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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829699/association-between-years-of-competition-and-shoulder-function-in-collegiate-swimmers
#1
Jack D Dischler, Timothy G Baumer, Evan Finkelstein, Daniel S Siegal, Michael J Bey
BACKGROUND: Shoulder injuries are common among competitive swimmers, and the progression of shoulder pathology is not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which years of competitive swim training were associated with physical properties of the supraspinatus muscle and tendon, shoulder strength, and self-reported assessments of shoulder pain and function. HYPOTHESIS: Increasing years of competition will be associated with declining physical properties of the supraspinatus muscle/tendon and declining self-reported assessments of pain and function...
August 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828853/activation-of-actuating-hydrogels-with-ws2-nanosheets-for-biomimetic-cellular-structures-and-steerable-prompt-deformation
#2
Lu Zong, Mingjie Li, Jun You, Xiaochen Wu, Chaoxu Li
Macroscopic soft actuation is intrinsic to living organisms in nature, including slow deformation (e.g. contraction, bending, twisting and curling) of plants motivated by microscopic swelling/shrinking of cells, and rapid motion of animals (e.g. deformation of jellyfish) motivated by cooperative nanoscale movement of motor proteins. These actuation behaviours, with exceptional combination of tuneable speed and programmable deformation direction, inspire to design artificial soft actuators for broad applications in artificial muscles, nanofabrication, chemical valve, microlenses, soft robotics etc...
August 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828083/increased-prevalence-of-the-il-6-174c-genetic-polymorphism-in-long-distance-swimmers
#3
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Eias Kassem, Alon Eliakim
The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822267/a-similar-pro-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-balance-is-present-in-the-airways-of-competitive-athletes-and-non-exercising-asthmatics
#4
Marcin Kurowski, Janusz Jurczyk, Agnieszka Olszewska-Ziąber, Marzanna Jarzębska, Hubert Krysztofiak, Marek L Kowalski
PURPOSE: Intensive exercise modifies airway inflammation and infection susceptibility. We aimed to determine the effect of exercise on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ra, IL-10) and innate immunity protein (HSPA1, sCD14) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and nasal secretions of competitive athletes, non-exercising asthmatics and healthy controls (HC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 competitive athletes (five speed skaters and ten swimmers) aged 15-25...
August 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811368/fluctuation-spectra-and-force-generation-in-nonequilibrium-systems
#5
Alpha A Lee, Dominic Vella, John S Wettlaufer
Many biological systems are appropriately viewed as passive inclusions immersed in an active bath: from proteins on active membranes to microscopic swimmers confined by boundaries. The nonequilibrium forces exerted by the active bath on the inclusions or boundaries often regulate function, and such forces may also be exploited in artificial active materials. Nonetheless, the general phenomenology of these active forces remains elusive. We show that the fluctuation spectrum of the active medium, the partitioning of energy as a function of wavenumber, controls the phenomenology of force generation...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799866/proprioception-and-flexibility-profiles-of-elite-synchronized-swimmers
#6
Nora M Y Cho, Hedda P Giorgi, Karen P Y Liu, Young-Hyeon Bae, Louisa M Y Chung, Kitchana Kaewkaen, Shirley S M Fong
This study compared the full-body flexibility and joint proprioception (on land and underwater) of (a) 20 elite female synchronized swimmers (mean age ± standard deviation = 18.5 ± 1.9 years) and (b) 20 college female swim team members with no training in synchronized swimming (control participants; mean age ± standard deviation = 20.6 ± 1.3 years). Flexibility of the trunk and upper and lower limbs was measured using plastic tape and a goniometer, respectively. Joint proprioception (joint position sense) of the upper and lower limbs on land and underwater was measured by an active joint angle repositioning test...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796129/pacing-profiles-and-competitive-performance-of-elite-female-400-m-freestyle-swimmers
#7
Patrycja Lipinska, Will G Hopkins
Pacing can impact competitive endurance performance. The objective of this study was to determine relationships between pacing parameters and competitive performance of elite female 400-m freestyle swimmers. Publicly available websites provided 50-m split and final times for 381 swims of 20 elite female swimmers in over 150 national and international competitions between 2004 and 2016. Most pacing profiles displayed negative quadratic curvature, with the fifth of the eight laps being the median slowest. The mean times for the first and last laps were faster than predicted by the quadratic by 5...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774616/gene-expression-changes-in-blood-rna-after-swimming-in-a-chlorinated-pool
#8
