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Jesús Sánchez-Nogueiro, Patricia Marín-García, Diego Bustillo, Luis Alcides Olivos-Oré, María Teresa Miras-Portugal, Antonio R Artalejo
The subcellular distribution and early signalling events of P2X7 receptors were studied in mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings evidenced inwardly directed non-desensitizing currents following adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP; 600 µM) or 2'-3'-o-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP; 100 µM) administration to cells bathed in a medium with no-added divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). Nucleotide-activated currents were inhibited by superfusion of 2.5 mM Ca(2+), 1...
December 5, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
Banu Aksu, Serpil Kurtcan, Alpay Alkan, Ayse Aralasmak, Faruk Oktem
Reversible corpus callosum splenial (CCS) lesions are rare findings and usually detected incidentally. We presented a case of 15-year-old boy with a diagnoses of nephrotic syndrome. He was referred for neuropsychiatric symptoms following dose reduction on steroid treatment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal lesion in the CCS, hyperintense on T2 and FLAIR and hypointense on T1 images with diffusion restriction on apparent diffusion coefficient map. Follow-up MRI 3 weeks later showed complete resolution of the lesion...
May 2015: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Katica Jovanova-Nesic, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Novera Herbert Spector
In the central nervous system (CNS) microglia are crucial for the defense of the brain against invading microorganisms, formation of tumors, and damage following trauma. However, uncontrolled activation of these cells may have deleterious outcomes through activation of Fcγ and the complement 3 receptors and the induction of an adaptive immune reaction. Proteins contributing to this reaction are the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD3 molecules, among others. Both can be expressed on the glia cells before cytokine release and may facilitate an autoimmune inflammatory reaction in the brain...
December 2012: Current Aging Science
J Egea, A G García, J Verges, E Montell, M G López
The antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are being used to treat osteoarthritis. Recent evidence has revealed that those peripheral effects of CS may also have therapeutic interest in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We review here such evidence. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) formed by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) may have a neuroprotective action against oxidative stress potentially involved in neurodegeneration. On the other hand, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells CS has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects by activating the signaling pathway PKC/PI3K/Akt and inducing the antioxidant enzyme hemoxygenase-1...
June 2010: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Kinga Bobińska, Janusz Szemraj, Tadeusz Pietras, Krzysztof Zboralski, Piotr Gałecki
Neuropeptide Y exists in the central nervous system as a co-transmitter, neuromodulator and neurohormone. It effects many processes dependent on the central nervous system. The paper reviews the latest knowledge on the structure and occurrance ofneuropeptide Y, its receptors, agonist and antagonist binding of these receptors. Taking into account its role in psychiatry, the authors concentrated on its part in the kindling mechanism in affective disorders as well as the neuroprotective function of neuropeptide Y in the excytotoxicity phenomena...
November 2008: Psychiatria Polska
László Pecze, Péter Pelsoczi, Miklós Kecskés, Zoltán Winter, András Papp, Krisztián Kaszás, Tamás Letoha, Csaba Vizler, Zoltán Oláh
OBJECTIVES: Resiniferatoxin, the most potent agonist of inflammatory pain/vanilloid receptor/cation channel (TRPV1) can be used for neuron subtype specific ablation of pain generating cells at the level of the peripheral nervous system by Ca(2+)-excytotoxicity. Molecular neurosurgery is an emerging technology either to alleviate severe pain in cancer or treat/prevent different local neuropathies. Our aim was determining sensory modalities that may be lost after resiniferatoxin treatment...
March 2009: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
L Zhao, X Wei, Z Ma, D Feng, P Tu, B H Johnstone, K L March, Y Du
The delivery of factors secreted by adipose stromal cells (ASC) to the brain may be a viable neuroprotective therapeutic option. In this study, we investigated the bioactivity of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and found that the ASC-CM significantly blocked glutamate neurotoxicity. We identified the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ASC-CM by using Western blot and demonstrated that this activity was critical for the neuroprotective effect of ASC-CM in excytotoxicity models...
March 20, 2009: Neuroscience Letters
Simona Cicconi, Antonietta Gentile, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Tiziana Parasassi, Annalucia Serafino, Pietro Calissano
In this study we report that apoptotic death of primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons is accompanied by release of thioflavin-binding proteins - indicative of the presence of beta-sheet structures - and fibril formation in the culture medium. When the same neurons are subjected to an excytotoxic death caused by 100 microM glutamate exposure, the amount of thioflavin binding is markedly reduced. Western blot analysis shows that fibrils contain monomers, dimers and trimers of amyloid-beta (Abeta) which, when observed at the electron microscope, have morphologies reminiscent of fibrils of senile plaques...
November 2007: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anna Atlante, Lidia de Bari, Antonella Bobba, Ersilia Marra, Pietro Calissano, Salvatore Passarella
In rat cerebellar granule cells, cytochrome c release takes place during glutamate toxicity and apoptosis due to deprivation of depolarising levels of potassium. We show that, as in necrosis, the released cytochrome c present in the cytosolic fraction obtained from cerebellar granule cells undergoing apoptosis can operate as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and as a respiratory substrate. The capability of the cytosolic fraction containing cytochrome c, obtained from cerebellar granule cells undergoing either necrosis or apoptosis, to energise coupled mitochondria isolated by the same cells is also investigated...
August 2003: Journal of Neurochemistry
Y Sumiya, K Torigoe, Z Gerevich, A Köfalvi, E S Vizi
In this study, the properties of ischemic condition-induced and veratridine-evoked [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) release from rat spinal cord slices were compared. It was expected that ischemia mimicked by oxygen and glucose deprivation results in the impairment of Na+/K+ -ATPase with a consequent elevation of the intracellular Na+ -level which reverses the NA carrier and promotes excessive NA release, and veratridine, by the activation of Na+ channels, releases NA both carrier-mediated and Ca2+ -dependent, i...
July 2001: Neurochemistry International
K M Boje, P Skolnick, J Raber, R T Fletcher, G Chader
In the mammalian brain, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor is coupled to a cation channel and a strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor. The present paper demonstrates the presence of NMDA receptor-coupled strychnine-insensitive glycine receptors in embryonic chick retina. Both glycine and 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) exhibited similar potencies (271 +/- 39 vs 247 +/- 39 nM, respectively) as inhibitors of strychnine-insensitive [3H]glycine binding to retinal membranes...
June 1992: Neurochemistry International
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