keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

cns infections

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454181/brainstem-dysfunction-heralding-disseminated-cryptococcosis
#1
Prachaya Srivanitchapoom, Yuvadee Pitakpatapee, Panitta Sitthinamsuwan, Sith Sathornsumetee
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is one of the most common central nervous system infections affecting immunocompromised patients. However, brainstem involvement is extremely rare and may represent a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. We report a non-HIV infected, chronically immunosuppressed, patient with fatal disseminated cryptococcosis presented with subcutaneous masses at both thighs and progressive brainstem dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple brainstem infarcts likely derived from small vessel vasculopathy...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453157/-the-spanish-society-of-paediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infections
#2
(no author information available yet)
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery...
February 13, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453113/epidemiological-profile-of-epilepsy-in-low-income-populations
#3
REVIEW
Camilo Espinosa-Jovel, Rafael Toledano, Ángel Aledo-Serrano, Irene García-Morales, Antonio Gil-Nagel
Epilepsy is a global disease with an unequal distribution. About 80% of the affected individuals reside in low and middle income countries. The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in low income populations is higher than in the rest of the world, this is partly explained by some risk factors such as head trauma, perinatal injury and CNS infections, which are more common in poor regions, especially in rural areas. Epilepsy is considered a treatable condition with high rates of therapeutic response. About three fourths of patients achieve control of the disease with the use of antiepileptic drugs, however, despite this benign prognosis, over 75% of patients from low income populations do not receive treatment at all...
February 8, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452686/technological-advances-and-changing-indications-for-lumbar-puncture-in-neurological-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Joost M Costerus, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
Technological advances have changed the indications for and the way in which lumbar puncture is done. Suspected CNS infection remains the most common indication for lumbar puncture, but new molecular techniques have broadened CSF analysis indications, such as the determination of neuronal autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis. New screening techniques have increased sensitvity for pathogen detection and can be used to identify pathogens that were previously unknown to cause CNS infections. Evidence suggests that potential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, will rely on early detection of the disease with the use of CSF biomarkers...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447242/a-novel-ligand-on-astrocytes-interacts-with-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-nkp44-regulating-immune-response-mediated-by-nk-cells
#5
Kelly E Bowen, Stephen O Mathew, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Porunelloor A Mathew
NK cells play important role in immunity against pathogens and cancer. NK cell functions are regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells. NK cells were shown to be recruited to the CNS following several pathological conditions. NK cells could impact CNS physiology by killing glial cells and by secreting IFN-γ. Astrocytes are intimately involved in immunological and inflammatory events occurring in the CNS and reactive astrogliosis is a key feature in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445493/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-influenza-a-pneumonia
#6
Babikir Kheiri, Emad Abu Sitta, Anas Salih, Mohammed Al Qasmi, Ghassan Bachuwa
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system and can present following influenza A infections as multifocal neurological deficits. ADEM remains a challenging diagnosis, and high clinical suspicious coupled with laboratory investigations and neuroimaging is required to exclude other primary and secondary demyelinating disorders.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443761/haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-infection-with-adenovirus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441072/fatal-necrotizing-encephalopathy-after-treatment-with-nivolumab-for-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Markus Leitinger, Mihael V Varosanec, Slaven Pikija, Romana E Wass, Dave Bandke, Serge Weis, Michael Studnicka, Susanne Grinzinger, Mark R McCoy, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies, which enhance cellular and humoral immune responses and are approved for the treatment of various tumors. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) involving different organs and systems are, however, among the side-effects. Recent reports of severe persistent neurological deficits and even fatal cases underpin the need for better understanding of the exact pathomechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. To our knowledge, we report the first biopsy-proven case of fatal necrotizing encephalopathy after treatment with nivolumab...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439868/in-depth-genome-analyses-of-viruses-from-vaccine-derived-rabies-cases-and-corresponding-live-attenuated-oral-rabies-vaccines
#9
Florian Pfaff, Thomas Müller, Conrad M Freuling, Christine Fehlner-Gardiner, Susan Nadin-Davis, Emmanuelle Robardet, Florence Cliquet, Vlad Vuta, Peter Hostnik, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Martin Beer, Dirk Höper
Live-attenuated rabies virus strains such as those derived from the field isolate Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) have been used extensively and very effectively as oral rabies vaccines for the control of fox rabies in both Europe and Canada. Although these vaccines are safe, some cases of vaccine-derived rabies have been detected during rabies surveillance accompanying these campaigns. In recent analysis it was shown that some commercial SAD vaccines consist of diverse viral populations, rather than clonal genotypes...
