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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167476/levodopa-induced-abnormal-involuntary-movements-correlate-with-altered-permeability-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-the-basal-ganglia
#1
Renata P Lerner, Veronica Francardo, Koji Fujita, Zisis Bimpisidis, Vincent A Jourdain, Chris C Tang, Stephen L Dewey, Thomas Chaly, M Angela Cenci, David Eidelberg
Chronic levodopa treatment leads to the appearance of dyskinesia in the majority of Parkinson's disease patients. Neurovascular dysregulation in putaminal and pallidal regions is thought to be an underlying feature of this complication of treatment. We used microPET to study unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rats that developed levodopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) after three weeks of drug treatment. Animals were scanned with [(15)O]-labeled water and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose, to map regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism, and with [(11)C]-isoaminobutyric acid (AIB), to assess blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability, following separate injections of levodopa or saline...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167350/safinamide-differentially-modulates-in-vivo-glutamate-and-gaba-release-in-the-rat-hippocampus-and-basal-ganglia
#2
Michele Morari, Alberto Brugnoli, Clarissa Anna Pisano, Salvatore Novello, Carla Caccia, Elsa Melloni, Gloria Padoani, Silvia Vailati, Marco Sardina
Safinamide has been recently approved as add-on to levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. In addition to inhibiting monoamine oxidase-type B, it also blocks sodium channels and modulates glutamate release in vitro. Since this property might contribute to the therapeutic action of the drug, we undertook the present study to investigate whether safinamide inhibits glutamate release also in vivo, and whether this effect is consistent across different brain areas and is selective for glutamatergic neurons. To this aim, in vivo microdialysis was used to monitor the spontaneous and veratridine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of naive, awake rats...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166300/effect-of-age-on-high-t1-signal-intensity-of-the-dentate-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-in-a-large-population-exposed-to-gadodiamide
#3
Carlo Cosimo Quattrocchi, Yuri Errante, Carlo Augusto Mallio, Luca Marinelli, Gianguido LoVullo, Gabriele Giannotti, Sabino Walter Della Sala, Aart J van der Molen, Bruno Beomonte Zobel
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of age and number of previous injections of gadodiamide on the signal intensity of unenhanced T1-weighted (T1w) images of the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus in a large population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A large, single-center retrospective population survey was designed and received institutional review board approval. Between January 2014 and December 2014, T1w signal intensity ratios were obtained from a large population of 2500 consecutive enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans...
November 21, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164735/substituting-the-target-after-unsatisfactory-outcome-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-cases-from-the-nstaps-trial-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
Timo R Ten Brinke, Vincent J J Odekerken, Teus van Laar, J Marc C van Dijk, Joke M Dijk, Pepijn van den Munckhof, P Rick Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are established treatment option in Parkinson's disease (PD). If DBS does not provide the desired effect, re-operation to the alternative target is a treatment option, but data on the effect of re-operation are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect of re-operation the alternative target after failure of initial STN or GPi DBS for Parkinson's disease...
