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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471158/road-traffic-injuries-cross-sectional-cluster-randomized-countrywide-population-data-from-4-low-income-countries
#1
Syed Nabeel Zafar, Joseph K Canner, Neeraja Nagarajan, Adam L Kushner
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The burden is highest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and is increasing. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of RTIs in 4 low-income countries using nationally representative survey data. METHODS: The Surgeons Overseas Assessment of Surgical Needs (SOSAS) survey tool was administered in four countries: Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Nepal and Uganda. We performed nationally representative cross-sectional, cluster randomized surveys in each country...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464852/perceptions-of-driving-after-marijuana-use-compared-to-alcohol-use-among-rural-american-young-adults
#2
Kaylin M Greene
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Substance use contributes to motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death among young adults. The current qualitative study examined perceptions of the acceptability and harms associated with driving after marijuana versus alcohol use in rural America. Illuminating rural perspectives is critical given that the motor vehicle fatality rate is twice as high in rural as in urban areas in the USA. DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2015-2016, 72 young adults aged 18-25 years (Mage = 20...
February 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461428/cervical-spine-imaging-and-injuries-in-young-children-with-non-motor-vehicle-crash-associated-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
M Katherine Henry, Benjamin French, Chris Feudtner, Mark R Zonfrillo, Daniel M Lindberg, James D Anderst, Rachel P Berger, Joanne N Wood
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) practices and cervical spine injuries among young children with non-motor vehicle crash (MVC)-associated traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of a stratified, systematic random sample of 328 children younger than 2 years with non-MVC-associated TBI at 4 urban children's hospitals from 2008 to 2012. We defined TBI etiology as accidental, indeterminate, or abuse...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452220/methods-for-analyzing-matched-designs-with-double-controls-excess-risk-is-easily-estimated-and-misinterpreted-when-evaluating-traffic-deaths
#4
Donald A Redelmeier, Robert J Tibshirani
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate analytic approaches for matched studies where two controls are linked to each case and events are accumulating counts rather than binary outcomes. A secondary intent is to clarify the distinction between total risk and excess risk (unmatched vs matched perspectives). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We review past research testing whether elections can lead to increased traffic risks. The results are reinterpreted by analyzing both the total count of individuals in fatal crashes and the excess count of individuals in fatal crashes, each time accounting for the matched double controls...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444506/the-impact-of-advanced-age-on-driving-safety-in-adults-with-medical-conditions
#5
Sanghee Moon, Maud Ranchet, Abiodun Emmanuel Akinwuntan, Mark Tant, David Brian Carr, Mukaila Ajiboye Raji, Hannes Devos
BACKGROUND: Adults aged 85 and older, often referred to as the oldest-old, are the fastest-growing segment of the population. The rapidly increasing number of older adults with chronic and multiple medical conditions poses challenges regarding their driving safety. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of advanced age on driving safety in drivers with medical conditions. METHODS: We categorized 3,425 drivers with preexisting medical conditions into four age groups: middle-aged (55-64 years, n = 1,386), young-old (65-74 years, n = 1,013), old-old (75-84 years, n = 803), or oldest-old (85 years and older, n = 223)...
February 14, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443862/red-tides-mass-casualty-and-whole-blood-at-sea-red-tides
#6
Benjamin T Miller, Andrew H Lin, Susan C Clark, Andrew P Cap, Joseph J Dubose
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Navy's casualty-receiving ships provide remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR) platforms to treat injured combatants deployed afloat and ashore. We report a significant mass casualty incident aboard the USS Bataan, and the most warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) transfused at sea for traumatic hemorrhagic shock since the Vietnam War. METHODS: Casualty-receiving ships have robust medical capabilities, including a frozen blood bank with packed red blood cells (pRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438226/racial-differences-in-presentations-and-predictors-of-acute-pain-following-motor-vehicle-collision
#7
Francesca L Beaudoin, Roee Gutman, Wanting Zhai, Roland C Merchant, Melissa A Clark, Kenneth A Bollen, Phyllis Hendry, Michael C Kurz, Christopher Lewandowski, Claire Pearson, Brian O'Neil, Elizabeth Datner, Patricia Mitchell, Robert Domeier, Samuel A McLean
African-Americans experience a greater burden of acute pain than non-Hispanic white individuals across of variety of acute medical conditions, but it is unknown if this is the case following trauma. We evaluated pain, pain-related characteristics (e.g. peri-traumatic distress), and analgesic treatment in two cohorts of individuals (African-American (n=931) and non-Hispanic white (n=948)) presenting to the emergency department after a motor-vehicle crash (MVC). We performed a propensity-matched analysis (n=796 in each group) to assess racial differences in acute pain in the ED...