February 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439121/brain-imaging-in-cases-with-positive-serology-for-dengue-with-neurologic-symptoms-a-clinicoradiologic-correlation
#10
H A Vanjare, P Mannam, A K Mishra, R Karuppusami, R A B Carey, A M Abraham, W Rose, R Iyyadurai, S Mani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dengue is a common arboviral disease, which uncommonly involves the brain. There has been a recent surge in dengue cases and dengue-related deaths in tropical countries. The aim of this study was to describe brain imaging findings in patients with dengue infection having neurologic symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with positive serology for dengue with CNS symptoms undergoing imaging of the brain were included in the study...
February 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438386/doxycycline-inhibits-experimental-cerebral-malaria-by-reducing-inflammatory-immune-reactions-and-tissue-degrading-mediators
#11
Kim E Schmidt, Janina M Kuepper, Beatrix Schumak, Judith Alferink, Andrea Hofmann, Shanshan W Howland, Laurent Rénia, Andreas Limmer, Sabine Specht, Achim Hoerauf
Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM) are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX) prevented experimental CM (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attenuated brain inflammation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435829/an-siv-macaque-model-of-siv-and-hand-the-need-for-adjunctive-therapies-in-hiv-that-target-activated-monocytes-and-macrophages
#12
REVIEW
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth Williams
Non-human primate models of AIDS and neuroAIDS are critical to study HIV infection of the CNS, neuropathology, and immune activation and macrophage accumulation that occurs in HAND. SIV, similar to HIV, infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Virus enters the CNS early, and macrophage activation correlates with CNS disease, as well as inflammation outside of the CNS. Antiretroviral in HIV+ humans and SIV+ Rhesus macaques results in non-detectable plasma virus, decreased or non-detectable viral RNA or protein in the CNS...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435804/human-neural-stem-cells-with-gdnf-site-specific-integration-at-aavs1-by-using-aav-vectors-retained-their-stemness
#13
Jinju Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Yun Zhang, Zuo Luan, Yinxiang Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Chun Zhang
The neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and to migrate to pathologically altered regions of the central nervous system. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could protect dopamine neurons and rescue motor neurons in vivo, which has been proposed as a promising candidate for the treatments of degenerative neurological diseases. In order to combine the advantages of neurotrophic factors and stem cells in clinical therapy, we established the modified hNSCs that has site-specific integration of GDNF gene by using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors...