November 22, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163226/adenosine-a2a-receptor-modulates-the-activity-of-globus-pallidus-neurons-in-rats
#5
Hui-Ling Diao, Yan Xue, Xiao-Hua Han, Shuang-Yan Wang, Cui Liu, Wen-Fang Chen, Lei Chen
The globus pallidus is a central nucleus in the basal ganglia motor control circuit. Morphological studies have revealed the expression of adenosine A2A receptors in the globus pallidus. To determine the modulation of adenosine A2A receptors on the activity of pallidal neurons in both normal and parkinsonian rats, in vivo electrophysiological and behavioral tests were performed in the present study. The extracellular single unit recordings showed that micro-pressure administration of adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, regulated the pallidal firing activity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163068/larger-subcortical-gray-matter-structures-and-smaller-corpora-callosa-at-age-5-years-in-hiv-infected-children-on-early-art
#6
Steven R Randall, Christopher M R Warton, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of HIV infected (HIV+) children. Since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS has transitioned to a chronic condition where central nervous system (CNS) damage may be ongoing. Although, most guidelines recommend early ART to reduce CNS viral reservoirs, the brain may be more vulnerable to potential neurotoxic effects of ART during the rapid development phase in the first years of life. Here we investigate differences in subcortical volumes between 5-year-old HIV+ children who received early ART (before age 18 months) and uninfected children using manual tracing of Magnetic Resonance Images...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163018/brain-networks-implicated-in-seasonal-affective-disorder-a-neuroimaging-pet-study-of-the-serotonin-transporter
#7
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Patrick M Fisher, Nathan W Churchill, Vincent Beliveau, Cheryl Grady, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Background: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder characterized by seasonally occurring depression that often presents with atypical vegetative symptoms such as hypersomnia and carbohydrate craving. It has recently been shown that unlike healthy people, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption to the environmental stressor of winter in females with the short 5-HTTLPR genotype, a specific subgroup previously reported to be at increased risk for developing SAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162300/reduced-subcortical-volumes-among-preschool-age-girls-and-boys-with-adhd
#8
Keri S Rosch, Deana Crocetti, Kathryn Hirabayashi, Martha B Denckla, Stewart H Mostofsky, E Mark Mahone
Anomalous brain structure and function are implicated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most neuroimaging research, however, has examined school-aged children, despite the typical onset of symptoms in early childhood. This study compared the volumes of subcortical structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus) among preschoolers with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. High resolution T1-weighted 3D MPRAGE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner and subcortical volumes were automatically extracted...
November 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160415/interregional-correlations-of-glucose-metabolism-between-the-basal-ganglia-and-different-cortical-areas-an-ultra-high-resolution-pet-mri-fusion-study-using-18f-fdg
#9
J H Kim, Y D Son, J M Kim, H K Kim, Y B Kim, C Lee, C H Oh
Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159984/laryngeal-candidiasis-our-experience-from-sixty-biopsy-specimens
#10
Alexander Yao, Timothy J Bates, Jeffery Pearson, Max Robinson, Christopher Ward, Jason Powell
Persistent throat symptoms, such as dysphonia, globus and throat pain, are highly prevalent and are a significant cause of morbidity(1) . In a number of cases a clear cause of these symptoms is not identified and many patients are treated empirically with lifestyle advice and/or anti-reflux medication(2) . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156412/a-system-level-mathematical-model-of-basal-ganglia-motor-circuit-for-kinematic-planning-of-arm-movements
#11
Armin Salimi-Badr, Mohammad Mehdi Ebadzadeh, Christian Darlot
In this paper, a novel system-level mathematical model of the Basal Ganglia (BG) for kinematic planning, is proposed. An arm composed of several segments presents a geometric redundancy. Thus, selecting one trajectory among an infinite number of possible ones requires overcoming redundancy, according to some kinds of optimization. Solving this optimization is assumed to be the function of BG in planning. In the proposed model, first, a mathematical solution of kinematic planning is proposed for movements of a redundant arm in a plane, based on minimizing energy consumption...
November 10, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146718/deep-brain-nuclei-t1-shortening-after-gadobenate-dimeglumine-in-children-influence-of-radiation-and-chemotherapy
#12
S Kinner, T B Schubert, R J Bruce, S L Rebsamen, C A Diamond, S B Reeder, H A Rowley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intrinsic T1-hyperintense signal has recently been reported in the deep gray nuclei on brain MR imaging after multiple doses of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Most reports have included adult patients and excluded those undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. We investigated whether T1 shortening is also observed in children and tried to determine whether radiochemotherapy is a risk factor for this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, we reviewed clinical charts and images of all patients 18 years of age or younger with ≥4 gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRIs for 6 years...