February 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437240/comparison-of-characteristics-of-female-drivers-with-single-and-multiple-dui-convictions
#8
Annah K Bender, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Vivia V McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Women are increasingly involved in drunk driving and fatal crashes, yet except for the screening performed in criminal justice settings, little is known about their life context, psychiatric histories, and family backgrounds. This study describes a sample of women with histories of arrest for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) who were interviewed outside a criminal justice setting and contrasts women with single versus multiple DUI convictions. METHODS: Women with recent documented histories of DUI participated in a study of women's health behaviors...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433914/is-it-possible-to-recover-from-traumatic-brain-injury-and-a-glasgow-coma-scale-score-of-3-at-emergency-department-presentation
#9
Farid Sadaka, Amar Jadhav, Melinda Miller, Ammar Saifo, Jacklyn O'Brien, Steven Trottier
INTRODUCTION: A Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 on presentation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) portends a poor prognosis. Consequently, there is often a tendency to treat these patients less aggressively because of low expectations for a good outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with TBI and a GCS score of 3. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS): Group 1 (GOS=1-3) and Group 2 (GOS=4-5)...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408974/the-impact-of-sleep-disorders-on-driving-safety-findings-from-the-shrp-2-naturalistic-driving-study
#10
Shu-Yuan Liu, Miguel A Perez, Nathan Lau
Study Objectives: This study investigated the association between driving safety and seven sleep disorders amongst 3,541 participants of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study. Methods: SHRP 2 collected naturalistic driving data from participants between 16 to 98 years old by instrumenting participants' vehicles. The analyses used logistic regression to determine the likelihood of crash/near-crash involvement, Poisson log-linear regression to assess crash/near-crash rate, and ordinal logistic regression to assess driver maneuver appropriateness and crash/near-crash severity...
February 2, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407658/alcohol-and-non-alcohol-related-motor-vehicle-crashes-in-perth-australia-do-alcohol-outlets-make-a-difference
#11
Michelle Hobday, Lynn Meuleners
This study examined the effects of distance from alcohol outlets to motor vehicle crashes across the Perth metropolitan area. A retrospective population-based study was undertaken using measures of alcohol- and non-alcohol-related crashes, and their proximity to alcohol outlets, using a geographic information system. Two logistic regression models were developed with the following outcomes: i) crashes including drivers with BAC ≥ 0.05%, and ii) weekend single vehicle night-time crashes, a surrogate measure of alcohol-related crashes...
January 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397300/effect-of-helmet-use-on-traumatic-brain-injuries-and-other-head-injuries-in-alpine-sport
#12
Nicolas Bailly, Jean-Dominique Laporte, Sanae Afquir, Catherine Masson, Thierry Donnadieu, Jean-Baptiste Delay, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
INTRODUCTION: Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head)...
January 31, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395033/assessment-of-countermeasure-effectiveness-and-informativeness-in-mitigating-wrong-way-entries-onto-limited-access-facilities
#13
Pei-Sung Lin, Seckin Ozkul, Rui Guo, Cong Chen
Wrong-way crashes are a major cause for safety concerns along freeways and limited-access facilities. Although wrong-way crashes account for a relatively small portion of total crashes, the impact between two cars crashing into each other at high speeds in opposite directions often results in severe injuries or fatalities compared to any other type of crash. To seek solutions for mitigating wrong-way driving (WWD), multiple field tests involving a number of countermeasures using Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies have been conducted in Florida...
