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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079676/multiple-conditions-increase-preventable-crash-risks-among-truck-drivers-in-a-cohort-study
#1
Matthew S Thiese, Richard J Hanowski, Stefanos N Kales, Richard J Porter, Gary Moffitt, Nan Hu, Kurt T Hegmann
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to quantify the crash risk for truck drivers with multiple comorbid medical conditions, after adjusting for confounders. METHODS: This retrospective cohort of 38,184 drivers evaluated concomitant medical conditions and subsequent crash data between January 1, 2005, and October 31, 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for any cause and preventable crashes of varying severity. RESULTS: Drivers with three or more medical conditions had a significantly increased risk of preventable Department of Transportation (DOT) reportable crashes (HR = 2...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076488/use-of-tranexamic-acid-in-trauma-patients-an-analysis-of-cost-effectiveness-for-use-in-brazil
#2
Marcelo A Pinto, Jair G da Silva, Aljamir D Chedid, Marcio F Chedid
Introduction: Use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma has been the subject of growing interest by researchers and health professionals. However, there are still several open questions regarding its use. In some aspects medical literature is controversial. The points of disagreement among experts include questions such as: Which patients should receive TXA in trauma? Should treatment be performed in the pre-hospital environment? Is there any need for laboratory parameters before starting TXA treatment? What is the drug safety profile? The main issue on which there is still no basis in literature is: What is the indication for treatment within massive transfusion protocols? Objective: Answer the questions proposed based on critical evaluation of the evidence gathered so far and carry out a study of cost-effectiveness of TXA use in trauma adapted to the Brazilian reality...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073947/redefining-the-child-pedestrian-safety-paradigm-identifying-high-fatality-concentrations-in-urban-areas
#3
Nicholas N Ferenchak, Wesley E Marshall
OBJECTIVES: Child pedestrians are some of the most vulnerable users of our transportation systems, and they deserve particular attention when we consider traffic safety. The objective of this work is to identify urban locations in which child pedestrians are at particular risk for fatal collisions with vehicles. METHODS: This paper examines 30 years of crash data for six American cities to locate areas with high child pedestrian fatality concentrations. Phase I of the study, which examines Denver, Colorado, USA, reveals higher concentrations of child pedestrian fatalities around parks as compared with other areas that children have been shown to frequent...
January 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070214/youth-traffic-related-injuries-a-prospective-study
#4
Michal Grivna, Hani O Eid, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related injuries are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality of the youth. Our aim was to study epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of hospitalized youth patients injured in road traffic collisions in order to give recommendations for prevention. METHODS: We prospectively studied all youth (15-24 years) patients having traffic-related injuries who were admitted to Al Ain or Tawam Hospitals, Al Ain City, or who died after arrival to these hospitals during an 18 months period...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065516/ignition-interlock-laws-effects-on-fatal-motor-vehicle-crashes-1982-2013
#5
Emma E McGinty, Gregory Tung, Juliana Shulman-Laniel, Rose Hardy, Lainie Rutkow, Shannon Frattaroli, Jon S Vernick
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of preventable mortality in the U.S., leading to more than 10,000 fatalities in 2013. Ignition interlocks, or alcohol-sensing devices connected to a vehicle's ignition to prevent it from starting if a driver has a predetermined blood alcohol content (BAC) level, are a promising avenue for preventing alcohol-involved driving. This study sought to assess the effects of laws requiring ignition interlocks for some or all drunk driving offenders on alcohol-involved fatal crashes...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064100/evaluating-the-effects-of-supplemental-rest-areas-on-freeway-crashes-caused-by-drowsy-driving
#6
Soyoung Jung, Shinhye Joo, Cheol Oh
To prevent crashes caused by drowsy driving, supplemental rest areas have been installed in the South Korean freeway system to allow road users to rest. These supplemental rest areas are very small-sized resting facilities located between the larger regular rest areas, which is a unique design. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the supplemental rest areas on reducing crashes caused by drowsy driving. Between 2011 and 2012, supplemental rest areas were first installed in the Gyeongbu Freeway, which was selected as the study area for this study...
January 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062721/vascular-risk-factors-in-inph-a-prospective-case-control-study-the-inph-crash-study
#7
Hanna Israelsson, Bo Carlberg, Carsten Wikkelsö, Katarina Laurell, Babar Kahlon, Göran Leijon, Anders Eklund, Jan Malm
OBJECTIVE: To assess the complete vascular risk factor (VRF) profile of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using a large sample of representative patients with INPH and population-based controls to determine the extent to which vascular disease influences INPH pathophysiology. METHODS: All patients with INPH who underwent shunting in Sweden in 2008-2010 were compared to age- and sex-matched population-based controls. Inclusion criteria were age 60-85 years and no dementia...
January 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055229/airbag-deployment-related-eye-injuries
#8
Tapio Antero Koisaari, Tiina Leivo, Ahmad Sahraravand, Anna-Kaisa Haavisto, Pekka Sulander, Timo M T Tervo
OBJECTIVE We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using two different data sets. METHODS The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams (RAIT) was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-12 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from 1...
