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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906399/drivers-visual-search-behavior-toward-vulnerable-road-users-at-junctions-as-a-function-of-cycling-experience
#1
Chloe Jade Robbins, Peter Chapman
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the behavior and visual attention of two groups of drivers with differing pedal cycling experience (pedal cyclists and nonpedal cyclists) towards vulnerable road users at junctions in a driving simulator. BACKGROUND: Pedal cyclists and motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Many studies have found that car drivers who also hold a motorcycle license have increased awareness towards motorcycles...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905046/-effectiveness-of-high-strength-suture-fixation-in-treatment-of-patellar-transverse-fracture
#2
Jian Wang, Xiaobo Tang, Peilong Dong, Zhiyun Li
Objective: To explore the effectiveness of high strength suture fixation in treatment of patellar transverse fracture. Methods: Between June 2014 and June 2016, 38 patients with the patellar transverse fracture were treated with high strength suture internal fixation. There were 24 males and 14 females with the age of 26 to 64 years (mean, 45 years). There were 6 cases of accident injury and 32 cases of crashing injury. The time interval between injury and surgery was 2-8 days (mean, 5 days)...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903672/evaluation-of-tranexamic-acid-in-trauma-patients-a-retrospective-quantitative-analysis
#3
Michelle Ng, Jerrold Perrott, Sarah Burgess
INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to decrease mortality in adult trauma patients with or at significant risk of hemorrhage when administered within 3 h of injury. The use and appropriateness of TXA in adult trauma patients presenting to Royal Columbian Hospital (RCH) was investigated. METHODS: This retrospective chart review utilized the British Columbia Trauma Registry to identify 100 consecutive trauma patients that presented to the emergency department at RCH between April 2012 to June 2015 and met the following indications for TXA: systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg and/or heart rate >110 bpm and presentation within 8 h of injury...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888714/the-use-of-sural-island-musculo-fasciocutaneous-flap-in-the-management-of-chronic-osteomyelitis-of-the-tibia
#4
K O Opara, I C Nwagbara
Background: : The management of soft-tissue defects following surgery for chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia is challenging. It often requires complex reconstructive procedures, especially when the distal third of the tibia is involved. We present a relatively simple method of addressing these defects. Aim: : This study aims to report our experience with the use of the sural Island musculo fasciocutaneous flap in the management of osteomyelitis of the tibia. Materials and Methods: : Consecutive patients with osteomyelitis of the tibia requiring soft-tissue cover were managed using the sural Island musculo fasciocutaneous flap, and the outcome was analyzed...
June 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885157/latent-classes-of-polydrug-users-as-a-predictor-of-crash-involvement-and-alcohol-consumption
#5
Michael Scherer, Eduardo Romano, Robert Voas, Eileen Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Polydrug users have been shown to be at higher risk for alcohol consumption and crash involvement. However, research has shown that polydrug groups differ in some important ways. It is currently unknown how polydrug-using groups differ in terms of crash involvement and alcohol consumption. METHOD: The current study used latent class analysis to examine subgroups of polydrug users (n = 384) among a sample of drivers in Virginia Beach, Virginia (N = 10,512)...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879407/alcohol-intoxication-progressively-impairs-drivers-capacity-to-detect-important-environmental-stimuli
#6
Martin Henry Plawecki, Sarah Koskie, Ann Kosobud, Michael D Justiss, Sean O'Connor
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication impairs driving skills, leading to an increased frequency of accidents and crash fatalities. Inebriation may specifically impair environmental vigilance, reducing the driver's capacity for attention to stimuli that are relevant to successful navigation. OBJECTIVES: We examined the separate and interactive effects of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and simulated driving scenario on the capacity to correctly identify visual stimuli embedded in the environment...
June 4, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879287/trends-in-us-emergency-department-visits-for-pediatric-acute-ocular-injury
#7
Eleftheria Matsa, Junxin Shi, Krista K Wheeler, Tara McCarthy, Mary Lou McGregor, Julie C Leonard
Importance: There is a lack of literature describing the incidence of pediatric acute ocular injury and associated likelihood of vision loss in the United States. Understanding national pediatric eye injury trends may inform future efforts to prevent ocular trauma. Objective: To characterize pediatric acute ocular injury in the United States using data from a stratified, national sample of emergency department (ED) visits. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted...
