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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815906/deep-gray-matter-iron-measurement-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-relationship-with-pallidal-t1-hyperintensity
#1
Song Lee, Yoonho Nam, Jinhee Jang, Gun Hyung Na, Dong Goo Kim, Na-Young Shin, Hyun Seok Choi, So-Lyung Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Bum-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The liver is a central organ for the metabolism of iron and manganese and the places where those metals are commonly deposited overlap in the brain. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To elucidate the relationship between pallidal T1 hyperintensity and iron deposition in the deep gray matter of liver cirrhosis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective case-control study SUBJECTS: In all, 38 consecutive liver cirrhosis patients who received brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as pretransplant evaluation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814462/-18-f-av-1451-binds-to-motor-related-subcortical-gray-and-white-matter-in-corticobasal-syndrome
#2
Hanna Cho, Min Seok Baek, Jae Yong Choi, Seung Ha Lee, Joong Seok Kim, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate tau distribution in patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) using (18)F-AV-1451 PET. METHODS: Six consecutively recruited patients with CBS and 20 age-matched healthy controls underwent 2 PET scans with (18)F-AV-1451 (for tau) and (18)F-florbetaben (for β-amyloid). We compared standardized uptake value ratio maps of the (18)F-AV-1451 PET images between the patients with CBS and controls. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with CBS exhibited asymmetrically increased (18)F-AV-1451 binding in the putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus contralateral to the clinically more affected side and in the ipsilateral globus pallidus and dentate nucleus...
August 16, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807673/gpr55-a-therapeutic-target-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Marta Celorrio, Estefanía Rojo-Bustamante, Diana Fernández-Suárez, Elena Sáez, Ander Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Christa E Müller, María J Ramírez, Julen Oyarzábal, Rafael Franco, María S Aymerich
The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806716/efficient-hardware-implementation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-external-globus-pallidus-oscillation-system-and-its-dynamics-investigation
#4
Shuangming Yang, Xile Wei, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Chen Liu, Haitao Yu, Huiyan Li
Modeling and implementation of the nonlinear neural system with physiologically plausible dynamic behaviors are considerably meaningful in the field of computational neuroscience. This study introduces a novel hardware platform to investigate the dynamical behaviors within the nonlinear subthalamic nucleus-external globus pallidus system. In order to reduce the implementation complexities, a hardware-oriented conductance-based subthalamic nucleus (STN) model is presented, which can reproduce accurately the dynamical characteristics of biological conductance-based STN cells...
July 26, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805564/deep-brain-stimulation-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#5
Elliot Hogg, Jeffrey Wertheimer, Sarah Graner, Michele Tagliati
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Several brain targets, including the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internus, have been successfully employed, with excellent motor outcomes. Despite less established knowledge, DBS may be a powerful tool for managing a wide variety of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in PD patients, either directly or indirectly due to motor benefit or reduction of dopaminergic drug load. After an assessment of global nonmotor outcomes of DBS, as measured by currently available clinical scales and questionnaires, this chapter will address DBS effects on four main NMS categories: neurobehavioral, including cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, including orthostatic hypotension, constipation, and urinary dysfunction, sleep disturbances, including insomnia, REM sleep behavior disorder, and restless leg syndrome, to conclude with sensory symptoms, mainly focusing on pain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803850/association-of-exposure-to-manganese-and-iron-with-striatal-and-thalamic-gaba-and-other-neurometabolites-neuroimaging-results-from-the-weldox-ii-study
#6
Swaantje Casjens, Urike Dydak, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Clara Quetscher, Christoph Stewig, Benjamin Glaubitz, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, David Edmondson, Chien-Lin Yeh, Tobias Weiss, Christoph van Thriel, Lennard Herrmann, Siegfried Muhlack, Dirk Woitalla, Michael Aschner, Thomas Brüning, Beate Pesch
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method to quantify neurometabolite concentrations in the brain. Within the framework of the WELDOX II study, we investigated the association of exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in the striatum and thalamus of 154 men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GABA-edited and short echo-time MRS at 3T was used to assess brain levels of GABA, glutamate, total creatine (tCr) and other neurometabolites...