Lucas A Salas, Laia Font-Ribera, Mariona Bustamante, Lauro Sumoy, Joan O Grimalt, Sarah Bonnin, Maria Aguilar, Heidi Mattlin, Manuela Hummel, Anna Ferrer, Manolis Kogevinas, Cristina M Villanueva
Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774608/occurrence-and-formation-of-disinfection-by-products-in-the-swimming-pool-environment-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Rhys A A Carter, Cynthia A Joll
Disinfection of water for human use is essential to protect against microbial disease; however, disinfection also leads to formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are of health concern. From a chemical perspective, swimming pools are a complex matrix, with continual addition of a wide range of natural and anthropogenic chemicals via filling waters, disinfectant addition, pharmaceuticals and personal care products and human body excretions. Natural organic matter, trace amounts of DBPs and chlorine or chloramines may be introduced by the filling water, which is commonly disinfected distributed drinking water...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763443/intermittent-hypoxic-training-improves-anaerobic-performance-in-competitive-swimmers-when-implemented-into-a-direct-competition-mesocycle
#10
Miłosz Czuba, Robert Wilk, Jakub Karpiński, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk, Adam Zajac, Józef Langfort
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on anaerobic and aerobic capacity and swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. Sixteen male swimmers were randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n = 8), which trained in a normobaric hypoxia environment, and a control (C) group (n = 8), which exercised under normoxic conditions. However, one participant left the study without explanation. During the experiment group H trained on land twice per week in simulated hypoxia (FiO2 = 15...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761914/kinematic-and-emg-data-during-underwater-dolphin-kick-change-while-synchronizing-with-or-without-synchronization-of-kick-frequency-with-the-beat-of-a-metronome
#11
Keisuke Kobayashi Yamakawa, Hirofumi Shimojo, Hideki Takagi, Shozo Tsubakimoto, Yasuo Sengoku
We investigated the effects of synchronizing kick frequency with the beat of a metronome on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) parameters during the underwater dolphin kick as a pilot study related to the research that entitled "Effect of increased kick frequency on propelling efficiency and muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick" (Yamakawa et al., 2017) [1]. Seven collegiate female swimmers participated in this experiment. The participants conducted two underwater dolphin kick trials: swimming freely at maximum effort, and swimming while synchronizing the kick frequency of maximum effort with the beat of a metronome...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761479/surveillance-and-molecular-identification-of-acanthamoeba-and-naegleria-species-in-two-swimming-pools-in-alexandria-university-egypt
#12
Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy, Mahmoud I Khalil, Soheir S El-Sherif, Fatima A E Omar, Wael M Lotfy
BACKGROUND: Swimming in contaminated water was reported to be associated with Acanthamoeba and N. fowleri human infections. The present study was carried out with the aim of isolation and identification of the different species of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria from two swimming pools in Alexandria University. METHODS: Samples were collected from the swimming pools of Alexandria University Stadium and Faculty of Agriculture-Alexandria University during the period from May 2012 to April 2013...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753351/role-of-correlations-in-the-collective-behavior-of-microswimmer-suspensions
#13
Joakim Stenhammar, Cesare Nardini, Rupert W Nash, Davide Marenduzzo, Alexander Morozov
In this Letter, we study the collective behavior of a large number of self-propelled microswimmers immersed in a fluid. Using unprecedentedly large-scale lattice Boltzmann simulations, we reproduce the transition to bacterial turbulence. We show that, even well below the transition, swimmers move in a correlated fashion that cannot be described by a mean-field approach. We develop a novel kinetic theory that captures these correlations and is nonperturbative in the swimmer density. To provide an experimentally accessible measure of correlations, we calculate the diffusivity of passive tracers and reveal its nontrivial density dependence...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750976/scapular-dyskinesis-among-competitive-swimmers
#14
Maayan Bussiba Maor, Tatyana Ronin, Leonid Kalichman
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of scapular dyskinesis (SD) in competitive swimmers during training sessions. METHODS: Repeated measurement observational study.20 young competitive swimmers were filmed before, at midpoint and at the end of a training session, performing shoulder flexion and abduction. SD was examined separately by two assessors. Demographic and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaires were collected. RESULTS: SD was observed in 30% of the swimmers before training, in 70%, an hour later, and in 80%, upon completion of the training session...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749151/on-the-boundary-conditions-of-effort-losses-and-effort-gains-in-action-teams
