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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054040/myelin-plasticity-and-behaviour-connecting-the-dots
#1
REVIEW
Malte Sebastian Kaller, Alberto Lazari, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Cassandra Sampaio-Baptista, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Myelin sheaths in the vertebrate nervous system enable faster impulse propagation, while myelinating glia provide vital support to axons. Once considered a static insulator, converging evidence now suggests that myelin in the central nervous system can be dynamically regulated by neuronal activity and continues to participate in nervous system plasticity beyond development. While the link between experience and myelination gains increased recognition, it is still unclear what role such adaptive myelination plays in facilitating and shaping behaviour...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054008/effect-of-different-types-of-surfactants-on-the-microstructure-of-methyltrimethoxysilane-derived-silica-aerogels-a-combined-experimental-and-computational-approach
#2
João P Vareda, Pedro Maximiano, Luís P Cunha, André F Ferreira, Pedro N Simões, Luísa Durães
HYPOTHESIS: Surfactants interfere with sol-gel particle/pore growth, influencing the structure and properties of silica aerogels. Their ability to induce microscopic changes in the aerogel's structure may be useful to improve/control the thermal insulation performance of aerogels. EXPERIMENTS: The influence of different types of surfactants (anionic, cationic and non-ionic) on the microstructural arrangement and macroscopic properties of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based aerogels was evaluated for the first time, using an experimental and computational comparative approach...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053968/multiscale-3d-genome-rewiring-during-mouse-neural-development
#3
Boyan Bonev, Netta Mendelson Cohen, Quentin Szabo, Lauriane Fritsch, Giorgio L Papadopoulos, Yaniv Lubling, Xiaole Xu, Xiaodan Lv, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Amos Tanay, Giacomo Cavalli
Chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed important insights into genome folding. Yet, how spatial genome architecture is related to gene expression and cell fate remains unclear. We comprehensively mapped 3D chromatin organization during mouse neural differentiation in vitro and in vivo, generating the highest-resolution Hi-C maps available to date. We found that transcription is correlated with chromatin insulation and long-range interactions, but dCas9-mediated activation is insufficient for creating TAD boundaries de novo...
October 19, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053900/hair-coat-properties-of-donkeys-mules-and-horses-in-a-temperate-climate
#4
B Osthaus, L Proops, S Long, N Bell, K Hayday, F Burden
BACKGROUND: There are clear differences between donkeys and horses in their evolutionary history, physiology, behaviour and husbandry needs. Donkeys are often kept in climates they are not adapted to and as such may suffer impaired welfare unless protection from the elements is provided. OBJECTIVES: To compare some of the hair coat properties of donkeys, mules and horses living outside, throughout the year, in the temperate climate of the UK. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study...
October 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053472/bilayers-of-ni3c12s12-and-pt3c12s12-graphene-like-2d-topological-insulators-tunable-by-electric-fields
#5
Orlando J Silveira, Érika N Lima, Hélio Chacham
In the present work we predict, through first-principles calculations, that bilayers of the recently synthesized Ni3 [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and Pt3 [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] layered materials are topological insulators upon electron doping, and that their topological insulator properties can be modulated by the application of electric fields with magnitudes achievable in devices. The electronic structures of both bilayers are characterized by spin-orbit split graphene-like bands, with gap magnitudes that are three orders of magnitude larger than graphene's...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053309/non-fermi-glasses-localized-descendants-of-fractionalized-metals
#6
S A Parameswaran, S Gopalakrishnan
Non-Fermi liquids are metals that cannot be adiabatically deformed into free fermion states. We argue for the existence of "non-Fermi glasses," phases of interacting disordered fermions that are fully many-body localized (MBL), yet cannot be deformed into an Anderson insulator without an eigenstate phase transition. We explore the properties of such non-Fermi glasses, focusing on a specific solvable example. At high temperature, non-Fermi glasses have qualitatively similar spectral features to Anderson insulators...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053171/high-surface-area-thermally-stable-hydrophobic-microporous-rigid-gels-generat-ed-at-ambient-from-mesi-oet-3-eto-3sich2ch2si-oet-3-mixtures-by-f-catalyzed-hydrolysis
#7
Richard M Laine, Joseph C Furgal, Honami Yamane, Timothy R Odykirk, Eongyu Yi, Yoshiki Chujo
High surface area materials are of considerable interest for gas storage/capture, molecular sieving, catalyst supports, as well as for slow release drug delivery systems. We report here a very simple and fast route to very high surface area (> 1000 m2/g), mechanically robust, hydrophobic gels prepared by F- catalyzed hydrolysis of mixtures of MeSi(OEt)3 and bistriethoxysilylethane (BTSE) at ambiente. These materials offer surface areas up to 1300 m2/g, peak pore sizes of 0.8 nm and thermal stabilities above 200 °C...
