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Tonsillar hypertrophy

Yunfei Gao, Jiaoping Mi, Fenghong Chen, Zhenpeng Liao, Xiaoshan Feng, Minghui Lv, Haixin He, Yujie Cao, Yan Yan, Zhe Zhu, Yunping Fan, Haiyu Hong
PURPOSE: Chronic tonsillitis (TC) is among the most common bacterial diseases in pediatric otolaryngology. We aimed to evaluate the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) in a cohort of children with chronic tonsillitis (TC), and the correlation between GSK-3β activity index and inflammatory profiles of TC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of GSK-3β was comparably evaluated between children with TC (n = 26) and tonsillar hypertrophy (TH, n = 26)...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Luisa Zupin, Fulvio Celsi, Martina Bresciani, Eva Orzan, Domenico Leonardo Grasso, Sergio Crovella
INTRODUCTION: Innate immunity molecules are known to play a pivotal role in the homeostasis of the oral mucosa, permitting the presence of commensal microflora and, at the same time, providing a first line of defense against pathogens attempting to invade the oral cavity. Tonsils represent the local immune tissue in oral cavity, being able to provide a non-specific response to pathogens; however, in the presence of microbes or foreign materials present in the mouth tonsils could became infected and develop chronic inflammation, thus leading to hypertrophy...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Matthew M Smith, Ed Peterson, Kathleen L Yaremchuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Zheng-Cai Lou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Toshihiko Mori, Eri Nishino, Tomomi Jitsukawa, Emiko Hoshino, Satoshi Hirakawa, Yuki Kuroiwa, Shigeto Fuse, Yuko Yoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
We describe the case of a short-statured 12-yr-old boy who developed a Chiari type 1 malformation associated with central sleep apnea after administration of high-dose GH therapy, which he had been receiving since the age of 10 yr and 4 mo. He responded well to GH therapy, and his height increased by 18.8 cm in 2 yr. At 12 yr and 4 mo of age, his mother reported that he had developed sleep apnea during the previous year and it had worsened over a month prior to presentation at our hospital. Otolaryngological examination did not reveal tonsillar or adenoidal hypertrophy...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Leyla Kansu
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Actinomyces in tonsillar tissues of patients undergoing tonsillectomy and to determine the association among tonsillar volume, preoperative antibiotic use, and presence of Actinomyces in tonsil tissues. Methods: In this study, 142 patients who underwent tonsillectomy in last four years were included. Of the total patients, 97 (66.9%) were children and 47 (33.1%) were adults. The patients' age, sex, preoperative antibiotic use, tonsillar volume, and presence of actinomyces in tonsillar tissues were recorded...
March 2017: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Noriko Seishima, Satoru Kondo, Kousho Wakae, Naohiro Wakisaka, Eiji Kobayashi, Makoto Kano, Makiko Moriyama-Kita, Yosuke Nakanishi, Kazuhira Endo, Tomoko Imoto, Kazuya Ishikawa, Hisashi Sugimoto, Miyako Hatano, Takayoshi Ueno, Miki Koura, Koichi Kitamura, Masamichi Muramatsu, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (A3) family are cytidine deaminases that play critical roles in B-cell maturation, antiviral immunity and carcinogenesis. Adenoids and palatine tonsils are secondary lymphoid immune organs, in which AID and A3s are thought to have several physiological or pathological roles. However, the expression of AID or A3s in these organs has not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the expression profiles of AID and A3s, using 67 samples of adenoids and palatine tonsils from patients, with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical analyses...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lyndy J Wilcox, Mathieu Bergeron, Saranya Reghunathan, Stacey L Ishman
Objectives: Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) involves assessment of the upper airway using a flexible endoscope while patients are in a pharmacologically-induced sleep-like state. The aim of this article is to review the current literature regarding the role of DISE in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The indications, typical anesthetic protocol, comparison to other diagnostic modalities, scoring systems, and outcomes are discussed. Methods: A comprehensive review of literature regarding pediatric DISE up through May 2017 was performed...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Mathieu Bergeron, Angela L Duggins, Aliza P Cohen, Karin Tiemeyer, Lisa Mullen, Joseph Crisalli, Angela McArthur, Stacey L Ishman
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Shared decision-making is a process whereby patients and clinicians jointly establish a treatment plan integrating clinical evidence and patient values and preferences. Although this approach has been successfully employed in numerous medical disciplines, often using shared decision-making tools, otolaryngologic research assessing its use is scant. Our primary objective was therefore to determine if the tools we developed reduced decisional conflict for children with obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
Indra Narang, Suhail Al-Saleh, Reshma Amin, Evan J Propst, Saadoun Bin-Hasan, Paolo Campisi, Clodagh Ryan, Tetyana Kendzerska
Objectives To determine whether neck:height ratio combined with adenoid and tonsillar size is a good predictive tool for obstructive sleep apnea in obese youth. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sleep clinics at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Subjects and Methods Consented obese individuals aged 8 to 18 years were recruited between 2013 and 2015. Anthropometric measures were obtained by a trained research coordinator in a standardized manner. Otolaryngologists evaluated adenoid and tonsil sizes...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Neha A Patel, Kristen Carlin, Joseph M Bernstein
SIGNIFICANCE: Current grading systems may not allow clinicians to reliably document and communicate adenotonsillar size in the clinical setting. A validated endoscopic grading system may be useful for reporting tonsillar size in future clinical outcome studies. This is especially important as tonsillar enlargement is the cause of a substantial health care burden on children. OBJECTIVE: To propose and validate an easy-to-use flexible fiberoptic endoscopic grading system that provides physicians with a more accurate sense of the three-dimensional relationship of the tonsillar fossa to the upper-airway...