February 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434238/non-equivalent-antigen-presenting-capabilities-of-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-in-generating-brain-infiltrating-cd8-t-cell-responses
#14
Courtney S Malo, Matthew A Huggins, Emma N Goddery, Heather M A Tolcher, Danielle N Renner, Fang Jin, Michael J Hansen, Larry R Pease, Kevin D Pavelko, Aaron J Johnson
The contribution of antigen-presenting cell (APC) types in generating CD8 + T cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) is not fully defined, limiting the development of vaccines and understanding of immune-mediated neuropathology. Here, we generate a transgenic mouse that enables cell-specific deletion of the H-2Kb MHC class I molecule. By deleting H-2K b on dendritic cells and macrophages, we compare the effect of each APC in three distinct models of neuroinflammation: picornavirus infection, experimental cerebral malaria, and a syngeneic glioma...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433936/microrna-219-reduces-viral-load-and-pathologic-changes-in-theiler-s-virus-induced-demyelinating-disease
#15
Ana Lis Moyano, Jeffrey Steplowski, Haibo Wang, Kyung-No Son, Diana I Rapolti, Jeffrey Marshall, Vince Elackattu, Michael S Marshall, Amy K Hebert, Cory R Reiter, Viviana Ulloa, Katarzyna C Pituch, Maria I Givogri, Q Richard Lu, Howard L Lipton, Ernesto R Bongarzone
Analysis of microRNA (miR) expression in the central nervous system white matter of SJL mice infected with the BeAn strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) revealed a significant reduction of miR-219, a critical regulator of myelin assembly and repair. Restoration of miR-219 expression by intranasal administration of a synthetic miR-219 mimic before disease onset ameliorates clinical disease, reduces neurogliosis, and partially recovers motor and sensorimotor function by negatively regulating proinflammatory cytokines and virus RNA replication...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433113/-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-aseptic-meningitis-and-encephalitis-caused-by-enterovirus
#16
Tsuguto Fujimoto
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), and CV-A6 are the major causative agents of Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). These viruses belong to the species Enterovirus A of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses can also cause aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis and/or paralysis. EV-A71 is one of the main infectious agents related to severe encephalitis. Between 1997 and 2013, East and Southeast Asia experienced large encephalitis outbreaks caused by EV-A71 infections, which ranged from severe to lethal...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432457/the-spectrum-of-neurological-disease-associated-with-zika-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-adults-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-a-case-series
#17
Ravi Mehta, Cristiane Nascimento Soares, Raquel Medialdea-Carrera, Mark Ellul, Marcus Tulius Texeira da Silva, Anna Rosala-Hallas, Marcia Rodrigues Jardim, Girvan Burnside, Luciana Pamplona, Maneesh Bhojak, Radhika Manohar, Gabriel Amorelli Medeiros da Silva, Marcus Vinicius Adriano, Patricia Brasil, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Carolina Cardoso Dos Santos, Lance Turtle, Patricia Carvalho de Sequeira, David W Brown, Michael J Griffiths, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: During 2015-16 Brazil experienced the largest epidemic of Zika virus ever reported. This arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults but other neurological associations are uncertain. Chikungunya virus has caused outbreaks in Brazil since 2014 but associated neurological disease has rarely been reported here. We investigated adults with acute neurological disorders for Zika, chikungunya and dengue, another arbovirus circulating in Brazil...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431873/blood-brain-barrier-and-its-function-during-inflammation-and-autoimmunity
#18
REVIEW
Sandip Ashok Sonar, Girdhari Lal
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important physiologic barrier that separates CNS from soluble inflammatory mediators and effector immune cells from peripheral circulation. The optimum function of the BBB is necessary for the homeostasis, maintenance, and proper neuronal function. The clinical and experimental findings have shown that BBB dysfunction is an early hallmark of various neurologic disorders ranging from inflammatory autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and traumatic diseases to neuroinvasive infections...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430124/incidental-global-hypometabolism-in-the-brain-of-patient-with-aids-related-dementia-seen-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#19
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428508/the-molecular-tweezer-clr01-inhibits-ebola-and-zika-virus-infection
#20
Annika E Röcker, Janis A Müller, Erik Dietzel, Mirja Harms, Franziska Krüger, Christian Heid, Andrea Sowislok, Camilla Frich Riber, Alexandra Kupke, Sina Lippold, Jens von Einem, Judith Beer, Bernd Knöll, Stephan Becker, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Markus Otto, Olli Vapalahti, Alexander N Zelikin, Gal Bitan, Thomas Schrader, Jan Münch
Ebola (EBOV) and Zika viruses (ZIKV) are responsible for recent global health threats. As no preventive vaccines or antiviral drugs against these two re-emerging pathogens are available, we evaluated whether the molecular tweezer CLR01 may inhibit EBOV and ZIKV infection. This small molecule previously has been shown to inactivate HIV-1 and herpes viruses through a selective interaction with lipid-raft-rich regions in the viral envelope, which results in membrane disruption and loss of infectivity. We found that CLR01 indeed blocked infection of EBOV and ZIKV in a dose-dependent manner...
February 8, 2018: Antiviral Research
keyword
keyword
95233
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"