October 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051584/radiation-induced-resistance-oscillations-in-2d-electron-systems-with-strong-rashba-coupling
#8
Jesús Iñarrea
We present a theoretical study on the effect of radiation on the mangetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems with strong Rashba spint-orbit coupling. We want to study the interplay between two well-known effects in these electron systems: the radiation-induced resistance oscillations and the typical beating pattern of systems with intense Rashba interaction. We analytically derive an exact solution for the electron wave function corresponding to a total Hamiltonian with Rashba and radiation terms...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051541/helicity-dependent-photocurrent-in-electrically-gated-bi1-x-sb-x-2te3-thin-films
#9
Yu Pan, Qing-Ze Wang, Andrew L Yeats, Timothy Pillsbury, Thomas C Flanagan, Anthony Richardella, Haijun Zhang, David D Awschalom, Chao-Xing Liu, Nitin Samarth
Circularly polarized photons are known to generate a directional helicity-dependent photocurrent in three-dimensional topological insulators at room temperature. Surprisingly, the phenomenon is readily observed at photon energies that excite electrons to states far above the spin-momentum locked Dirac cone and the underlying mechanism for the helicity-dependent photocurrent is still not understood. Here we show a comprehensive study of the helicity-dependent photocurrent in (Bi1-x Sb x )2Te3 thin films as a function of the incidence angle of the optical excitation, its wavelength and the gate-tuned chemical potential...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049033/squeezed-dirac-and-topological-magnons-in-a-bosonic-honeycomb-optical-lattice
#10
S A Owerre, J Nsofini
Quantum information storage using charge-neutral quasiparticles is expected to play a crucial role in the future of quantum computers. In this regard, magnons or collective spin-wave excitations in solid-state materials are promising candidates in the future of quantum computing. Here, we study the quantum squeezing of Dirac and topological magnons in a bosonic honeycomb optical lattice with spin-orbit interaction by utilizing the mapping to quantum spin-[Formula: see text] XYZ Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice with discrete Z2 symmetry and a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047880/fiber-coupled-led-gas-sensor-and-its-application-to-online-monitoring-of-ecoefficient-dielectric-insulation-gases-in-high-voltage-circuit-breakers
#11
Axel Kramer, Daniel Over, Patrick Stoller, Thomas A Paul
Novel dielectric insulation gases used as alternatives to sulfur hexafluoride in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) include several mixtures containing fluorinated organic compounds. We developed a fiber-optic analyzer enabling concentration measurement of fluoroketones used in medium- and high-voltage switchgear applications by ABB, with concurrent compensation of disturbing effects caused by dust and dirt. The sensor enables measurements in GIS and even in operating high-voltage circuit breakers. The online availability of concentration readings of fluoroketones is important for development tests, but can also be applied for monitoring or diagnostics of field installations...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047867/wide-angle-broadband-terahertz-metamaterial-absorber-with-a-multilayered-heterostructure
#12
Junxing Fan, Dong Xiao, Qiong Wang, Qiang Liu, Zhengbiao Ouyang
In this paper, a wide-angle broadband perfect absorber is composed of a periodical metamaterial heterostructure. The structure is designed according to the concept that the metamaterial absorber's resonant frequency range can be manipulated by adjusting the filling factor of a bi-insulator heterostructure. The calculated results reveal that the four-layer herostructure has four perfect absorption peaks at the range of the terahertz frequency band. The related absorption bandwidth is 300 GHz and the average absorptivity is 98...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047660/comparison-of-iii-v-si-on-chip-lasers-with-etched-facet-reflectors
#13
Chee-Wei Lee, Doris Keh-Ting Ng, Min Ren, Yuan-Hsing Fu, Anthony Yew Seng Kay, Vivek Krishnamurthy, Jing Pu, Ai Ling Tan, Soo Bin Choo, Qian Wang
Electrically pumped heterogeneously integrated III-V/SiO2 semiconductor on-chip lasers with different types of etched facet reflectors are designed and fabricated and their lasing performances are characterized and compared. The III-V quantum-well-based epitaxial layers are bonded on silica-on-silicon substrates and fabricated to form Fabry-Perot lasers with dry-etched rear facets. Three types of reflectors are demonstrated, which are etched facets terminated by air, benzocyclobutene, and metal with a thin layer of SiO2 insulator in-between...
