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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729903/tranexamic-acid-and-trauma-induced-coagulopathy
#1
REVIEW
Takeshi Nishida, Takahiro Kinoshita, Kazuma Yamakawa
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine that inhibits fibrinolysis by blocking the interaction of plasminogen with the lysine residues of fibrin. Historically, TXA is commonly used for reduction of blood loss in perioperative situations, while recently it has attracted attention for clinical use in the trauma field. In 2010, the Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Hemorrhage 2 (CRASH-2) trial demonstrated that intravenous administration of TXA improved mortality significantly in trauma patients with significant bleeding...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728061/qualifying-information-on-deaths-and-serious-injuries-caused-by-road-traffic-in-five-brazilian-capitals-using-record-linkage
#2
Polyana Maria Pimenta Mandacaru, Ana Lucia Andrade, Marli Souza Rocha, Fernanda Pinheiro Aguiar, Maria Sueli M Nogueira, Anne Marielle Girodo, Ana Amélia Galas Pedrosa, Vera Lídia Alves de Oliveira, Marta Maria Malheiros Alves, Lúcia Maria Miana M Paixão, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Marta Maria Alves Silva, Otaliba Libanio de Morais Neto
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727525/trends-in-prescription-opioids-detected-in-fatally-injured-drivers-in-6-us-states-1995-2015
#3
Stanford Chihuri, Guohua Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess the time trends in prescription opioids detected in fatally injured drivers. METHODS: We analyzed 1995 to 2015 Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and West Virginia of toxicological tests for drivers fatally injured within 1 hour of a crash (n = 36 729). We used the Cochran-Armitage test for trend to assess the statistical significance of changes in the prevalence of prescription opioids detected in these drivers over time...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719829/detection-of-driver-engagement-in-secondary-tasks-from-observed-naturalistic-driving-behavior
#4
Mengqiu Ye, Osama A Osman, Sherif Ishak, Bita Hashemi
Distracted driving has long been acknowledged as one of the leading causes of death or injury in roadway crashes. The focus of past research has been mainly on the impact of different causes of distraction on driving behavior. However, only a few studies attempted to address how some driving behavior attributes could be linked to the cause of distraction. In essence, this study takes advantage of the rich SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) database to develop a model for detecting the likelihood of a driver's involvement in secondary tasks from distinctive attributes of driving behavior...
July 15, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719606/prescription-medicine-use-by-pedestrians-and-the-risk-of-injurious-road-traffic-crashes-a-case-crossover-study
#5
Mélanie Née, Marta Avalos, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Louis-Rachid Salmi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde, Ludivine Orriols
BACKGROUND: While some medicinal drugs have been found to affect driving ability, no study has investigated whether a relationship exists between these medicines and crashes involving pedestrians. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from 3 French nationwide databases were matched. We used the case-crossover design to control for time-invariant factors by using each case as its own control...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718250/qing-qi-rickshaw-a-boon-or-bane-for-public-transportation-a-study-of-road-traffic-injury-patterns-involving-qing-qi-rickshaws-in-karachi-pakistan
#6
Muhammad Muzzammil, Muhammad Saeed Minhas, Jahanzeb Effendi, Syed Jahanzeb, Ayesha Mughal, Abdul Qadir
BACKGROUND: The three-wheeler Qing-qi and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) auto-rickshaws were introduced in Karachi to meet the transportation demand of the growing population. These vehicles have directly or indirectly been implicated in a number of road traffic violations as well as road accidents. This study aims to describe the crash characteristics and injury patterns for Qing-qi rickshaw occupants and other road users hit by Qing-qi rickshaw in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: An Observational/ Descriptive study was conducted at Accident & Emergency and Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi Pakistan from July 2014 to June 2015...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711800/free-ammonia-offers-algal-crop-protection-from-predators-in-dairy-wastewater-and-ammonium-rich-media
#7
Patrick K Thomas, Gary P Dunn, Maxine Passero, Kevin P Feris
Cost-effective methods for protecting crops from grazing organisms like rotifers are needed to reduce the risk of pond crashes in mass algal cultures. We present a novel strategy to optimize the exposure time to free ammonia, via control of media pH, in both defined media and dairy anaerobic digester effluent to suppress rotifers and maintain algal productivity. We tested five different free ammonia exposure times (0, 1, 2, 6, and 12h) and found a significant nonlinear effect of exposure time (p<0.0001) but not pH (p>0...
