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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719956/a-case-of-ectopic-peritoneal-paragonimiasis-mimicking-diverticulitis-or-abdominal-abscess
#1
Min Jae Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Yong Sik Yoon, Kyung Won Kim, Jaeeun Cho, Jong-Yil Chai, Yong Pil Chong
Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Paragnonimus species. The primary site of infection is the lung, and extrapulmonary involvement is also reported. When infected with Paragonimus westermani, which is the dominant species in Korea, the central nervous system is frequently involved along with the liver, intestine, peritoneal cavity, retroperitoneum, and abdominal wall. Ectopic paragonimiasis raises diagnostic challenge since it is uncommon and may be confused with malignancy or other inflammatory diseases...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719951/neuronal-apoptosis-pathological-basis-of-behavioral-dysfunctions-induced-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-rodents-model
#2
Shiqi Luo, Lisi OuYang, Jie Wei, Feng Wu, Zhongdao Wu, Wanlong Lei, Dongjuan Yuan
Angiostrongylus cantonensis invades the central nervous system (CNS) of humans to induce eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis and leads to persistent headache, cognitive dysfunction, and ataxic gait. Infected mice (nonpermissive host), admittedly, suffer more serious pathological injuries than rats (permissive host). However, the pathological basis of these manifestations is incompletely elucidated. In this study, the behavioral test, histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and analysis of apoptotic gene expression, especially caspase-3, were conducted...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719330/case-report-microcephaly-in-twins-due-to-the-zika-virus
#3
Victor S Santos, Sheila J G Oliveira, Ricardo Q Gurgel, Dorothy R R Lima, Cliomar A Dos Santos, Paulo R S Martins-Filho
Recent studies have demonstrated an association between congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly; however, to date, there have been no reports on the consequences of ZIKV infection on fetuses in twin pregnancies. Herein, we reported on the first case of a monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancy having ZIKV-related microcephaly. Our findings suggested that, in an MCDA twin pregnancy, the ZIKV may cause infection in both fetuses, resulting in severe abnormalities in the central nervous system due to neural cell destruction and the disruption of the normal development processes of the brain...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719042/serotonergic-paraneurons-in-the-female-mouse-urethral-epithelium-and-their-potential-role-in-peripheral-sensory-information-processing
#4
F Aura Kullmann, Huiyi H Chang, Christian Gauthier, Bronagh M McDonnell, Jih-Chao Yeh, Dennis R Clayton, Anthony J Kanai, William C de Groat, Gerard L Apodaca, Lori A Birder
AIM: The mechanisms underlying detection and transmission of sensory signals arising from visceral organs, such as the urethra, are poorly understood. Recently, specialized ACh-expressing cells embedded in the urethral epithelium have been proposed as chemosensory sentinels for detection of bacterial infection. Here we examined the morphology and potential role in sensory signaling of a different class of specialized cells that express serotonin (5-HT), termed paraneurons. METHODS: Urethrae, dorsal root ganglia neurons and spinal cords were isolated from adult female mice and used for immunohistochemistry and calcium imaging...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718257/risk-factors-for-heat-related-deaths-during-the-june-2015-heat-wave-in-karachi-pakistan
#5
Syed Ghazanfar Saleem, Tehreem Ansari, Ashraf Shamshad Ali, Sara Fatima, Mariam Hassan Rizvi, Muhammad Abdul Samad
BACKGROUND: Mortality as a consequence of heat related illness is a public health concern. Emergency department (ED) experiences increased patients' flow and decreased survival as a consequence of heat stroke during the episodes of heat wave. The present study was conducted to identify the risk factors for mortality among victims of heat wave (17th - 23rd June), 2015 evaluated in the Emergency Department of The Indus Hospital (TIH), Karachi. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data was retrospectively collected...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717763/burkitt-s-lymphoma-and-b-cell-lymphoma-unclassifiable-with-features-intermediate-between-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-burkitt-s-lymphoma-in-patients-with-hiv-outcomes-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#6
Gerhard Sissolak, Matthew Seftel, Thomas S Uldrick, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Nooroudien Mohamed, Danie Kotze
PURPOSE: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a common HIV-associated lymphoma in South Africa. B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL/DLBCL) also occurs in HIV infection. Outcomes of HIV-infected patients with BL or BL/DLBCL in a resource-constrained setting are not defined. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of HIV-positive patients with BL or BL/DLBCL treated from 2004 to 2012 with curative intent at a publically funded academic medical center in South Africa...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715527/screening-criteria-for-ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#7
Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Julia Rossetto, Zilton Vasconcelos, Kristina Adachi, Stephanie Valderramos, Umme-Aiman Halai, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone, Sheila Moura Pone, Joel Carlos Barros Silveira Filho, Mitsue S Aibe, Ana Carolina C da Costa, Olivia A Zin, Rubens Belfort, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
Importance: Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. Objective: To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714865/microglia-in-prion-diseases
#8
Adriano Aguzzi, Caihong Zhu
Prion diseases are a group of progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by deposition of scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) in the CNS. This deposition is accompanied by neuronal loss, spongiform change, astrogliosis, and conspicuous microglial activation. Here, we argue that microglia play an overall neuroprotective role in prion pathogenesis. Several microglia-related molecules, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the complement system, cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory regulators, and phagocytosis mediators, are involved in prion pathogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713103/-listeriosis-of-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-case-study
#9
Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb, Krzysztof Dąbrowski, Antoni Hrycek
In the recently an increase morbidity inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis was observed. The use of purine analogs and their metabolites are associated with a higher incidence of infections in this group of patients. Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by a relatively anaerobic gram-positive bacteria - Listeria monocytogenes. Common symptoms include fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but these pathogens can also cause myocarditis, central nervous system infections, including brain abscesses and sepsis...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711535/infection-or-glioma-the-false-dilemma-of-primary-cns-histiocytic-sarcoma
#10
William Clifton, Oluwaseun Akinduro, Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, Dale Alan Whitaker, Ronald Reimer
Primary CNS histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an extremely rare lymphoproliferative disorder which affects the central nervous system and behaves aggressively. There have been only twenty-seven reported cases of primary CNS HS. The paucity of literature on this entity has made diagnosis and treatment difficult both for the surgeon and pathologist. This is a case of primary CNS HS in a middle-aged female who presented with a supposed cerebellar abscess from an outside institution. The intraoperative frozen pathology was initially interpreted as a high grade glioma, however the final pathology was demonstrated to be histiocytic sarcoma...
July 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706854/nocardia-beijingensis-brain-abscesses-in-an-hiv-infected-individual
#11
Jolie Guevara Keenan, Sunita Mohapatra
We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated for CNS toxoplasmosis but presented to the hospital with another tonic clonic seizure despite prescribed therapy. Brain biopsy was performed which revealed Nocardia beijingensis. He was treated with intravenous meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for six weeks followed by long term oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with radiographic and clinical improvement...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705656/impact-of-enteroviral-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-on-length-of-stay-for-infants-60-days-old-or-younger
#12
Paul L Aronson, Todd W Lyons, Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Pamela J Okada, Alesia H Fleming, Joseph L Arms, Amy D Thompson, Suzanne M Schmidt, Jeffrey Louie, Michael J Alfonzo, Michael C Monuteaux, Lise E Nigrovic
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of a cerebrospinal fluid enterovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test performance on hospital length of stay (LOS) in a large multicenter cohort of infants undergoing evaluation for central nervous system infection. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a planned secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort of hospitalized infants ≤60 days of age who had a cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained at 1 of 18 participating centers (2005-2013)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701948/microglial-activation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Cornelius K Donat, Gregory Scott, Steve M Gentleman, Magdalena Sastre
Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701405/propagation-of-astrovirus-va1-a-neurotropic-human-astrovirus-in-cell-culture
#14
Andrew B Janowski, Irma K Bauer, Lori R Holtz, David Wang
Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) is a recently discovered astrovirus genotype that is divergent from the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1). The gastrointestinal tract is presumed to be the primary site of infection and pathogenicity for astroviruses. However, VA1 has been independently detected in brain tissue of five cases of human encephalitis. Studies of the pathogenicity of VA1 are currently impossible because there are no reported cell culture systems or in vivo models that support VA1 infection...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700657/increased-transgene-expression-level-of-rabies-virus-vector-for-transsynaptic-tracing
