sub>DEP</sub>...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Nanqiang Shang, Qingguo Chen, Xinzhe Wei
The conductivity mismatch in the composite insulation of high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable accessories causes electric field distribution distortion and even insulation breakdown. Therefore, a liquid silicone rubber (LSR) filled with SiC nanoparticles is prepared for the insulation of cable accessories. The micro-morphology of the SiC/LSR nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their trap parameters are characterized using thermal stimulated current (TSC) tests. Moreover, the dielectric properties of SiC/LSR nanocomposites with different SiC concentrations are tested...
March 8, 2018: Materials
Shannan D Washington, Samantha I Edenfield, Caroline Lieux, Zachary L Watson, Sean M Taasan, Adit Dhummakupt, David C Bloom, Donna M Neumann
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes a lifelong latent infection in host peripheral neurons including the neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). HSV-1 can reactivate from neurons to cause recurrent infection. During latency, the insulator protein CTCF occupies DNA binding sites on the HSV-1 genome and these sites have been previously characterized as functional enhancer-blocking insulators. Previously, CTCF was found to be dissociated from wild type virus post-reactivation but not in mutants that do not reactivate, indicating that CTCF eviction may also be an important component of reactivation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Mohammad Karbalaei Akbari, Zhenyin Hai, Zihan Wei, Christophe Detavernier, Eduardo Solano, Francis Verpoort, Serge Zhuiykov
Electrically responsive plasmonic devices, which benefit from the privilege of surface plasmon excited hot carries, have supported fascinating applications in the visible-light assisted technologies. The properties of plasmonic devices can be tuned by charge transfer controlling. It can be attained by intentional architecturing of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interfaces. In this study the wafer-scaled fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 semiconductors on the granular Au metal substrate is achieved by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pengjun Zhao, Manhyung Han, Wenping Yin, Xing Zhao, Seul-Gi Kim, Yaping Yan, Minwoo Kim, Young Jae Song, Nam-Gyu Park, Hyun Suk Jung
Currently, the most efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) mainly use planar and mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an electron-transporting-layer (ETL). However, due to its intrinsic photocatalytic properties, TiO2 can decompose perovskite absorber and lead to poor stability under solar illumination (ultraviolet light). Herein, simplified architectural ETL-free PSC with enhanced efficiency and outstanding photostability is produced by the facile deposition of Bathocuproine (BCP) interlayer. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ETL-free PSC improves from 15...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gualtiero Spiro Jaeger, Amala Mahadevan
Salinity, rather than temperature, is the leading influence on density in some regions of the world's upper oceans. In the Bay of Bengal, heavy monsoonal rains and runoff generate strong salinity gradients that define density fronts and stratification in the upper ~50 m. Ship-based observations made in winter reveal that fronts exist over a wide range of length scales, but at O(1)-km scales, horizontal salinity gradients are compensated by temperature to alleviate about half the cross-front density gradient...
February 2018: Science Advances
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Shixin Song, Shan Xia, Shangkun Jiang, Xue Lv, Shulin Sun, Quanming Li
A facile strategy is adopted to prepare carboxylic functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (c-MWCNT) modified high dielectric constant (high- k ) poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composites with the aid of methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (MG). The MG is miscible with PVDF and the epoxy groups of the copolymer can react with the carboxylic groups of c-MWCNT, which induce the uniform dispersion of c-MWCNT and a form insulator layer on the surface of c-MWCNT. The c-MWCNTs/MG/PVDF composites with 8 vol % c-MWCNT present excellent dielectric properties with high dielectric constant (~448) and low dielectric loss (~2...
February 27, 2018: Materials
Alaa A Oughli, Adrian Ruff, Nilusha Priyadarshani Boralugodage, Patricia Rodríguez-Maciá, Nicolas Plumeré, Wolfgang Lubitz, Wendy J Shaw, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Olaf Rüdiger
The Ni(P2 N2 )2 catalysts are among the most efficient non-noble-metal based molecular catalysts for H2 cycling. However, these catalysts are O2 sensitive and lack long term stability under operating conditions. Here, we show that in a redox silent polymer matrix the catalyst is dispersed into two functionally different reaction layers. Close to the electrode surface is the "active" layer where the catalyst oxidizes H2 and exchanges electrons with the electrode generating a current. At the outer film boundary, insulation of the catalyst from the electrode forms a "protection" layer in which H2 is used by the catalyst to convert O2 to H2 O, thereby providing the "active" layer with a barrier against O2 ...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Kenan Song, David Soriano, Aron W Cummings, Roberto Robles, Pablo Ordejon, Stephan Roche
Enhancing the spin-orbit interaction in graphene, via proximity effects with topological insulators, could create a novel 2D system that combines nontrivial spin textures with high room temperature electron mobility. In order to engineer practical spintronics applications with such graphene/topological insulator (Gr/TI) heterostructures, an understanding of the hybrid spin-dependent properties is essential. Here we use ab initio simulations and tight-binding models to determine the precise spin texture of electronic states in graphene interfaced with a Bi2Se3 topological insulator...
February 26, 2018: Nano Letters
Shaoyong Huo, Jiu-Jiu Chen, Hongbo Huang
Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) have promising application in manipulation of acoustic waves for design of the low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exists as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves are desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid system. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the fascinating topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Li Wang, Chun-Hui Qi, Ren Zhong, Chao Yuan, Qiu-Yue Zhong
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are demyelinated. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of alemtuzumab and natalizumab in the treatment of different stages of MS patients. METHODS: A total of 585 patients diagnosed with MS and hospitalized were included and analyzed after which they were divided into the primary progressive MS A and B groups, the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) C and D groups, and the secondary progressive MS E and F groups...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wei Yu, Huwei Wang, Jing Hu, Wei Yang, Lei Qin, Ruliang Liu, Baohua Li, Dengyun Zhai, Feiyu Kang
The formation of the insulated film-like discharge products (Li2 O2 ) on the surface of the carbon cathode gradually hinders the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) process, which usually leads to the premature death of the Li-O2 battery. In this work, by introducing the molecular sieve powder into the ether electrolyte, the Li-O2 battery exhibits largely improved discharge capacity (63 times) comparing with the one in absence of this inorganic oxide additive. Meanwhile, XRD and SEM results qualitatively demonstrate the generation of the toroid Li2 O2 as the dominated discharge products, and the chemical titration quantifies a higher yield of the Li2 O2 with the presence of the molecular sieve additive...
February 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tian Zhang, Maoning Wang, Yong Yang, Fei Fan, Takhee Lee, Haitao Liu, Dong Xiang
We, for the first time, propose and theoretically study a plasmonic light steering concentrator (PLSC) that is based on a hybrid photonic-plasmonic sandwich structure. In this device, a transverse electric (TE) polarization guided mode supported by a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide is vertically coupled to a metal-dielectric-metal sandwich structure, while the structure steers the light to a perpendicular metal taper and focuses the light on the apex of the taper with a small radius of 15 nm. Based on the coupled-mode theory, the two supermodes (quasi-TM modes) are clarified to illustrate the coupling mechanism of the device...
February 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Y H Zhang, Y Y Xu, C Y Ye, C Sheng, J Sun, G Wang, X C Miao, C J Song, Q J Zhai
Significant grain refinement in cast metals can be achieved through the application of electric currents during the solidification process. The present paper investigates the distribution of electric currents on the grain size of solidified Al-7wt.%Si alloy under the application of electric current with constant parameters flowing through two parallel electrodes into the melt within a cylindrical mould. The distribution of electric current was controlled by applying an electrical insulation material coating, boron nitride (NB), to the sidewall of the electrodes...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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