July 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707561/profiling-the-physical-load-on-riders-of-top-level-motorcycle-circuit-racing
#8
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Manoeuvring a motorcycle at high-speed in official competition has been shown to expose riders to substantial and complex physiological and psychological demands, however few studies have analysed the physical load experienced by professional racers. This study aimed to quantify the physical stress experienced by riders and explore relationships between performance related variables (i.e. crashes). Performance and braking data were collected from official race reports from 2013 to 2015 of the top class of the FIM Road Racing Grand Prix World Championship...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700591/trends-in-traumatic-brain-injury-mortality-in-china-2006-2013-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#9
Peixia Cheng, Peng Yin, Peishan Ning, Lijun Wang, Xunjie Cheng, Yunning Liu, David C Schwebel, Jiangmei Liu, Jinlei Qi, Guoqing Hu, Maigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural), and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699210/driving-in-search-of-analyses
#10
Bruce Simons-Morton
Although transportation safety has greatly improved over the past 2 decades, motor vehicle crash injuries remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among young drivers. Driver errors and behaviors such as speeding and distraction contribute disproportionately to crashes among inexperienced novices, who develop safe driving judgment only with substantial driving experience, commonly described as the "young driver problem." Research on young drivers has applied a range of research methods, including analyses of national archival data (mainly from police reports), crash analyses, observation of driver behavior, surveys of driver behavior and dispositions, and experimental research on driver behavior and vehicle crash worthiness...
July 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693722/safety-assessment-of-passing-relief-lanes-using-microsimulation-based-conflicts-analysis
#11
Salvatore Cafiso, Carmelo D'Agostino, Mariusz Kieć, Radoslaw Bak
The paper target is to analyze the influence of passing lane section and merging area lengths, which represent a critical part in the geometric design of passing lanes. The lack of observed data and the still limited implementation of short passing 2+1 lane in Poland do not allow to perform a reliable performance-based design of their length to balance context and economical restrains with operational and safety performances. Besides, defining the optimum geometric design from observed data is a reactive approach which require detailed observations and evaluations of the safety and operational performances for different geometric configurations...
July 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693406/assessment-of-the-road-safety-performance-of-four-roundabouts-in-kumasi-ghana
#12
Shaibu Bawa, James Damsere-Derry
Upgrade of the Ejisu-Kumasi section of the N6 saw the construction of roundabouts at selected intersections. Their use appears challenging particularly for vehicles with elevated Centre-of-Gravity. The objective of this study was to establish the relative risk of traffic accident deaths or hospitalized injuries at the roundabouts. Five-year crash data covering a 100 m stretch upstream and downstream of the roundabouts were analysed. A total of 119 crashes occurred with 18% casualty hospitalization and 12%fatalities...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693353/injury-characteristics-of-low-energy-lisfranc-injuries-compared-with-high-energy-injuries
#13
Christopher H Renninger, Grant Cochran, Trevor Tompane, Joseph Bellamy, Kevin Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. METHODS: Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared...