January 25, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394436/optimizing-seat-belt-and-airbag-designs-for-rear-seat-occupant-protection-in-frontal-crashes
#14
Jingwen Hu, Matthew P Reed, Jonathan D Rupp, Kurt Fischer, Paul Lange, Angelo Adler
Recent field data have shown that the occupant protection in vehicle rear seats failed to keep pace with advances in the front seats likely due to the lack of advanced safety technologies. The objective of this study was to optimize advanced restraint systems for protecting rear seat occupants with a range of body sizes under different frontal crash pulses. Three series of sled tests (baseline tests, advanced restraint trial tests, and final tests), MADYMO model validations against a subset of the sled tests, and design optimizations using the validated models were conducted to investigate rear seat occupant protection with 4 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) and 2 crash pulses...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394433/biomechanics-of-lumbar-motion-segments-in-dynamic-compression
#15
Mike W J Arun, Prasannaah Hadagali, Klaus Driesslein, William Curry, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar
Recent epidemiology studies have reported increase in lumbar spine injuries in frontal crashes. Whole human body finite element models (FEHBM) are frequently used to delineate mechanisms of such injuries. However, the accuracy of these models in mimicking the response of human spine relies on the characterization data of the spine model. The current study set out to generate characterization data that can be input to FEHBM lumbar spine, to obtain biofidelic responses from the models. Twenty-five lumbar functional spinal units were tested under compressive loading...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392244/post-traumatic-stress-symptom-clusters-in-acute-whiplash-associated-disorder-and-their-prediction-of-chronic-pain-related-disability
#16
Annick Maujean, Matthew J Gullo, Tonny Elmose Andersen, Sophie Lykkegaard Ravn, Michele Sterling
Introduction: The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been found to be associated with an increased risk of persisting neck pain and disability in motor vehicle crash (MVC) survivors with whiplash injuries. The findings are mixed as to which PTSD symptom(s) best predicts recovery in this population. Objectives: The aims were (1) to explore the factor structure of the Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of acute whiplash-injured individuals following a MVC and (2) to identify the PTSD-symptom clusters that best predict long-term neck pain-related disability in this population as measured by the Neck Pain Disability Index (NDI)...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384773/tranexamic-acid-promise-or-panacea-the-impact-of-air-medical-administration-of-tranexamic-acid-on-morbidity-mortality-and-length-of-stay
#17
Brian G Cornelius, Karen McCarty, Kristi Hylan, Angela Cornelius, Keith Carter, Kenneth W G Smith, Srdan Ristic, Daniel Vining, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl
The MATTERs and CRASH-2 studies demonstrate that tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces mortality in patients with traumatic hemorrhage. However, their results, conducted in foreign countries and with U.S. military soldiers, provoke concerns over generalizability to civilian trauma patients in the United States was reported. The evaluation of patient outcomes following treatment with TXA by a civilian air medical program. A retrospective chart review of trauma patients transported by air service to a Level 1 trauma center was conducted...
January 2018: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381397/surveillance-of-traffic-incident-management-related-occupational-fatalities-in-kentucky-2005-2016
#18
T L Bunn, S Slavova, M Chandler, N Hanner, M Singleton
OBJECTIVE: Traffic incidents occurring on roadways require the coordinated effort of multiple responder and recovery entities including communications, law enforcement, fire and rescue, emergency medical services, hazardous materials, transportation agencies, and towing and recovery. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify and characterize transportation incident management (TIM) - related occupational fatalities; 2) assess concordance of surveillance data sources in identifying TIM occupations, driver vs...
January 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377453/reciprocal-associations-of-pain-and-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-after-whiplash-injury-a-longitudinal-cross-lagged-study
#19
S L Ravn, M Sterling, Y Lahav, T E Andersen
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the current study were to investigate (1) the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between pain and post-traumatic stress symptoms as proposed by the mutual maintenance model, and (2)  to assess the predictive value of the three clusters of post-traumatic stress, where the model revealed that post-traumatic stress symptoms maintained pain in a consecutive cohort of whiplash-injured. METHODS: Participants (n = 253; 66.4% women) were people with WAD grades I-III following motor vehicle crashes in Australia...
January 26, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371004/gender-differences-in-pain-experience-and-treatment-after-motor-vehicle-collisions-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-crash-injury-study
#20
Tracy E Madsen, Samuel McLean, Wanting Zhai, Sarah Linnstaedt, Michael C Kurz, Robert Swor, Phyllis Hendry, David Peak, Christopher Lewandowski, Claire Pearson, Brian O'Neil, Elizabeth Datner, David Lee, Francesca Beaudoin
PURPOSE: Little is known about gender differences in the treatment of pain after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in an emergency department (ED). We aimed to describe gender differences in pain experiences and treatment, specifically the use of opioids and benzodiazepines after ED discharge, for MVC-related pain. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of previously collected data from the CRASH Injury studies. We included patients who were seen and discharged from an ED after an MVC and who were enrolled in 1 of 2 multicenter longitudinal prospective cohort studies (1 black/non-Hispanic and 1 white/non-Hispanic)...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
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