August 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790019/neuronal-firing-activity-in-the-basal-ganglia-after-striatal-transplantation-of-dopamine-neurons-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#7
Regina Rumpel, Mesbah Alam, Lisa M Schwarz, Andreas Ratzka, Xingxing Jin, Joachim K Krauss, Claudia Grothe, Kerstin Schwabe
The loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the resulting dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum (STR) lead to altered neuronal activity and enhanced beta activity in various regions of the basal ganglia (BG) motor loop in patients with Parkinson's disease and in rodents in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model. Intrastriatal DA graft implantation has been shown to re-innervate the host brain and restore DA input. Here, DA cell grafts were implanted into the STR of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and the effect on neuronal activity under urethane anesthesia (1...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780827/-imaging-diagnosis-of-95-cases-of-moderate-and-severe-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#8
N N Hao, C Tian, K X Lian, T Han, S Jin
Objective: To explore the difference of radiological imaging features of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DECMP) and acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) , and the correlation between the imaging findings and clinical prognosis of the disease. Methods: The correlation between imaging findings and clinical manifestations and prognosis of 95 patients with moderate and severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning were retrospectively analyzed. In the above 95 cases, there were 62 cases of ACMP and 33 cases of DEACMP...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776200/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-14-rgs14-is-expressed-pre-and-postsynaptically-in-neurons-of-hippocampus-basal-ganglia-and-amygdala-of-monkey-and-human-brain
#9
Katherine E Squires, Kyle J Gerber, Jean-Francois Pare, Mary Rose Branch, Yoland Smith, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional signaling protein primarily expressed in mouse pyramidal neurons of hippocampal area CA2 where it regulates synaptic plasticity important for learning and memory. However, very little is known about RGS14 protein expression in the primate brain. Here, we validate the specificity of a new polyclonal RGS14 antibody that recognizes not only full-length RGS14 protein in primate, but also lower molecular weight forms of RGS14 protein matching previously predicted human splice variants...
August 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769763/development-of-serotonergic-fibers-in-the-post-natal-mouse-brain
#10
Giacomo Maddaloni, Alice Bertero, Marta Pratelli, Noemi Barsotti, Annemarie Boonstra, Andrea Giorgi, Sara Migliarini, Massimo Pasqualetti
Serotonin (5-HT)-synthetizing neurons, which are confined in the raphe nuclei of the rhombencephalon, provide a pervasive innervation of the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in the modulation of a plethora of functions in both developing and adult brain. Classical studies have described the post-natal development of serotonergic axons as a linear process of terminal field innervation. However, technical limitations have hampered a fine morphological characterization. With the advent of genetic mouse models, the possibility to label specific neuronal populations allowed the rigorous measurement of their axonal morphological features as well as their developmental dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761773/deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-new-and-emerging-targets-for-refractory-motor-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#11
REVIEW
Dustin Anderson, Grayson Beecher, Fang Ba
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability (PI), in addition to numerous nonmotor manifestations. Many pharmacological therapies now exist to successfully treat PD motor symptoms; however, as the disease progresses, it often becomes challenging to treat with medications alone. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a crucial player in PD treatment, particularly for patients who have disabling motor complications from medical treatment...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759458/pharyngolaryngeal-symptoms-associated-with-thyroid-disease
#12
Inn-Chul Nam, Young-Hak Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes previous reports on laryngopharyngeal symptoms associated with thyroid disease. This review also includes pharyngolaryngeal symptoms caused by thyroidectomy. However, we focus on pharyngolaryngeal symptoms following uncomplicated thyroidectomy, as this is an important issue in the fields of otolaryngology. RECENT FINDINGS: An enlarged thyroid gland, as in thyroiditis, multinodular goiter, or large nodules, can cause compressive symptoms...
July 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755172/micro-lesion-effect-of-the-globus-pallidus-internus-with-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#13
Yi Wang, Peng Li, FeiLong Gong, Yuan Gao, Yang Y Xu, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: The micro-lesion effect (MLE) has been observed in many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. For subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation, the MLE has been reported as a predictor of the long-term efficacy of DBS. However, the research on the MLE in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is insufficient. In this report, we conducted a study of the correlation between the MLE and improvement of GPi DBS. METHODS: From July 2014 to November 2015, 36 PD patients underwent GPi DBS in our hospital...
