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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053067/the-proteome-of-pus-from-human-brain-abscesses-host-derived-neurotoxic-proteins-and-the-cell-type-diversity-of-cns-pus
#1
Bjørnar Hassel, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Jugoslav Ivanovic, Øyvind Voie, Daniel Dahlberg
OBJECTIVE What determines the extent of tissue destruction during brain abscess formation is not known. Pyogenic brain infections cause destruction of brain tissue that greatly exceeds the area occupied by microbes, as seen in experimental studies, pointing to cytotoxic factors other than microbes in pus. This study examined whether brain abscess pus contains cytotoxic proteins that might explain the extent of tissue destruction. METHODS Pus proteins from 20 human brain abscesses and, for comparison, 7 subdural empyemas were analyzed by proteomics mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052770/extrapulmonary-involvement-in-pediatric-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Supika Kritsaneepaiboon, Mariaem M Andres, Vincent R Tatco, Cielo Consuelo Q Lim, Nathan David P Concepcion
Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051603/quantitative-assessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-opening-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-hyaluronidase-in-a-balb-c-mouse-model
#3
Su Luo, Qing Cao, Ke Ma, Zhaofei Wang, Guangjin Liu, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Streptococcus agalactiae is a pathogen causing meningitis in animals and humans. However, little is known about the entry of S. agalactiae into brain tissue. In this study, we developed a BALB/c mouse model based on the intravenous injection of β-galactosidase-positive Escherichia coli M5 as an indicator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. Under physiological conditions, the BBB is impermeable to E. coli M5. In pathological conditions caused by S. agalactiae, E. coli M5 is capable of penetrating the brain through a disrupted BBB...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050167/-serum-procalcitonin-in-patients-with-pulmonary-infection-and-central-nervous-system-injury
#4
J C Li, L Y Wang, Y F Wang, M H Mei, L Shi, M L Yao, X D Guan, B Ouyang
Objective: To evaluate the influence of serum procalcitonin in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary infection in patients with central nervous system injury. Methods: From October 2014 to February 2017, a retrospective study was performed. A total of 1 852 patients were screened in Department of Intensive Care Unite, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.Among them, 173 patients were identified with different kinds of infection. Finally, a total of 42 patients with pulmonary infection were enrolled...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050112/-clinical-pathologic-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-19-relapsed-pediatric-b-cell-lymphoma
#5
S Huang, L Jin, J Yang, Y L Duan, M Zhang, C J Zhou, X L Ma, Y H Zhang
Objective: To review the clinical-pathology characteristics of 19 relapsed pediatric mature B cell lymphoma and to find the risk factors for recurrence and the feasible treatment after relapse. Method: Data of 212 pediatric B cell lymphomas cases in Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2006 to June 2015 were collected retrospectively. All the patients were treated according to the B cell lymphoma regimen of Beijing Children's Hospital. During the study period, 19 of 212 cases were relapsed; the clinio-pathological characteristics of relapsed patients before treatment and after relapse were analyzed retrospectively, the treatment outcomes after relapse were summarized and the patients were followed-up...
October 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049097/low-serum-uric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-acute-central-nervous-system-viral-infections
#6
Xiang Li, Qiaowen Tong, Dewei Xie, Zhibo Chen, Sipei Pan, Xu Zhang, Wanli Dong
Most acute central nervous system (CNS) viral infections lead to either encephalitis or meningitis. Many neurotropic viruses may cause CNS dysfunctions through various mechanisms including oxidative stress. Serum uric acid (SUA) levels, which are associated with oxidative stress and antioxidant status, are reduced in patients with various neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis. We investigated the possible correlation between SUA levels and clinical disease status in patients with acute CNS viral infections...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046746/perspectives-on-non-neoformans-cryptococcal-opportunistic-infections
#7
REVIEW
Nichole Smith, Matthew Sehring, Jefferson Chambers, Preeti Patel
Non-neoformans Cryptococcus species, including C. laurentii and C. albidus, have historically been classified as exclusively saprophytic. However, recent studies have increasingly implicated these organisms as the causative agent of opportunistic infections in humans. Herein, the case is presented of C. laurentii meningitis in a critically ill patient receiving corticosteroids. C. laurentii has been implicated in an additional 18 cases of opportunistic infection, predominantly of the skin, bloodstream, and central nervous system...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046447/a-functional-carboxy-terminal-fluorescent-protein-fusion-to-pseudorabies-virus-small-capsid-protein-vp26
#8
Ian B Hogue, Jolie Jean, Andrew D Esteves, Nikhila S Tanneti, Julian Scherer, Lynn W Enquist