#15
Shinya Ohara, Yasuhiro Sota, Sho Sato, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Toshio Iijima
Viral vectors that can infect neurons transsynaptically and can strongly express foreign genes are useful for investigating the organization of neural circuits. We previously developed a propagation-competent rabies virus (RV) vector based on a highly attenuated HEP-Flury strain (rHEP5.0-CVSG), which selectively infects neurons and propagates between synaptically connected neurons in a retrograde direction. Its relatively low level of transgene expression, however, makes immunostaining necessary to visualize the morphological features of infected neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699403/rna-seq-investigations-of-human-post-mortem-trigeminal-ganglia
#16
Danielle M LaPaglia, Matthew R Sapio, Peter D Burbelo, Jean Thierry-Mieg, Danielle Thierry-Mieg, Stephen J Raithel, Christopher E Ramsden, Michael J Iadarola, Andrew J Mannes
Background The trigeminal ganglion contains neurons that relay sensations of pain, touch, pressure, and many other somatosensory modalities to the central nervous system. The ganglion is also a reservoir for latent herpes virus 1 infection. To gain a better understanding of molecular factors contributing to migraine and headache, transcriptome analyses were performed on postmortem human trigeminal ganglia. Methods RNA-Seq measurements of gene expression were conducted on small sub-regions of 16 human trigeminal ganglia...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698721/is-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-a-sign-of-encephalitis-in-iranian-newborns-prevalence-of-hsv-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Masoumeh Arabsalmani, Meysam Behzadifar, Hamid Reza Baradaranmd, Mansoureh Toghae, Gholam Beyranvand, Alireza Olyaeemanesh, Masoud Behzadifar
OBJECTIVE: Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in pregnant women in Iran. MATERIALS & METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to study the HSV subtypes in Persian and English papers through several databases. We searched Pub Med, Scopus, Ovid, Science Direct and national databases as Magiran, Iranmedex and Science Information Database (SID) up to October 2015...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698666/modelling-person-to-person-transmission-in-an-enterovirus-a71-orally-infected-hamster-model-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-encephalomyelitis
#18
Win Kyaw Phyu, Kien Chai Ong, Kum Thong Wong
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which may be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. Although fecal-oral or oral-oral routes are important in person-to-person transmission, how viral shedding and exposure may predispose individuals to infection remains unknown. We investigated person-to-person transmission by using a model of HFMD and encephalomyelitis based on EV-A71 oral infection of 2-week-old hamsters. Animals (index animals) infected with 10(4) 50% cell culture infective doses of virus uniformly developed severe disease four days post-infection (dpi), whereas littermate contacts developed severe disease after six to seven days of exposure to index animals...
July 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698154/panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius-from-pharmacology-to-toxicology
#19
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
The use of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius in traditional Chinese medicine dates back to about 5000 years ago thanks to its several beneficial and healing properties. Over the past few years, extensive preclinical and clinical evidence in the scientific literature worldwide has supported the beneficial effects of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in significant central nervous system, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic diseases. There has been growing research on ginseng because of its favorable pharmacokinetics, including the intestinal biotransformation which is responsible for the processing of ginsenosides - contained in the roots or extracts of ginseng - into metabolites with high pharmacological activity and how such principles act on numerous cell targets...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697986/temporalis-cysticerci-a-diagnostic-dilemma-and-review-of-literature
#20
Sunita Malik, Gurdarshan Singh, Gagandeep Kaur
Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic infestation caused by ingesting the eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesion. Other organs like subcutaneous tissues, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum are more frequently affected but maxillofacial region involvement is rare. The diagnosis of cysticercose is evoked on US examination and CT scan, but confirmation is only possible by FNAC (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) or histological examination in case of surgical removal of the oral lesion which can identify the Taenia solium larva...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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