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Lee Chuin Chen, Satoru Tsutsui, Tsubasa Naito, Satoshi Ninomiya, Kenzo Hiraoka
A new electrospray source design is introduced by having an extractor electrode placed at 1~2 mm behind the emitter tip. The extractor was integrated into the sprayer body as a single device. An insulating tube was used to isolate the emitter from the extractor and to deliver the sheath gas for the electrospray. The electric field strength at the emitter was primarily determined by the relative position and the potential between the needle and the extractor, therefore, the spraying condition was insusceptible to the change of sprayer position or orientation with respect to the ion sampling inlet...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Yoni Baert, Jaime Onofre, Dorien Van Saen, Ellen Goossens
Tissue cryopreservation uses very low temperatures to preserve structurally intact living cells in their natural microenvironment. Cell survival is strongly influenced by the biophysical effects of ice during both the freezing and the subsequent thawing. These effects can be controlled by optimizing the fragment size, type of cryoprotectant, and cooling rate. The challenge is to determine cryopreservation parameters that suit all cell types present in the tissue. Here we describe a quick and convenient protocol for the cryopreservation of testicular tissue using an isopropyl-insulated freezing device, which was validated in both a mouse and a human model...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chr Lamnatou, F Motte, G Notton, D Chemisana, C Cristofari
Building-integrated solar thermal (BIST) systems are a specific type of solar thermal systems which are integrated into the building and they participate in building functionality. The present article is about the life-cycle assessment of different options of a BIST system (Mediterranean climatic conditions: Ajaccio, France). The environmental profile of the studied configurations is assessed by means of CED (cumulative energy demand), GWP (global warming potential) and EPBT (energy payback time). The proposed configurations (for the collector) include: i) a system without PCM (phase change material) using only rock wool as insulation and ii) a system with PCM (myristic acid) and rock wool...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Guiyin Xu, Qing-Bo Yan, Shitong Wang, Akihiro Kushima, Peng Bai, Kai Liu, Xiaogang Zhang, Zilong Tang, Ju Li
Lithium-sulfur batteries are one of the most promising next-generation batteries due to their high theoretical specific capacity, but are impeded by the low utilization of insulating sulfur, unstable morphology of the lithium metal anode, and transport of soluble polysulfides. Here, by coating a layer of nano titanium dioxide and carbon black onto a commercial polypropylene separator, we demonstrate a new composite separator that can confine the polysulfides on the cathode side, forming a catholyte chamber, and at the same time block the dendritic lithium on the anode side...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Yi Zhang, Lin Xie, Jeongwoo Kim, Alex Stern, Hui Wang, Kui Zhang, Xingxu Yan, Linze Li, Henry Liu, Gejian Zhao, Hang Chi, Chaitanya Gadre, Qiyin Lin, Yichun Zhou, Ctirad Uher, Tingyong Chen, Ying-Hao Chu, Jing Xia, Ruqian Wu, Xiaoqing Pan
Emergent physical properties often arise at interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures due to the interplay between various degrees of freedom, especially those with polar discontinuities. It is desirable to explore if these structures may generate pure and controllable spin currents, which are needed to attain unmatched performance and energy efficiency in the next-generation spintronic devices. Here we report the emergence of a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas (SP-2DEG) at the interface of two insulators, SrTiO 3 and PbZr 0...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Moon-Sun Nam, Benjamin H Williams, Yulin Chen, Sonia Contera, Shuhua Yao, Minghui Lu, Yan-Feng Chen, Grigore A Timco, Christopher A Muryn, Richard E P Winpenny, Arzhang Ardavan
The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Benjamin H. Williams, which was incorrectly given as Benjamin H. Willams. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Teresa Oh
ZTO was prepared on SiOC/ITO glass and the electrical characteristics were analyzed in accordance with the annealing temperature to research the temperature dependence and an amorphous structure. SiOC annealed at 150 °C as a gate insulator became an amorphous structure. The ZTO annealed at 150 °C had the capacitance without any variation. However, the capacitance of ZTO on SiOC annealed at 150 °C was increased due to the reduction of energy loss. ZTO/SiOC transistor was observed the ambipolar transfer characteristics with high stability and mobility in accordance with the decrement of drain voltages as a result of tunneling effect...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