Fluorescent protein fusions to herpesvirus capsids have proven to be a valuable method to study virus particle transport in living cells. Fluorescent protein fusions to the amino terminus of small capsid protein VP26 are the most widely-used method to visualize Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) particles in living cells. However, these fusion proteins do not incorporate to full occupancy, and have modest effects on virus replication and pathogenesis. Recent cryo electron microscopy studies have revealed that herpesvirus small capsid proteins bind to capsids via their amino terminus, whereas the carboxy terminus is unstructured and may therefore better tolerate fluorescent protein fusions...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046259/assessing-the-impact-of-quality-improvement-measures-on-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-and-catheter-salvage-experience-from-a-national-intestinal-failure-unit
#9
A Bond, A Teubner, M Taylor, C Cawley, A Abraham, M Dibb, P R Chadwick, M Soop, G Carlson, S Lal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prevention of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) and salvage of infected central venous catheters (CVC) are vital to maintaining long term venous access in patients needing home parenteral nutrition (HPN). It remains unclear as to whether patients are best trained for catheter care at home or in hospital or whether CRBSIs are lower if the patient self-cares for the CVC. Furthermore, there is minimal data on the longer term outcome following salvage of infected catheter and limited consensus on agreed protocols for catheter salvage...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#10
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039736/a-novel-central-nervous-system-penetrating-protease-inhibitor-overcomes-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-resistance-with-unprecedented-am-to-pm-potency
#11
Manabu Aoki, Hironori Hayashi, Kalapala Venkateswara Rao, Debananda Das, Nobuyo Higashi-Kuwata, Haydar Bulut, Hiromi Aoki-Ogata, Yuki Takamatsu, Ravikiran S Yedidi, David A Davis, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Noriko Nishida, Kazuya Hasegawa, Nobutoki Takamune, Prasanth R Nyalapatla, Heather L Osswald, Hirofumi Jono, Hideyuki Saito, Robert Yarchoan, Shogo Misumi, Arun K Ghosh, Hiroaki Mitsuya
Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection/AIDS has significantly extended the life expectancy of HIV-1-infected individuals and reduced HIV-1 transmission at very high rates. However, certain individuals who initially achieve viral suppression to undetectable levels may eventually suffer treatment failure mainly due to adverse effects and the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Here, we report GRL-142, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing an unprecedented 6-5-5-ring-fused crown-like tetrahydropyranofuran, which has extremely potent activity against all HIV-1 strains examined with IC50 values of attomolar-to-picomolar concentrations, virtually no effects on cellular growth, extremely high genetic barrier against the emergence of drug-resistant variants, and favorable intracellular and central nervous system penetration...
October 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038748/virulence-test-using-nematodes-to-prescreen-nocardia-species-capable-of-inducing-neurodegeneration-and-behavioral-disorders
#12
Claire Bernardin Souibgui, Anthony Zoropogui, Jeremy Voisin, Sebastien Ribun, Valentin Vasselon, Petar Pujic, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Patrick Belly, Benoit Cournoyer, Didier Blaha
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron programmed cell death. The etiology of PD remains uncertain-some cases are due to selected genes associated with familial heredity, others are due to environmental exposure to toxic components, but over 90% of cases have a sporadic origin. Nocardia are Actinobacteria that can cause human diseases like nocardiosis. This illness can lead to lung infection or central nervous system (CNS) invasion in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036759/can-a-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-occur-due-to-miliary-tuberculosis
#13
Sang-Ki Min, Ji-Ho Shin, Seog-Kyun Mun
Miliary tuberculosis is a severe form of tuberculosis resulting from dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. Since symptoms appearing in patients due to miliary TB are diverse and atypical, depending on the site of invasion, early diagnosis and treatment are important. A paradoxical response of tuberculosis is a rare phenomenon and it can be a clinical difficulty to treatment especially when involving the central nervous system. We present a case report with a review of related literature about the patient who developed sudden hearing loss due to tuberculosis infection in vestibulocochlear area...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035192/bacillus-cereus-bacteremia-with-central-nervous-system-involvement-a-neuropathological-study
#14
Jean Philippe Brouland, Nathalie Sala, Selin Tusgul, Caterina Rebecchini, Enikö Kovari
Bacillus cereus is a widely-distributed, gram-positive or variable, rod-shaped bacterium frequently considered a contaminant in clinical specimens. It is recognized as a potential pathogen inducing self-limiting emetic or diarrheal food poisoning or localized infection in immunocompetent patients. True B. cereus bacteremia is uncommon and mainly observed in fragile patients, notably in immunocompromised individuals. We report clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a 64-year-old patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia who initially presented a fever while neutropenic after the induction of a second cycle of chemotherapy...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030170/in-utero-negativization-of-zika-virus-in-a-case-with-serious-central-nervous-system-abnormalities