January 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033139/air-medical-administration-of-tranexamic-acid
#9
Brian Cornelius
Traumatic injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Massive hemorrhage is responsible for the vast majority of deaths. Evolution in trauma treatment has resulted in major improvements to emergency care. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, is synthetically derived from amino acids. The CRASH-2 study demonstrated that the early administration of TXA results in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality. Experiences by coalition forces in Southwest Asia found a substantial increase in survival of trauma patients with early TXA administration...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031794/negative-effects-of-density-on-space-use-of-small-mammals-differ-with-the-phase-of-the-masting-induced-population-cycle
#10
Michał Bogdziewicz, Rafał Zwolak, Lauren Redosh, Leszek Rychlik, Elizabeth E Crone
Home range size generally decreases with increasing population density, but testing how this relationship is influenced by other factors (e.g., food availability, kin structure) is a difficult task. We used spatially explicit capture-recapture models to examine how home range size varies with population density in the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). The relationship between population density and home range size was studied at two distinct phases of population fluctuations induced by beech (Fagus sylvatica) masting: post-mast peak in abundance (first summer after mast, n = 2) and subsequent crash (second summer after mast, n = 2)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025281/meta-analysis-of-driving-cessation-and-dementia-does-sex-matter
#11
Nicolette Baines, Bonnie Au, Mark J Rapoport, Gary Naglie, Mary C Tierney
OBJECTIVES: The number of drivers with dementia is expected to increase over the coming decades. Because dementia is associated with a higher risk of crashes, driving cessation becomes inevitable as the disease progresses, but many people with dementia resist stopping to drive. This meta-analysis examines whether there are sex differences in the prevalence and incidence of driving cessation among drivers with dementia and compares the pattern of sex differences in drivers with dementia to those without dementia...
December 26, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992761/sleep-related-vehicle-crashes-on-low-speed-roads
#12
A J Filtness, K A Armstrong, A Watson, S S Smith
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits...
December 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980882/impact-of-helmet-use-on-injury-and-financial-burden-of-motorcycle-and-moped-crashes-in-hawai-i-analysis-of-a-linked-statewide-database
#13
Daniel J Galanis, Nikki A Castel, Linda L Wong, Susan Steinemann
Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai'i between 2007-2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition...
December 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978593/fetal-neurosonogaphy-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-competition
#14
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974277/finite-mixture-modeling-approach-for-developing-crash-modification-factors-in-highway-safety-analysis
#15
Byung-Jung Park, Dominique Lord, Lingtao Wu
This study aimed to investigate the relative performance of two models (negative binomial (NB) model and two-component finite mixture of negative binomial models (FMNB-2)) in terms of developing crash modification factors (CMFs). Crash data on rural multilane divided highways in California and Texas were modeled with the two models, and crash modification functions (CMFunctions) were derived. The resultant CMFunction estimated from the FMNB-2 model showed several good properties over that from the NB model...
October 28, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959745/driving-after-concussion-is-it-safe-to-drive-after-symptoms-resolve
#16
Julianne D Schmidt, Nicole L Hoffman, Maud Ranchet, L Stephen Miller, Phillip D Tomporowski, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Hannes Devos
Post-concussion impairments may result in unsafe driving performance, but little research is available to guide consensus on when concussed individuals should return to driving. The purpose of this study was to compare driving performance between individuals with and without a concussion and to explore relationships between neuropsychological and driving performance. Fourteen participants with concussion (Age:20.2±0.9yo) and 14 non-concussed age and driving experience matched controls (Age:20.4±1.1yo) completed a graded symptom checklist, a brief neuropsychological exam, and a 20...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936811/parental-influence-on-driver-licensure-in-adolescence-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jessica H Mirman, Allison E Curry, Flaura K Winston, Megan C Fisher Thiel, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Rachel Rogers, Michael R Elliott, Dennis R Durbin
OBJECTIVE: Newly licensed adolescent drivers have skill deficits that increase risk for motor vehicle crashes. Development of programs targeted to prelicensed adolescents has been hindered by concerns about encouraging overconfidence and early licensure. The study had 2 primary objectives: (a) determine whether an Internet-based intervention designed to improve parent-supervised practice (TeenDrivingPlan [TDP]) influenced adolescents' time to licensure and parents' perceptions of adolescents' driving skill, expertise, and safety and (b) evaluate the association of these perceptions and practice diversity (number of different environments where practiced occurred) with time to licensure...
December 12, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936375/putting-adolescents-at-risk-riding-with-drinking-drivers-who-are-adults-in-the-home
#18
Sion K Harris, Julie K Johnson, Lon Sherritt, Sarah Copelas, Melissa A Rappo, Celeste R Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol-related car crashes are a leading cause of adolescent death, and one in five U.S. adolescents reports recent riding in a car with a drinking driver. How often the driver is an adult in the home (e.g., parent) is unknown. Pediatric visits offer an opportunity to counsel families to reduce this risk. Our study aim was to determine the prevalence of recent riding with a drinking driver (RWDD) who was an adult in the home among adolescent primary care patients and to identify the demographic and environmental (substance use among family members) profiles of those at increased risk...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931172/biomechanical-response-of-the-infant-head-to-shaking-an-experimental-investigation
#19
Carol Jenny, Gina Bertocci, Tsuguhiro Fukuda, Nagarajan Rangarajan, Tariq Shams
Controversy exists regarding whether violent shaking is harmful to infants in the absence of impact. In this study, our objective was to characterize the biomechanical response of the infant head during shaking through use of an instrumented anthropomorphic test device (commonly referred to as a 'crash test dummy' or infant surrogate) representing a human infant and having improved biofidelity. A series of tests were conducted to simulate violent shaking of an infant surrogate. The Aprica 2.5 infant surrogate represented a 5th percentile Japanese newborn...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922270/examining-motor-vehicle-crash-involvement-and-readiness-to-change-on-drinking-and-driving-behaviors-among-injured-emergency-department-patients
#20
Janette Baird, Eunice Yang, Valerie Strezsak, Michael J Mello
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of motor vehicle crash (MVC) involvement and readiness to change drinking and driving behaviors on subsequent driving and drinking behaviors among injured emergency department (ED) patients who use alcohol at harmful levels. METHODS: A secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial of injured ED patients who screened positive for harmful alcohol use, who at recruitment reported driving in the past 12 months and received at least one of the intended intervention sessions (brief behavioral intervention versus attention placebo control [N = 407])...
December 6, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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