July 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690892/outcomes-of-multi-trauma-road-traffic-crashes-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-oman-does-attendance-by-trauma-surgeons-versus-non-trauma-surgeons-make-a-difference
#14
Ammar Al-Kashmiri, Sultan Z Al-Shaqsi, Nada Al-Marhoobi, Mahmood Hasan
OBJECTIVES: Trauma surgeons are essential in hospital-based trauma care systems. However, there are limited data regarding the impact of their presence on the outcome of multi-trauma patients. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of multi-trauma road traffic crash (RTC) cases attended by trauma surgeons versus those attended by non-trauma surgeons at a tertiary hospital in Oman. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in December 2015. A previously published cohort of 821 multi-trauma RTC patients admitted between January and December 2011 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, were reviewed for demographic, injury and hospitalisation data...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690732/maxillofacial-fractures-in-a-budding-teaching-hospital-a-study-of-pattern-of-presentation-and-care
#15
Obitade Sunday Obimakinde, Kolawole Olubunmi Ogundipe, Taopheeq Bamidele Rabiu, Victoria Nwebuni Okoje
INTRODUCTION: Previous reports indicated that there is geographic and sociodemographic variation in the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures. Audit of maxillofacial injuries managed at any institution is therefore necessary to understand the trends and proffer strategies for prevention. We therefore embarked on this study to determine the pattern of maxillofacial fractures and concomitant injuries in our institution. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of information on demography, aetiology and type of maxillofacial fracture, patients' status, type of crash, level of consciousness and concomitant injuries...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686881/cross-classified-multilevel-models-for-severity-of-commercial-motor-vehicle-crashes-considering-heterogeneity-among-companies-and-regions
#16
Ho-Chul Park, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho, Peter Y Park
This study analyzes 86,622 commercial motor vehicle (CMV) crashes (large truck, bus and taxi crashes) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. The analysis recognizes the hierarchical structure of the factors affecting CMV crashes by examining eight factors related to individual crashes and six additional upper level factors organized in two non-nested groups (company level and regional level factors). The study considers four different crash severities (fatal, major, minor, and no injury). The company level factors reflect selected characteristics of 1,875 CMV companies, and the regional level factors reflect selected characteristics of 230 municipalities...
July 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673368/compliance-of-tranexamic-acid-administration-to-trauma-patients-at-a-level-one-trauma-centre
#17
Abeer Ghawnni, Angela Coates, Julian Owen
Introduction Current practice for the treatment of traumatic hemorrhage includes fluid resuscitation and the administration of blood products. The administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) within 8 hours of injury has been shown to significantly reduce mortality in a large, prospective, randomized controlled trial. As a result, TXA is widely used in trauma centres to manage trauma patients with major bleeding. The primary aim of this study was to assess the compliance of TXA administration at a level-one trauma centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada...
July 4, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669021/new-occasional-and-frequent-use-of-zolpidem-or-zopiclone-alone-and-in-combination-and-the-risk-of-injurious-road-traffic-crashes-in-older-adult-drivers-a-population-based-case-control-and-case-crossover-study
#18
Alicia Nevriana, Jette Möller, Lucie Laflamme, Joel Monárrez-Espino
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the effect of zolpidem or zopiclone use on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs) have shown mixed results. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between zolpidem or zopiclone use (as separate drugs or combined) and the occurrence of injurious RTCs among older adult drivers. METHODS: This was a population-based matched case-control and case-crossover study based on secondary data linked together from Swedish national registers...
July 1, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661715/patient-characteristics-and-temporal-trends-in-police-transport-of-blunt-trauma-patients-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Elinore J Kaufman, Sara F Jacoby, Catherine E Sharoky, Brendan G Carr, M Kit Delgado, Patrick M Reilly, Daniel N Holena
BACKGROUND: Police transport (PT) of penetrating trauma patients has the potential to decrease prehospital times for patients with life-threatening hemorrhage and is part of official policy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We hypothesized that rates of PT of bluntly injured patients have increased over the past decade. METHODS: We used Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study registry data from 2006-15 to identify bluntly injured adult patients transported to all 8 trauma centers in Philadelphia...
June 29, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641683/a-review-of-general-aviation-safety-1984-2017
#20
Douglas D Boyd
General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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