November 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143411/spontaneous-neural-activity-differences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-quantitative-resting-state-meta-analysis-and-fmri-validation
#13
Seth G Disner, Craig A Marquardt, Bryon A Mueller, Philip C Burton, Scott R Sponheim
Identifying the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a critical step toward reducing its debilitating impact. Spontaneous neural activity, measured at rest using various neuroimaging techniques (e.g., regional homogeneity [ReHo], amplitude of low frequency fluctuations [ALFF]), can provide insight about baseline neurobiological factors influencing sensory, cognitive, or behavioral processes associated with PTSD. The present study used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct the largest-to-date quantitative meta-analysis of spontaneous neural activity in PTSD, including 457 PTSD cases, 292 trauma-exposed controls (TECs), and 293 non-traumatized controls (NTCs) across 22 published studies...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133709/experience-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india-an-initial-experience
#14
M Manjunath, Ravi Yadav, Srinivas Dwarakanath, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, A Jafar, Pratibha Surathi, Abhishek Lenka, Albert Stezin, S Sampath, Pramod K Pal
INTRODUCTION: Dystonia is one of the most prevalent forms of movement disorders and is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonia causes significant morbidity with an adverse impact on the quality of life. When dystonia is medically refractory, causing severe pain and impairment in activities of daily living, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a potential option to reduce disability...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133689/neurological-perspective-of-globus-pallidus-interna-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia
#15
Vinay Goyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132271/capgras-syndrome-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Christopher L Groth, Antonia Pusso, Scott A Sperling, Diane S Huss, W Jeffrey Elias, G Frederick Wooten, Matthew J Barrett
Psychosis is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in advanced disease, and can lead to a number of psychotic symptoms, including delusions. One uncommon delusion is Capgras syndrome (CS). The authors report on three PD patients with a history of deep brain stimulation (DBS) who developed this delusion. The anatomic targets in these three patients were the subthalamic nuclei in two patients and the globus pallidus interna in one patient. The length of time between surgery and development of CS varied but was greater than 6 months...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125497/quantum-brain-theory-and-the-appearing-of%C3%A2-world
#17
Gordon Globus
The appearing of world is approached via the dream world which has generally been thought to be merely derivative: a "composition" of memory traces from waking life, which are merged and fused into a dream world that in some instances can be indiscernable from the world of waking life. Two dreams are presented which challenge the composition theory of dream formation. An alternative unified theory of world appearance in both waking and dreaming is proposed, which makes use of developments in quantum brain dynamics...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119929/mean-diffusivity-in-the-dopaminergic-system-and-neural-differences-related-to-dopaminergic-system
#18
Hikaru Takeuchi, Ryuta Kawashima
The mean diffusivity (MD) parameter obtained by diffusion tensor imaging provides a measure of how freely water molecules move in brain tissue. Greater tissue density conferred by closely arrayed cellular structures is assumed to lower MD by inhibiting the free diffusion of water molecules. In this paper, we review studies showing MD variation among regions of the brain dopaminergic system (MDDS), especially subcortical structures such as the putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus, in different conditions with known associations to dopaminergic system function or dysfunction...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119844/symptom-relief-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-globus-patients-a-prospective-study
#19
Pia Järvenpää, Assi Laatikainen, Risto P Roine, Harri Sintonen, Perttu Arkkila, Leena-Maija Aaltonen
Globus may be a persistent symptom impairing patients' quality of life. Diagnostics and treatment are controversial but some globus patients may benefit from reassurance and attention. We investigated how globus symptoms change during a short-term follow-up without any treatment after an examination by an ear, nose and throat (ENT) physician and further diagnostic procedures. We also surveyed whether patients with persistent globus suffer from simultaneous voice problems. The study comprised 30 consecutive globus patients referred to Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery...
November 9, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113946/numerical-and-length-densities-of-microvessels-in-the-human-brain-correlation-with-preferential-orientation-of-microvessels-in-the-cerebral-cortex-subcortical-grey-matter-and-white-matter-pons-and-cerebellum
#20
Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Petr Tomášek, Kirsti Witter, Zbyněk Tonar
To provide basic data on the local differences in density of microvessels between various parts of the human brain, including representative grey and white matter structures of the cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem and the cerebellum, we quantified the numerical density NV and the length density LV of microvessels in two human brains. We aimed to correlate the density of microvessels with previously published data on their preferential orientation (anisotropy). Microvessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for laminin in 32 samples harvested from the following brain regions of two adult individuals: the cortex of the telencephalon supplied by the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery; the basal ganglia (putamen and globus pallidus); the thalamus; the subcortical white matter of the telencephalon; the internal capsule; the pons; the cerebellar cortex; and the cerebellar white matter...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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