January 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Tiina Ikävalko, Matti Närhi, Aino-Maija Eloranta, Niina Lintu, Riitta Myllykangas, Anu Vierola, Henri Tuomilehto, Timo Lakka, Riitta Pahkala
Objective: We studied longitudinally the associations of craniofacial morphology, mouth breathing, orthodontic treatment, and body fat content with the risk of having and developing sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood. We hypothesized that deviant craniofacial morphology, mouth breathing, and adiposity predict SDB among children. Materials and methods: The participants were 412 children 6-8 years of age examined at baseline and 329 children aged 9-11 years re-examined at an average 2...
July 11, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
Amelia T Soderholm, Timothy C Barnett, Matthew J Sweet, Mark J Walker
Streptococcus pyogenes, the Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adults. Innate and adaptive host immune responses are fundamental for defense against streptococcal pharyngitis and are central to the clinical manifestation of disease. Host immune responses also contribute to the severe poststreptococcal immune diseases that constitute the major disease burden for this organism. However, until recently, little was known about the host responses elicited during infection...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Taru Ilmarinen, Pauliina Munne, Jaana Hagström, Caj Haglund, Eeva Auvinen, Elina I Virtanen, Annick Haesevoets, Ernst J M Speel, Leena-Maija Aaltonen
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prevalence of high-risk HPV (human papillomavirus) and genetic alterations in nonmalignant tonsils. METHODS: We collected benign fresh tonsillar tissue specimens from 477 patients undergoing tonsillectomy because of chronic tonsillitis or tonsillar hypertrophy in 2012 (Group A, n=237) and in 2015 (Group B, n=240). Luminex xMAP technique served to detect E6/E7 DNA from 16 different high-risk HPV types. Tonsillar DNA and peripheral blood leukocyte DNA from the infected individuals were analyzed using Nimblegen SeqCap EZ Comprehensive Cancer Design panel...
October 2017: Oral Oncology
Lindybeth Sarmiento Varon, Javier De Rosa, Andrés Machicote, Luis Ariel Billordo, Plácida Baz, Pablo Mariano Fernández, Isabel Kaimen Maciel, Andrés Blanco, Eloísa I Arana
The comprehension of unconventional immune functions of tonsillar B cells, their role in tolerance induction and protective immune responses, is crucial to unveil the dynamic interactions of the upper aero digestive tract with polymicrobial commensal flora and pathogens, in health and disease. Here, we describe the kinetics of IL10 intracellular expression and compare it with that of cytokines known to be produced by tonsillar B cells. Additionally, we detected a relevant proportion of IL17-expressing tonsillar B cells, which has not previously been reported...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Melissa Pynnonen, Jennifer V Brinkmeier, Marc C Thorne, Lee Yee Chong, Martin J Burton
BACKGROUND: Tonsillectomy is a very common operation and is performed using various surgical methods. Coblation is a popular method because it purportedly causes less pain than other surgical methods. However, the superiority of coblation is unproven. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of coblation tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis or tonsillar hypertrophy with other surgical techniques, both hot and cold, on intraoperative morbidity, postoperative morbidity and procedural cost...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
S Kaya, E Selimoğlu, S Cureoğlu, M A Selimoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Otitis media with effusion and obesity are both common in childhood and might share some immunological alterations. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronic otitis media with effusion and childhood overweight or obesity, including the potential effects of adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy on that relationship. METHODS: This study included 60 children with chronic otitis media with effusion and 86 healthy children aged from 2 to 10 years...
October 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Ying-Xia Lu, Qing-Long Gu, Zhan Wang, Bing Zhang, Chang Liu, Jie-Qiong Liang
OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of coblation intracapsular total tonsillectomy (CITT) with those of conventional coblation extracapsular total tonsillectomy (CETT) in the treatment of tonsillar hypertrophy in children with regards to efficacy and complications. METHODS: Ninety children with adenotonsillar hyperplasia underwent tonsillectomy ± adenoidectomy (48 CITT and 42 CETT). Intraoperative situation was observed and recorded. Patients were reexamined regarding recovery condition and tonsil regrowth, and were followed for at least one year...
November 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Yilin Wang, Torbjörn Ramqvist, Leena-Maija Aaltonen, Lari Pyöriä, Mari Toppinen, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Klaus Hedman
BACKGROUND: In the past few years, eleven new human viruses have joined the two previously known members JCPyV and BKPyV of the Polyomaviridae family, by virtue of molecular methods. Serology data suggest that infections with human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) occur since childhood and the viruses are widespread in the general population. However, the viral persistence sites and transmission routes are by and large unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that the four new HPyVs - KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV and TSPyV - were present in the tonsils, and suggested lymphoid tissue as a persistent site of these emerging human viruses...
June 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yin Yiu, Justin B Mahida, Jennifer N Cooper, Nicole M Elsey, Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci, Tyler B Merrill, Joseph D Tobias, Charles A Elmaraghy
OBJECTIVES: Dexamethasone is currently recommended for routine prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting after tonsillectomy procedures. However, some studies have raised concern that dexamethasone use may lead to higher rates of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage. Our objective was to determine whether higher doses of dexamethasone administered perioperatively during tonsillectomy procedures are associated with an increased risk of secondary post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 9843 patients who underwent tonsillectomy and received dexamethasone at our institution from January 2010 to October 2014...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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