June 7, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878502/single-and-dual-task-performance-during-on-the-road-driving-at-a-low-and-moderate-dose-of-alcohol-a-comparison-between-young-novice-and-more-experienced-drivers
#8
Stefan Jongen, Nick N J J M van der Sluiszen, Dennis Brown, Eric F P M Vuurman
Driving experience and alcohol are two factors associated with a higher risk of crash involvement in young novice drivers. Driving a car is a complex task involving multiple tasks leading to dividing attention. The aim of this study was to compare the single and combined effects of a low and moderate dose of alcohol on single- and dual-task performance between young novice and more experienced young drivers during actual driving. Nine healthy novice drivers were compared with 9 more experienced drivers in a three-way, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design...
May 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873801/benzodiazepine-use-the-underbelly-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#9
Barbara J Limandri
In the United States, benzodiazepine medication use is the secondary epidemic to opioid drug use and carries serious consequences as well, even though its use is enabled by well-intended clinicians. Benzodiazepine drugs are intended for short-term use, not to exceed 2 to 4 weeks; yet, it is common for clients to be taking benzodiazepine medications for up to 10 years. In addition to dependence or addiction, adverse effects include depression, emotional blunting, ataxia, aggression, irritability, nervousness, and cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847289/anxiety-influences-the-perceptual-motor-calibration-of-visually-guided-braking-to-avoid-collisions
#10
Ian T Ruginski, Brandon J Thomas, Michael N Geuss, Jeanine K Stefanucci
We investigated whether anxiety influences perceptual-motor calibration in a braking to avoid a collision task. Participants performed either a discrete braking task (Experiment 1) or a continuous braking task (Experiment 2), with the goal of stopping before colliding with a stop sign. Half of participants performed the braking task after an anxiety induction. We investigated whether anxiety reduced the frequency of crashing and if it influenced the calibration of perception (visual information) and action (brake pressure) dynamically between-trials in Experiment 1 and within-trials in Experiment 2...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808053/pedestrian-s-exposure-to-road-traffic-crashes-in-urban-environment-a-case-study-of-peshawar-pakistan
#11
Syed Akhtar Ali Shah, Numan Ahmad, Ahn Byung Ha
This study was aimed at exploring accident statistics and suggesting counter measures to mitigate road traffic crashes in Peshawar, Pakistan, and was conducted in 2015-16. Data was extracted from all 30 police stations in cantonment, city and rural circles for the 2003-12 period. A total of 3,280 crashes were reported, including 856(26%) fatal and 2,424(74%) non-fatal ones. Moreover, 602(69%) fatalities and 1,782(59%) injuries of overall road traffic fatalities and injuries during the period studied were borne by pedestrians...
April 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806328/-modified-anterolateral-thigh-perforator-flap-pedicled-by-cross-bridge-microvascular-anastomosis-for-repairing-soft-tissue-defects-in-middle-and-lower-segments-of-leg
#12
Lin Yang, Hongjun Liu, Wenzhong Zhang, Guoxun Song, Shicong Xia, Naichen Zhang, Jiaxiang Gu, Chaoqun Yuan
Objective: To explore the effectiveness of modified anterolateral thigh perforator flap pedicled by cross-bridge microvascular anastomosis in treatment of soft tissue defects in the middle and lower segments of the leg. Methods: Between March 2011 and June 2015, 15 cases with skin and soft tissue defects in the middle and lower segments of the legs were treated. There were 9 males and 6 females, aged 22-48 years (mean, 32.6 years). Of whom, 8 patients caused by traffic accidents, 5 by machine twist, and 2 by crash injury of heavy object...
October 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788366/relative-household-wealth-and-non-fatal-road-crashes-analysis-of-population-representative-data-of-kenyan-adults
#13
John D Kraemer
Background: This study aims to examine potential road crash disparities across relative wealth and location of residence in Kenya by analyzing population-representative Demographic and Health Survey data. Methods: Relative wealth was measured by household assets, converted into an index by polychoric principal components analysis. Location and sex-stratified associations between wealth quantiles and crashes were flexibly estimated using fractional polynomial models...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788187/distracted-driving-and-risk-of-crash-or-near-crash-involvement-among-older-drivers-using-naturalistic-driving-data-with-a-case-crossover-study-design
#14
Carrie Huisingh, Cynthia Owsley, Emily B Levitan, Marguerite R Irvin, Paul MacLennan, Gerald McGwin
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between secondary task involvement and risk of crash and near-crash involvement among older drivers using naturalistic driving data. Methods: Data from drivers aged ≥70 years in the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study database was utilized. The personal vehicle of study participants was equipped with four video cameras enabling recording of the driver and the road environment...