June 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047626/mode-properties-in-metallic-and-non-metallic-plasmonic-waveguides
#14
Wanwan Liu, Yifu Chen, Xin Hu, Long Wen, Lin Jin, Qiang Su, Qin Chen
Non-metallic plasmonic materials have recently attracted research interest due to their adjustable plasmonic material properties and the potential low loss, which is important to plasmonic waveguides with ultrahigh mode confinement. In this paper, we analyzed the mode properties of four types of plasmonic waveguides based on noble metals, aluminum-zinc-oxide (AZO), and TiN, where the propagation length and mode size are chosen to compare the figures of merit. It is found that AZO has the smallest imaginary part of permittivity in the near-infrared region, while AZO waveguides have propagation lengths comparable to those of Cu waveguides but shorter than those of Au and Ag waveguides...
June 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047528/plasmonic-wavelength-demultiplexer-with-a-ring-resonator-using-high-order-resonant-modes
#15
Chia-Ti Wu, Chia-Chih Huang, Yeun-Chung Lee
In this paper, we propose a novel wavelength demultiplexer based on metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides with a nanoscale ring resonator. Its transmission characteristics are numerically studied using finite element method (FEM) simulations, and the eigenwavelengths of the ring resonator are theoretically calculated. For the proposed structure, we found that the ratio of the orders of resonant transmittance peaks for two different high-order modes of the ring resonator is close to the ratio of the two communication wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm...
May 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047502/compact-microring-resonators-integrated-with-grating-couplers-working-at-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-wavelength-on-silicon-on-insulator-platform
#16
Zecen Zhang, Geok Ing Ng, Haodong Qiu, Wanjun Wang, Xin Guo, Mohamed S Rouifed, Chongyang Liu, Hong Wang
Compact all-pass and add-drop microring resonators (radius=10  μm) integrated with grating couplers working at 2 μm wavelength are designed, fabricated, and characterized on a commercial 340-nm-thick-top-silicon silicon-on-insulator platform. They are suitable for high-volume integrated optical circuits at 2 μm wavelength as the fabrication process involved are uncomplicated and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-process compatible, thus making them more convenient to be utilized. The performance of the grating couplers, based on four most important parameters, has been simulated and optimized...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046846/bi-layer-sandwich-film-for-antibacterial-catheters
#17
Gerhard Franz, Florian Schamberger, Hamideh Heidari Zare, Sara Felicitas Bröskamp, Dieter Jocham
Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters. Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly(p-xylylene)...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046446/foamy-virus-vector-carries-a-strong-insulator-in-its-long-terminal-repeat-which-reduces-its-genotoxic-potential
#18
Michael A Goodman, Paritha I Arumugam, Devin M Pillis, Anastacia Loberg, Md Nasimuzzaman, Danielle Lynn, Johannes C M van der Loo, Phillip J Dexheimer, Mehdi Keddache, Thomas R Bauer, Dennis D Hickstein, David W Russell, Punam Malik
Strong viral enhancers in γ-retrovirus vectors have caused cellular proto-oncogene activation and leukemia, necessitating use of cellular promoters in 'enhancer-less' self-inactivating integrating vectors. However, cellular promoters result in relatively low transgene expression, often leading to inadequate disease correction. Vectors derived from foamy virus, a nonpathogenic retrovirus, show higher preference for non-genic integrations than γ-retroviruses/lentiviruses and preferential integration near transcriptional start sites, like γ-retroviruses...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045849/a-synthetic-oligo-library-and-sequencing-approach-reveals-an-insulation-mechanism-encoded-within-bacterial-%C3%AF-54-promoters
#19
Lior Levy, Leon Anavy, Oz Solomon, Roni Cohen, Michal Brunwasser-Meirom, Shilo Ohayon, Orna Atar, Sarah Goldberg, Zohar Yakhini, Roee Amit
We use an oligonucleotide library of >10,000 variants to identify an insulation mechanism encoded within a subset of σ(54) promoters. Insulation manifests itself as reduced protein expression for a downstream gene that is expressed by transcriptional readthrough. It is strongly associated with the presence of short CT-rich motifs (3-5 bp), positioned within 25 bp upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) motif of the silenced gene. We provide evidence that insulation is triggered by binding of the ribosome binding site (RBS) to the upstream CT-rich motif...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045822/individual-effects-of-the-copia-and-gypsy-enhancer-and-insulator-on-chromatin-marks-erna-synthesis-and-binding-of-insulator-proteins-in-transfected-genetic-constructs
#20
Daria M Fedoseeva, Olga V Kretova, Maria A Gorbacheva, Nickolai A Tchurikov
Enhancers and insulators are involved in the regulation of gene expression, but the basic underlying mechanisms of action of these elements are unknown. We analyzed the individual effects of the enhancer and the insulator from Drosophila mobile elements copia [enh(copia)] and gypsy using transfected genetic constructs in S2 cells. This system excludes the influence of genomic cis regulatory elements. The enhancer-induced synthesis of 350-1050-nt-long enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and H3K4me3 and H3K18ac marks, mainly in the region located about 300bp downstream of the enhancer...
October 15, 2017: Gene
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