July 28, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753048/initial-diffusion-weighted-mri-and-long-term-neurologic-outcomes-in-charcoal-burning-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#14
J M Moon, B J Chun, B H Baek, Y J Hong
CONTEXT: This study assessed the results of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at presentation for acute charcoal-burning carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and investigated whether the initial DWI results can predict long-term neurologic outcomes. METHODS: The study included 128 patients who suffered from CO poisoning after burning charcoal and underwent DWI. These patients were divided into two groups based on imaging results: a normal DWI group and an abnormal DWI group...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752565/the-relationship-between-subcortical-brain-volume-and-striatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-healthy-humans-assessed-with-11-c-raclopride-and-11-c-phno-pet
#15
Fernando Caravaggio, Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Isabelle Boileau, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans...
July 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750943/effect-of-preterm-birth-on-echogenicity-in-basal-ganglia
#16
Robbin de Goederen, Marlou M A Raets, Ginette M Ecury-Goossen, Rogier C J de Jonge, Luca A Ramenghi, Irene V Koning, Paul Govaert, Jeroen Dudink
In this study, the influence of prematurity on echogenicity of deep gray matter at 30-wk corrected age was assessed using ultrasound measurements. In an observational cohort study, ultrasound scans of 224 extremely preterm infants were prospectively collected. Gray values were assessed in putamen and globus pallidus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was analyzed and showed excellent agreement. The globus pallidus to putamen ratio was significantly related to gestational age at birth, adjusted regression coefficient in points per wk: 1...
July 24, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742734/evaluation-of-gadolinium-retention-after-serial-administrations-of-a-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-gadobutrol-a-single-institution-experience-with-189-patients
#17
Roh-Eul Yoo, Chul-Ho Sohn, Koung Mi Kang, Tae Jin Yun, Seung Hong Choi, Ji-Hoon Kim, Sun-Won Park
OBJECTIVE: There has been controversy as to whether gadobutrol, one of the widely used macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents, can lead to gadolinium retention after serial injections. Our aim was to validate whether serial administrations of gadobutrol can cause signal increase in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images due to gadolinium retention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 189 patients who had undergone at least 2 contrast-enhanced MR scans using only gadobutrol between August 2009 and August 2016 were retrospectively included...
July 24, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741037/shifted-dynamic-interactions-between-subcortical-nuclei-and-inferior-frontal-gyri-during-response-preparation-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#18
F Luise Metzger, Tibor Auer, Gunther Helms, Walter Paulus, Jens Frahm, Martin Sommer, Nicole E Neef
Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm in the MRI scanner. The preparation of a manual Go/No-Go response reliably produced activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus and particularly in the substantia nigra...
July 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731201/a-technological-and-regulatory-outlook-on-crispr-crop-editing
#19
Rea Globus, Udi Qimron
Generating plants with increased yields while maintaining low production and maintenance costs is highly important since plants are the major food source for humans and animals, as well as important producers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. Gene editing approaches, particularly the CRISPR-Cas system, are the preferred methods for improving crops, enabling quick, robust, and accurate gene manipulation. Nevertheless, new breeds of genetically-modified crops have initiated substantial debates concerning their biosafety, commercial use, and regulation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730570/structural-connectivity-differences-in-essential-tremor-with-and-without-resting-tremor
#20
Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Gaetano Barbagallo, Angela Lupo, Maurizio Morelli, Rita Nisticò, Fabiana Novellino, Andrea Quattrone, Maria Salsone, Basilio Vescio, Andrea Cherubini, Aldo Quattrone
In this work, we investigated motor network structure in patients affected by essential tremor (ET) with or without resting tremor, using probabilistic tractography of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop. Twenty-five patients with ET, twenty-two patients with ET associated with resting tremor (rET), and twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent whole-brain 3D T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI, and DAT-SPECT. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion data in network mode, reconstructing connections between the different structures of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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