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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640909/hiv-tat-regulates-macrophage-gene-expression-in-the-context-of-neuroaids
#1
Loreto Carvallo, Lillie Lopez, Jorge E Fajardo, Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Andras Fiser, Joan W Berman
Despite the success of cART, greater than 50% of HIV infected people develop cognitive and motor deficits termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Macrophages are the major cell type infected in the CNS. Unlike for T cells, the virus does not kill macrophages and these long-lived cells may become HIV reservoirs in the brain. They produce cytokines/chemokines and viral proteins that promote inflammation and neuronal damage, playing a key role in HIV neuropathogenesis. HIV Tat is the transactivator of transcription that is essential for replication and transcriptional regulation of the virus and is the first protein to be produced after HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636961/myeloid-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Jasmin Herz, Anthony J Filiano, Ashtyn Smith, Nir Yogev, Jonathan Kipnis
The central nervous system (CNS) and its meningeal coverings accommodate a diverse myeloid compartment that includes parenchymal microglia and perivascular macrophages, as well as choroid plexus and meningeal macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. These myeloid populations enjoy an intimate relationship with the CNS, where they play an essential role in both health and disease. Although the importance of these cells is clearly recognized, their exact function in the CNS continues to be explored. Here, we review the subsets of myeloid cells that inhabit the parenchyma, meninges, and choroid plexus and discuss their roles in CNS homeostasis...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636958/protective-and-pathological-immunity-during-central-nervous-system-infections
#3
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Christopher A Hunter
The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. The focus of this review is to consider the host-pathogen interactions that influence neurotropic infections and to highlight advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive mechanisms of resistance as key determinants of the outcome of CNS infection...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636879/delineating-neuroinflammation-parasite-cns-invasion-and-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-an-experimental-murine-model-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#4
Jean Rodgers, Barbara Bradley, Peter G E Kennedy
Although Trypanosoma brucei spp. was first detected by Aldo Castellani in CSF samples taken from sleeping sickness patients over a century ago there is still a great deal of debate surrounding the timing, route and effects of transmigration of the parasite from the blood to the CNS. In this investigation, we have applied contrast-enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the effects of trypanosome infection on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the well-established GVR35 mouse model of sleeping sickness...
June 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636287/the-spectrum-of-aseptic-central-nervous-system-infections-in-southern-germany-demographic-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#5
M Kaminski, V Grummel, D Hoffmann, A Berthele, B Hemmer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aseptic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently observed in Germany. However, no study has systematically addressed the spectrum of aseptic CNS infections in Germany. METHODS: Data on 191 adult patients diagnosed from January 2007 to December 2014 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at our hospital were collected by chart review and analyzed for demographic, clinical and laboratory findings. Patients were stratified according to the causative virus and findings were compared between groups...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635590/imbalance-between-innate-antiviral-and-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-may-contribute-to-different-outcomes-involving-low-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n3-infections-in-chickens
#6
John Pasick, Sandra Diederich, Yohannes Berhane, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Wanhong Xu
In order to gain further insight into the early virus-host interactions associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infections in chickens, genome-wide expression profiling of chicken lung and brain was carried out at 24 and 72 h post-inoculation (h p.i.). For this purpose two recombinant H5N3 viruses were utilized, each possessing a polybasic HA0 cleavage site but differing in pathogenicity. The original rH5N3 P0 virus, which has a low-pathogenic phenotype, was passaged six times through chickens to give rise to the derivative rH5N3 P6 virus, which is highly pathogenic (Diederich S, Berhane Y, Embury-Hyatt C, Hisanaga T, Handel K et al...
June 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634359/infections-of-horses-and-shrews-with-bornaviruses-in-upper-austria-a-novel-endemic-area-of-borna-disease
#7
Herbert Weissenböck, Zoltán Bagó, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Barbara Hager, Günter Palmetzhofer, Ralf Dürrwald, Norbert Nowotny
Borna disease, a lethal infection with Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), was diagnosed in four horses from Upper Austria in 2015 and 2016. All cases occurred in winter (two cases in February 2015 and two cases in December 2016), and the maximal distance of the affected stables was 17 km. To demonstrate whether the causative agent was also harbored by its reservoir host, the bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon), 28 shrews from this geographic area were collected in 2015 and investigated for the presence of BoDV-1...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631601/viral-genes-and-cellular-markers-associated-with-neurological-complications-during-herpesvirus-infections
#8
Carine L Holz, Rahul K Nelli, M Eilidh Wilson, Lila M Zarski, Walid Azab, Rachel Baumgardner, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Anthony Pease, Liangliang Zhang, Sarah Hession, Lutz S Goehring, Stephen B Hussey, Gisela Soboll Hussey
Despite the importance of neurological disorders associated with herpesviruses, the mechanism by which these viruses influence the central nervous system (CNS) has not been definitively established. Owing to the limitations of studying neuropathogenicity of human herpesviruses in their natural host, many aspects of their pathogenicity and immune response are studied in animal models. Here, we present an important model system that enables studying neuropathogenicity of herpesviruses in the natural host. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes a devastating neurological disease (EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy; EHM) in horses...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631594/human-picornaviruses-associated-with-neurological-diseases-and-their-neutralization-by-antibodies
#9
Maria Anastasina, Aušra Domanska, Kaia Palm, Sarah Butcher
Picornaviruses are the most commonly encountered infectious agents in mankind. They typically cause mild infections of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract, but sometimes also invade the central nervous system. There, they can cause severe diseases with long-term sequelae and even be lethal. The most infamous picornavirus is poliovirus, for which significant epidemics of poliomyelitis were reported from the end of the nineteenth century. A successful vaccination campaign has brought poliovirus close to eradication, but neurological diseases caused by other picornaviruses have increasingly been reported since the late 1990s...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630327/virus-induced-inflammasome-activation-is-suppressed-by-prostaglandin-d2-dp1-signaling
