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Eva Navrátilová, Eva Tihlaříková, Vilém Neděla, Pavla Rovnaníková, Jaroslav Pavlík
In the study of lime as the basic component of historical mortars and plasters, four lime putties prepared from various kinds of lime of various granulometry and by various ways of preparation were evaluated. The rheological properties and micro-morphologic changes, growing of calcite crystals, and rate of carbonation were monitored. The lime putty prepared from lump lime achieves the best rheological properties, yield stress 214.7 Pa and plastic viscosity 2.6 Pa·s. The suitability of this lime putty was checked by testing the development of calcium hydroxide and calcite crystals using scanning electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
David C Schwebel, Yue Wu, Peng Li, Joan Severson, Yefei He, Henry Xiang, Guoqing Hu
Objective: This nonrandomized trial evaluated whether classroom-based training in a smartphone-based virtual reality (VR) pedestrian environment (a) teaches schoolchildren to cross streets safely, and (b) increases their self-efficacy for street-crossing. Methods: Fifty-six children, aged 8-10 years, attending primary school in Changsha, China participated. Baseline pedestrian safety assessment occurred in the VR environment and through unobtrusive observation of a subsample crossing a street for 11 days outside school...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Karisa K Harland, Ronald Bedford, Hongqian Wu, Marizen Ramirez
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol impairment in crashes involving farm equipment on public roadways and the effect of alcohol impairment on the odds of crash injury or fatality. METHODS: On-road farm equipment crashes were collected from four Great Plains state Departments of Transportation during 2005-2010. Alcohol impairment was defined as an involved driver having blood alcohol content of ≥0.08 g/100 ml or a finding of alcohol-impaired as a driver contributing circumstance recorded on the police crash report...
December 6, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Luis David Berrones-Sanz
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the type of injuries and the characteristics and geographical distribution of road accidents where motorcycles were involved in Mexico. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of second-hand information sources was conducted, including the number of accidents (N = 41,881), total number of injured people (N = 13,916) and medical expenses (N = 9,111) associated to motorcycle accidents during 2014. RESULTS: Motorcycles represent 13...
November 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
Eric R Teoh, David G Kidd
INTRODUCTION: Automated driving represents both challenges and opportunities in highway safety. Google has been developing self-driving cars and testing them under employee supervision on public roads since 2009. These vehicles have been involved in several crashes, and it is of interest how this testing program compares to human drivers in terms of safety. METHODS: Google car crashes were coded by type and severity based on narratives released by Google. Crash rates per million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) were computed for crashes deemed severe enough to be reportable to police...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Jingru Gao, Gary A Davis
INTRODUCTION: The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Raha Hamzeie, Peter T Savolainen, Timothy J Gates
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates how speed limits affect driver speed selection, as well as the related crash risk, while controlling for various confounding factors such as traffic volumes and roadway geometry. Data from a naturalistic driving study are used to examine how driver speed selection varies among freeways with different posted speed limits, as well as how the likelihood of crash/near-crash events change with respect to mean speed and standard deviation. METHOD: Regression models are estimated to assess three measures of interest: the average speed of vehicles during the time preceding crash/near-crash and baseline (i...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Jianqing Wu, Hao Xu
INTRODUCTION: Understanding driver behavior is important for traffic safety and operation, especially at intersections where different traffic movements conflict. While most driver-behavior studies are based on simulation, this paper documents the analysis of driver-behavior at signalized intersections with the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. This study analyzes the different influencing factors on the operation (speed control) and observation of right-turn drivers. METHOD: A total of 300 NDS trips at six signalized intersections were used, including the NDS time-series sensor data, the forward videos and driver face videos...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Yi G Glaser, Feng Guo, Youjia Fang, Bing Deng, Jonathan Hankey
PROBLEM: Mopeds are a popular transportation mode in Europe and Asia. Moped-related traffic accidents account for a large proportion of crash fatalities. To develop moped-related crash countermeasures, it is important to understand the characteristics of moped-related conflicts. METHOD: Naturalistic driving study data were collected in Shanghai, China from 36 car drivers. The data included 2,878h and 78,296km driven from 13,149 trips. Moped-car conflicts were identified and examined from the passenger car driver's perspective using kinematic trigger algorithms and manual video reduction...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Bo Wang, Shauna Hallmark, Peter Savolainen, Jing Dong
INTRODUCTION: Prior research has shown the probability of a crash occurring on horizontal curves to be significantly higher than on similar tangent segments, and a disproportionally higher number of curve-related crashes occurred in rural areas. Challenges arise when analyzing the safety of horizontal curves due to imprecision in integrating information as to the temporal and spatial characteristics of each crash with specific curves. METHODS: The second Strategic Highway Research Program(SHRP 2) conducted a large-scale naturalistic driving study (NDS),which provides a unique opportunity to better understand the contributing factors leading to crash or near-crash events...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Jonathana F Antin, Feng Guo, Youjia Fang, Thomas A Dingus, Miguel A Perez, Jonathan M Hankey
INTRODUCTION: This paper evaluated the low mileage bias (LMB) phenomenon for senior drivers using data mined from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Naturalistic Driving Study. Supporters of the LMB construct postulate that it is only those seniors who drive the lowest annual mileage who are primarily responsible for the increased crash rates traditionally attributed to this population in general. METHOD: The current analysis included 802 participants, all aged 65 or older who were involved in 163 property damage and injury crashes, and deemed to be at-fault in 123 (75%) of those instances...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Qinzhong Hou, Andrew P Tarko, Xianghai Meng
The majority of past road safety studies focused on open road segments while only a few focused on tunnels. Moreover, the past tunnel studies produced some inconsistent results about the safety effects of the traffic patterns, the tunnel design, and the pavement conditions. The effects of these conditions therefore remain unknown, especially for freeway tunnels in China. The study presented in this paper investigated the safety effects of these various factors utilizing a four-year period (2009-2012) of data as well as three models: 1) a random effects negative binomial model (RENB), 2) an uncorrelated random parameters negative binomial model (URPNB), and 3) a correlated random parameters negative binomial model (CRPNB)...