#15
Carlota Rodó, Anna Suy, Elena Sulleiro, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Andrés Antón, Itziar García, Silvia Arévalo, Élida Vázquez, Ana Vázquez, Fernando de Ory, M Paz Sánchez-Seco, Carlos Rodrigo, Tomás Pumarola, Elena Carreras
OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of a pregnant woman with Zika virus infection and severe fetal brain malformations. METHODS: Serial ultrasound measurements, fetal magnetic resonance imaging results, laboratory and amniocentesis results, and perinatal outcomes of the pregnant woman and her neonate are reported. RESULTS: Zika virus tested positive in amniotic fluid at 19 weeks while being negative at delivery. The newborn did not meet the case definition of congenital Zika virus syndrome because neither the Zika virus RNA nor immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected; however, prenatal brain lesions were confirmed after birth...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026544/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis-in-a-man-from-cambodia-with-worsening-headaches
#16
Daniel S Krauth, Kristi K Stone-Garza, Deirdre E Amaro, Sharon L Reed, Theodoros F Katsivas
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis should be considered in patients from endemic nations with worsening neurological symptoms. If imaging reveals possible CNS tuberculomas, potentially life-threatening lesions should be excised and analyzed. When disease is less severe, other tissues possibly infected should be biopsied first for diagnosis to avoid neurosurgery.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025774/posterior-fossa-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-first-presentation-of-an-unknown-autoimmune-disease
#17
Paulette Scholten, Peter Kralt, Bram Jacobs
We present a case of a 57-year-old man who presented with progressive cerebellar dysarthria and cerebellar ataxia. Additional investigations confirmed the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in the posterior fossa. This is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, caused by an opportunistic infection with John Cunningham virus. PML has previously been considered a lethal condition, but because of careful monitoring of patients with HIV and of patients using immunosuppressive drugs it is discovered in earlier stages and prognosis can be improved...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021960/relapsing-ebv-encephalitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#18
Joshua A Stone, Bettina M Knoll, Dimitrios Farmakiotis
In solid organ transplant recipients, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can cause active central nervous system (CNS) infection or malignant transformation of latently infected cells in the CNS, known as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Reduction of T-cell immunosuppression is the cornerstone of management. The role of antivirals with in-vitro activity against herpesviruses in EBV-related CNS syndromes is controversial, as they have no effect on latent virus. We report an unusual case of relapsing EBV encephalitis in a donor-positive, EBV-negative renal transplant recipient, with response to valganciclovir...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021458/progressive-pseudolithiasis-associated-with-the-intravenous-administration-of-ceftriaxone-in-patients-with-central-nervous-system-infections
#19
Setsuki Tsukagoshi, Kunihiko Ishizawa, Kimitoshi Hirayanagi, Shun Nagamine, Kouki Makioka, Yukio Fujita, Yoshio Ikeda
We report four adult cases of ceftriaxone (CTRX)-induced pseudolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. With the exception of case 1, none of our cases showed abdominal symptoms. Our patients, who had central nervous system (CNS) infections, had been treated with CTRX (4 g/day) for 35-69 days. CTRX-induced pseudolithiasis and nephrolithiasis can appear depending on the total dose of CTRX and the duration for which it is administered. Patients with bacterial CNS infections who are treated with CTRX are typically treated with higher doses for longer periods...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020381/antibody-banding-patterns-of-the-enzyme-linked-immunoelectrotransfer-blot-eitb-and-brain-imaging-findings-in-patients-with-neurocysticercosis
#20
Gianfranco Arroyo, Silvia Rodriguez, Andres G Lescano, Karen Alroy, Javier A Bustos, Saul Santivañez, Isidro Gonzales, Herbert Saavedra, E Javier Pretell, Armando E Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman, Victor C W Tsang, Hector H Garcia
Background: The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the reference serological test for neurocysticercosis (NCC). A positive result on EITB does not always correlate with the presence of active infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and patients with a single viable brain cyst may be EITB negative. Nonetheless, EITB antibody banding patterns appears to be related with the expression of three protein families of Taenia solium, and in turn with the characteristics of NCC in the CNS (type, stage and burden of viable cysts)...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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