F García-Rubio, J Sanz, R Betti
The theory of magnetic flux conservation is developed for a subsonic plasma implosion and used to describe the magnetic flux degradation in the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)10.1063/1.3333505]. Depending on the initial magnetic Lewis and Péclet numbers and the electron Hall parameter, the implosion falls into either a superdiffusive regime in which the magnetization decreases or a magnetized regime in which the magnetization increases. Scaling laws for magnetic field, temperature, and magnetic flux losses in the hot spot of radius R are obtained for both regimes...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Bin-Bin Zhang, Cong Wang, Song-Tao Dong, Yang-Yang Lv, Lunyong Zhang, Yadong Xu, Y B Chen, Jian Zhou, Shu-Hua Yao, Yan-Feng Chen
The triangular lattice Na x RhO 2 contains a 4d Rh element with large spin-orbit coupling, and the electron-electron correlation effect is expected to have some novel physical properties. Here we report NaRhO 2 crystal growth by Na 2 CO 3 vapor growth and a series of Na x RhO 2 (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1) crystals prepared using the chemical desodiation method. Na x RhO 2 reveals a layer structure with the space group R3̅m, and the lattice parameter a evolves from 3.09 to 3.03 Å and c from 15.54 to 15.62 Å when x decreases from 1...
February 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
K Kitagawa, T Takayama, Y Matsumoto, A Kato, R Takano, Y Kishimoto, S Bette, R Dinnebier, G Jackeli, H Takagi
The honeycomb lattice is one of the simplest lattice structures. Electrons and spins on this simple lattice, however, often form exotic phases with non-trivial excitations. Massless Dirac fermions can emerge out of itinerant electrons, as demonstrated experimentally in graphene, and a topological quantum spin liquid with exotic quasiparticles can be realized in spin-1/2 magnets, as proposed theoretically in the Kitaev model. The quantum spin liquid is a long-sought exotic state of matter, in which interacting spins remain quantum-disordered without spontaneous symmetry breaking...
February 14, 2018: Nature
Hong Wei, Deng Pan, Shunping Zhang, Zhipeng Li, Qiang Li, Ning Liu, Wenhui Wang, Hongxing Xu
Nanowires supporting propagating surface plasmons can function as nanowaveguides to realize the light guiding with field confinement beyond the diffraction limit, providing fundamental building blocks for nanophotonic integrated circuits. This review covers the recent developments of plasmon waveguiding in nanowires, mainly including plasmon waveguiding in metal nanowires, coupling of nanowire plasmons and emitters, hybrid nanowire waveguides and plasmonic gain, and nanowire photonic devices. We first introduce the main techniques for fabricating metal nanowires, the plasmon modes in metal nanowires and the excitation/detection methods...
February 15, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Arghya Dutta, Raymond A Wong, Woonghyeon Park, Keisuke Yamanaka, Toshiaki Ohta, Yousung Jung, Hye Ryung Byon
The major challenge facing lithium-oxygen batteries is the insulating and bulk lithium peroxide discharge product, which causes sluggish decomposition and increasing overpotential during recharge. Here, we demonstrate an improved round-trip efficiency of ~80% by means of a mesoporous carbon electrode, which directs the growth of one-dimensional and amorphous lithium peroxide. Morphologically, the one-dimensional nanostructures with small volume and high surface show improved charge transport and promote delithiation (lithium ion dissolution) during recharge and thus plays a critical role in the facile decomposition of lithium peroxide...
February 14, 2018: Nature Communications
G D Nielsen, I K Koponen
The typical insulation rock, slag and glass wool fibers are high volume materials. Current exposure levels in industry (generally ≤ 1 fiber/cm3with a median diameter ∼1 μm and length ≥10 μm) are not considered carcinogenic or causing other types of severe lung effects. However, epidemiological studies are not informative on effects in humans at fiber levels >1 fiber/cm3. Effects may be inferred from valid rat studies, conducted with rat respirable fibers (diameter ≤ 1.5 μm). Therefore, we estimate delivery and deposition in human and rat airways of the industrial fibers...