May 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776783/epidemiology-of-pedestrian-motor-vehicle-fatalities-and-injuries-2006-2015
#15
Shu-Ling Chong, Li-Wei Chiang, John Carson Allen, Eric William Fleegler, Lois Kaye Lee
INTRODUCTION: Pedestrian road safety remains a public health priority. The objective of this study is to describe trends in fatalities and injuries after pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in the U.S. and identify associated risk factors for pedestrian fatalities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of U.S. pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions from 2006 to 2015 (performed in 2017). Pedestrian fatality and injury data were obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748189/pacemaker-cybersecurity-local-experience-with-a-firmware-upgrade
#16
Adrian Baranchuk, Bryce Alexander, Debra Campbell, Sohaib Haseeb, Damian Redfearn, Chris Simpson, Ben Glover
In August 2016, Muddy Waters LLC released a short-sell report outlining potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities in several St. Jude Medical (now Abbott) pacemaker models following a demonstration of a "crash attack" and a "battery drain attack" by vulnerability research firm MedSec.1 The motivation behind the release of this report does not appear to have been focused on patient safety; rather than inform Abbott or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) directly, the information was released to the public sector...
May 10, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719846/epidemiology-of-road-traffic-injury-fatalities-among-car-users-a-study-based-on-forensic-medicine-data-in-east-azerbaijan-of-iran
#17
Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Bahram Samadirad, Nasrin Shahedifar, Mina Golestani
Objective: To study the epidemiology of car user road traffic fatalities (CURTFs) during eight years, in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: A total of 3051 CURTFs registered in East Azerbaijan forensic medicine organization database, Iran, during 2006-2014, were analyzed using Stata 13 statistical software package. Descriptive statistics ( p <0.05) and inferential statistical methods such as Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression with p <0.1 were applied...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715627/why-do-drivers-become-safer-over-the-first-three-months-of-driving-a-longitudinal-qualitative-study
#18
Marianne R Day, Andrew R Thompson, Damian R Poulter, Christopher B Stride, Richard Rowe
Drivers are at high crash risk when they begin independent driving, with liability decreasing steeply over the first three months. Their behavioural development, and other changes underlying improved safety are not well understood. We adopted an innovative longitudinal qualitative design, with thirteen newly qualified drivers completing a total of 36 semi-structured interviews, one, two and three months after acquiring a full UK driving license. The interviews probed high-risk factors for new drivers, as well as allowing space for generating novel road safety issues...
April 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709225/u-s-adolescent-street-racing-and-other-risky-driving-behaviors
#19
Indra Neal Kar, Chantal Guillaume, Kellienne R Sita, Pnina Gershon, Bruce G Simons-Morton
PURPOSE: We examined demographic characteristics and risky driving behaviors associated with street racing among adolescents in the NEXT Generation Health Study (N = 2,395). METHOD: Binomial logistic regression tested associations between demographics and driving in a street race (DSR) or being a passenger in a street race (PSR). Sequential logistic regression tested the robustness of the association between DSR and crashes. RESULTS: Hispanic/Latino, non-Hispanic Black/African-American, and mixed-race participants were more likely to engage in DSR...
May 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706226/school-start-times-and-teenage-driver-motor-vehicle-crashes
#20
Robert D Foss, Richard L Smith, Natalie P O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Shifting school start times to 8:30 am or later has been found to improve academic performance and reduce behavior problems. Limited research suggests this may also reduce adolescent driver motor vehicle crashes. A change in the school start time from 7:30 am to 8:45 am for all public high schools in one North Carolina county presented the opportunity to address this question with greater methodologic rigor. METHOD: We conducted ARIMA interrupted time-series analyses to examine motor vehicle crash rates of high school age drivers in the intervention county and 3 similar comparison counties with comparable urban-rural population distribution...
April 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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