#15
Joachim Hüffmeier, Michael Filusch, Jens Mazei, Guido Hertel, Andreas Mojzisch, Stefan Krumm
While people's willingness to work hard can be reduced in teams (i.e., effort losses in teams as compared with individual work), it is less recognized that teamwork can also stimulate additional efforts (i.e., effort gains). Building on and extending existing theory, we (a) suggest an integration of these two research streams, and (b) provide evidence for team-related effort gains in action teams. In a first study, we tested our predictions by reanalyzing a field data set of 302,576 swimming performances in individual and relay races (Neugart & Richiardi, 2013)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746660/somatic-maturation-and-the-relationship-between-bone-mineral-variables-and-types-of-sports-among-adolescents-cross-sectional-study
#16
Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Igor Hideki Ito, Han Kemper, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, Mário Antônio Rodrigues-Júnior, Rafael Luiz-de-Marco, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Peak height velocity (PHV) is an important maturational event during adolescence that affects skeleton size. The objective here was to compare bone variables in adolescents who practiced different types of sports, and to identify whether differences in bone variables attributed to sports practice were dependent on somatic maturation status. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, São Paulo State University (UNESP). METHODS: The study was composed of 93 adolescents (12 to 16...
May 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740308/changes-on-biogenic-volatile-amines-and-microbial-quality-of-the-blue-swimmer-crab-portunus-pelagicus-muscle-during-storage
#17
Abimannan Arulkumar, Sadayan Paramasivam, Palanivel Rameshthangam, Mohamed A Rabie
Biogenic amines (BAs) are a group of substances with low molecular weight organic compounds such as aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic structures that are naturally present in animal tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes on the formation of biogenic amine, bacterial load and biochemical characteristics in blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) at different storage temperatures (4 and 20 °C) up to 96 h. From seven BAs only four biogenic amines (tryptamine, putrescine, histamine, and tyramine) were detected while, the cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were absent in all investigated samples...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739931/how-language-shapes-the-cultural-inheritance-of-categories
#18
Susan A Gelman, Steven O Roberts
It is widely recognized that language plays a key role in the transmission of human culture, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which language simultaneously encourages both cultural stability and cultural innovation. This paper examines this issue by focusing on the use of language to transmit categories, focusing on two universal devices: labels (e.g., shark, woman) and generics (e.g., "sharks attack swimmers"; "women are nurturing"). We propose that labels and generics each assume two key principles: norms and essentialism...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734349/integrated-preservation-and-sample-clean-up-procedures-for-studying-water-ingestion-by-recreational-swimmers-via-urinary-biomarker-determination
#19
Ricardo Cantú, Jody A Shoemaker, Catherine A Kelty, Larry J Wymer, Thomas D Behymer, Alfred P Dufour, Matthew L Magnuson
The use of cyanuric acid as a biomarker for ingestion of swimming pool water may lead to quantitative knowledge of the volume of water ingested during swimming, contributing to a better understanding of disease resulting from ingestion of environmental contaminants. When swimming pool water containing chlorinated cyanurates is inadvertently ingested, cyanuric acid is excreted quantitatively within 24 h as a urinary biomarker of ingestion. Because the volume of water ingested can be quantitatively estimated by calculation from the concentration of cyanuric acid in 24 h urine samples, a procedure for preservation, cleanup, and analysis of cyanuric acid was developed to meet the logistical demands of large scale studies...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733931/do-6%C3%A2-months-of-whole-body-vibration-training-improve-lean-mass-and-bone-mass-acquisition-of-adolescent-swimmers
#20
A Gómez-Bruton, A González-Agüero, A Matute-Llorente, C Julián, G Lozano-Berges, A Gómez-Cabello, J A Casajús, G Vicente-Rodríguez
Swimming has little effect on bone mass. Therefore, adolescent swimmers should complement their water training with a short and intense weight-bearing training, aiming to increase their bone acquisition. Forty swimmers performed a six-month whole-body vibration (WBV) training. WBV had no effect on adolescent swimmers' bone mass or lean mass. PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of a whole-body vibration (WBV) intervention on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean mass (LM) in adolescent swimmers...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
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