February 11, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Dominique Charron, Jonathan St-Yves, Omid Jafari, Sophie LaRochelle, Wei Shi
Manipulating the coupling coefficient at subwavelength scales provides an additional degree of freedom in designing integrated Bragg gratings. We demonstrate asymmetric contradirectional couplers (contra-DCs) using sidewall-corrugated subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguides for broadband add-drop Bragg filters. We show that a SWG can effectively increase the overlap of coupled modes and thus the photonic band gap. The measured spectra show good agreement with the prediction of photonic band structure simulations...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Ying Cui, Huaxin Gong, Yujie Wang, Dewen Li, Hao Bai
Animals living in the extremely cold environment, such as polar bears, have shown amazing capability to keep warm, benefiting from their hollow hairs. Mimicking such a strategy in synthetic fibers would stimulate smart textiles for efficient personal thermal management, which plays an important role in preventing heat loss and improving efficiency in house warming energy consumption. Here, a "freeze-spinning" technique is used to realize continuous and large-scale fabrication of fibers with aligned porous structure, mimicking polar bear hairs, which is difficult to achieve by other methods...
February 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Xi Yang, Xiaoyan Yu, Kimiyoshi Naito, Huili Ding, Xiongwei Qu, Qingxin Zhang
A new thermally conductive and electrically insulative polyimide were prepared by filling different amounts of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) particles, and the thermal conductivity of Polyimide (PI) composites were improved with the increasing h-BN content. Based on this, two methods were applied to improve thermal conductivity furtherly at limited filler loading in this paper. One is modifying the h-BN to improve interface interaction, another is fabricating a nano-micro hybrid filler with 2-D h-BN and 0-D nano-scale nanodiamond (ND) to build more effective conductive network...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Da-Ming Ren, Hua-Kun Huang, Yun Yu, Zeng-Tian Li, Li-Wang Jiang, Shui-Mei Chen, Kwok-Ho Lam, Bo Lin, Bo Shi, Fu-An He, Hui-Jun Wu
Nanofibrous silver (Ag)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite membranes were obtained from a two-step preparation method. In the first step, the electrospun silver nitrate (AgNO3)/PVDF membranes were prepared and the influence of the AgNO3 content on the electrospinning process was studied. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results, when the electrospinning solution contained AgNO3 in the range between 3 to 7 wt.%, the nanofiber morphologies can be obtained. In the second step, the electrospun AgNO3/PVDF membranes were reduced by sodium borohydride to form the nanofibrous Ag/PVDF composite membranes...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Im Taek Yoon, Sejoon Lee, Dmitry V Roshchupkin, Gennady N Panin
The influence of quantum well structure and growth temperature on a synthesized multilayer system composed of a five-layer InMnGaAs quantum well with an InGaAs buffer layer grown on semi-insulating (100)-oriented substrates prepared by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy was studied. The magnetization measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device indicated the existence of ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature above room temperature in the five-layer InGaMnAs quantum well structure with an InGaAs buffer layer in a GaAs matrix...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
C A Plazas, K M Fonseca-Romero, R R Rey-González
Using a tight-binding model, we study the transport of charge carriers through DNA molecular wires. In double-stranded DNA chains, according to Chargaff's rules, only Adenine-Thymine (AT) and Cytosine-Guanine (CG) pairs are allowed. In our model, a decimation procedure allows us to represent each pair of bases by a single site with one localized electronic state. We consider chains of different lengths with only AT (CG) sites, and ordered and disordered chains with both types of sites. Disordered chains may include short range correlation...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Takuro Hosomi, Ryosuke Harada, Hiroshi Masai, Tetsuaki Fujihara, Yasushi Tsuji, Jun Terao
We describe herein the synthesis of a Ni(ii) bis(dithiobenzoate)-type complex three-dimensionally insulated by a [1]rotaxane structure to reveal the importance of the insulation. Under cyclic voltammetry conditions, the complex showed a stable and reversible redox behavior in contrast to a non-insulated reference complex, clearly demonstrating the effectiveness of the rotaxane-type insulation as a new method of kinetic metal complex stabilization.
February 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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