#10
Rahul Vijay, Anthony R Fehr, Ann M Janowski, Jeremiah Athmer, Dorthea L Wheeler, Matthew Grunewald, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Samarchith P Kurup, David K Meyerholz, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Shuh Narumiya, Stanley Perlman
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an eicosanoid with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, is the most abundantly expressed prostaglandin in the brain. Here we show that PGD2 signaling through the D-prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1) receptor is necessary for optimal microglia/macrophage activation and IFN expression after infection with a neurotropic coronavirus. Genome-wide expression analyses indicated that PGD2/DP1 signaling is required for up-regulation of a putative inflammasome inhibitor, PYDC3, in CD11b(+) cells in the CNS of infected mice...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#11
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625589/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-in-dengue-viral-infection
#12
REVIEW
Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Hasnur Zaman Hashim, Fan Kee Hoo, Siew Mooi Ching, Ramachandran Vasudevan, Mohd Hazmi Mohamed, Hamidon Basri
Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#13
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620613/evidence-of-divergent-amino-acid-usage-in-comparative-analyses-of-r5-and-x4-associated-hiv-1-vpr-sequences
#14
Gregory C Antell, Will Dampier, Benjamas Aiamkitsumrit, Michael R Nonnemacher, Vanessa Pirrone, Wen Zhong, Katherine Kercher, Shendra Passic, Jean Williams, Yucheng Liu, Tony James, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Zsofia Szep, Brian Wigdahl, Fred C Krebs
Vpr is an HIV-1 accessory protein that plays numerous roles during viral replication, and some of which are cell type dependent. To test the hypothesis that HIV-1 tropism extends beyond the envelope into the vpr gene, studies were performed to identify the associations between coreceptor usage and Vpr variation in HIV-1-infected patients. Colinear HIV-1 Env-V3 and Vpr amino acid sequences were obtained from the LANL HIV-1 sequence database and from well-suppressed patients in the Drexel/Temple Medicine CNS AIDS Research and Eradication Study (CARES) Cohort...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620346/primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-putting-together-the-puzzle
#15
REVIEW
Ahmed Abdelhak, Martin S Weber, Hayrettin Tumani
The focus of multiple sclerosis research has recently turned to the relatively rare and clearly more challenging condition of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Many risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, age, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may interdepend on various levels, causing a complex pathophysiological cascade. Variable pathological mechanisms drive disease progression, including inflammation-associated axonal loss, continuous activation of central nervous system resident cells, such as astrocytes and microglia as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619678/april-taci-axis-is-dispensable-for-the-immune-response-to-rabies-vaccination
#16
Shannon L Haley, Evgeni P Tzvetkov, Andrew G Lytle, Kishore R Alugupalli, Joseph R Plummer, James P McGettigan
There is significant need to develop a single-dose rabies vaccine to replace the current multi-dose rabies vaccine regimen and eliminate the requirement for rabies immune globulin in post-exposure settings. To accomplish this goal, rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines must rapidly activate B cells to secrete antibodies which neutralize pathogenic RABV before it enters the CNS. Increased understanding of how B cells effectively respond to RABV-based vaccines may improve efforts to simplify post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens...
June 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619429/vitamin-d-and-multiple-sclerosis-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Jean-Claude Souberbielle
The most recent findings linking exposure to sun and vitamin D insufficiency to multiple sclerosis (MS) are reviewed. Due to insufficient sunshine and changing lifestyles, hypovitaminosis D is widespread in temperate countries. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that sunshine and vitamin D insufficiency contributes to MS risk in these countries. Moreover, several large genetic studies in MS patients have recently stated unequivocally that diverse abnormalities involving vitamin D metabolism are related to the risk of the disease...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619133/equine-herpesvirus-type-1-induces-both-neurological-and-respiratory-disease-in-syrian-hamsters
#18
Leonardo Pereira Mesquita, Andressa Ferrari Arévalo, Dennis A Zanatto, Samantha Ive Miyashiro, Elenice Maria Sequetin Cunha, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro Villalobos, Cláudia Madalena Cabrera Mori, Paulo César Maiorka, Enio Mori
The equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an important cause of myeloencephalopathy and respiratory disease in horses. Animal models for EHV-1 infection have been specially developed using mice and Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). However, few studies have attempted to evaluate the pathogenesis of EHV-1 infection in the central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory system of hamsters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of four Brazilian EHV-1 strains within the CNS and lungs of Syrian hamsters...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617719/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-zika-virus-outbreaks
#19
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Ivan R F da Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses have been associated with central and peripheral nervous system injuries, in special the flaviviruses. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications have been recently associated to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. In this review, we aim to analyze the epidemiological aspects, possible pathophysiology, and what we have learned about the clinical and laboratory findings, as well as treatment of patients with ZIKV-associated neurological complications...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616154/cutaneous-presentation-of-gastrointestinal-adenocarcinoma
#20
Aditi Halder, Artiene Tatian, A Cristina Vargas, Rooshdiya Karim, Mark Latt
Seeding of a central nervous system malignancy to the abdominal cavity is an uncommon but well documented complication of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. However, the metastasis of a primary gastrointestinal cancer to the skin via a VP shunt is extremely rare. We report the clinical case of an 85-year-old male who presented with a right upper quadrant nodule over his shunt, which on histopathology and tumour marker profile was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma of likely upper gastrointestinal origin. This case illustrates the importance of proceeding to biopsy to inform prognosis and management, despite the risks of shunt infection...
June 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
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