November 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Sy-Jou Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Mau-Roung Lin
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk and protective factors for crash involvement in older motorcyclists. Over a 1-year study period from August 2013 to July 2014, study participants were recruited from local community centers of five cities in Taiwan. People aged ≥60 years who rode a motorcycle at least once per week were eligible and were invited to participate in the study. Among 256 older riders who completed the baseline assessment and at least one of the four follow-up assessments, 79 (33...
November 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Brian D Stemper, Sajal Chirvi, Ninh Doan, Jamie L Baisden, Dennis J Maiman, William H Curry, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar, Glenn Paskoff, Barry S Shender
Quantification of biomechanical tolerance is necessary for injury prediction and protection of vehicular occupants. This study experimentally quantified lumbar spine axial tolerance during accelerative environments simulating a variety of military and civilian scenarios. Intact human lumbar spines (T12-L5) were dynamically loaded using a custom-built drop tower. Twenty-three specimens were tested at sub-failure and failure levels consisting of peak axial forces between 2.6 and 7.9 kN and corresponding peak accelerations between 7 and 57 g...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
O N Salawu, G H Ibraheem, O M Babalola, D M Kadir, B A Ahmed, S B Agaja, A Olawepo, A A Nasir
BACKGROUND: Femoral shaft fractures are common injuries in adults. Closed locked intramedullary nailing is the recommended treatment for femoral shaft fractures due to its high union rate. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the outcome of management of closed femoral shaft fractures in adult patients, using open locked intramedullary nailing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study which was carried out on all adult patients aged 16 years and above who presented within 2 weeks of sustaining closed femoral shaft fractures to the accident and emergency unit of a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria from January 2013 to December 2013...
October 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Katherine Wheeler-Martin, Stephen J Mooney, David C Lee, Andrew Rundle, Charles DiMaggio
BACKGROUND: Despite reductions in youth pedestrian and bicyclist deaths over the past two decades, these injuries remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality for children and adolescents. There is a need for additional information on non-fatal pediatric pedestrian injuries and the role of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a leading cause of acquired disability. METHODS: Using a multi-year national sample of emergency department (ED) records, we estimated annual motorized-vehicle related pediatric pedestrian and bicyclist (i...
December 1, 2017: Injury Epidemiology
Evangeline Woodford, Julie Brown, Lynne E Bilston
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes have high mortality and morbidity for young children. While many specialised child restraint systems improve injury outcomes, no large-scale studies have investigated the cross-chest clip's role during a crash, despite concerns in some jurisdictions about the potential for neck contact injuries from the clips. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cross-chest clip use and injury outcomes in children between 0-4 years of age. METHODS: Child passengers between 0-4 years of age were selected from the Crashworthiness Data System of the US National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) datasets (2003-2014)...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Samantha L Schoell, Ashley A Weaver, Jennifer W Talton, Ryan T Barnard, Gretchen Baker, Joel D Stitzel, Mark R Zonfrillo
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of the severity of injury should account for both mortality and disability. The objective of this study was to develop a disability metric for thoracic injuries in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), and compare the functional outcomes between the pediatric and adult populations. METHODS: Disability risk (DR) was quantified using Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores within the National Trauma Data Bank for the most frequently occurring Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2-5 thoracic injuries...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova, Peter J Rock
INTRODUCTION: There is ongoing concern at the national level about the availability of adequate commercial vehicle rest areas and truck stops for commercial vehicle drivers to rest or to wait for a delivery window. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to determine the association between the occurrence of sleepiness/fatigue-related (cases) vs. all other human factor-related commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes (controls) and proximity to rest areas, weigh stations with rest havens, and truck stops...
November 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Paul Hunt
BACKGROUND: Recent events involving a significant number of casualties have emphasised the importance of appropriate preparation for receiving hospitals, especially Emergency Departments, during the initial response phase of a major incident. Development of a mass casualty resilience and response framework in the Northern Trauma Network included a review of existing planning assumptions in order to ensure effective resource allocation, both in local receiving hospitals and system-wide...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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