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Echo intensity

Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
CONTEXT:  Previous researchers have indicated the importance of body composition and muscle quality in athletic performance. However, body composition and muscle-quality measures in swimmers and divers over a training season have yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE:  To identify changes in body composition and muscle characteristics over a competitive season and identify relationships between these variables and performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers and divers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
Francesco Cardinale, Stefano Francione, Luciana Gennari, Alberto Citterio, Maurizio Sberna, Laura Tassi, Roberto Mai, Ivana Sartori, Lino Nobili, Massimo Cossu, Laura Castana, Giorgio Lo Russo, Nadia Colombo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot retrospective study is to describe the SUrface-PRojected FLuid-Attenuation-Inversion-Recovery (SUPR-FLAIR) analysis, a novel method mainly aimed at revealing cortical areas with subtle signal hyper-intensity. METHODS: Images from 101 healthy controls and ten patients suffering from drug-resistant partial epilepsy were retrospectively post-processed. Brain surface was reconstructed from a 3D T1-weighted fast field echo (3D T1W-FFE) MRI scan...
November 25, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Peng Lv, Yuanyuan Dai, Jiang Lin, Weisheng Zhang, Hao Liu, Hui Liu, Xiao Tang
The aim of this study was to compare 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions (T2w SPACE) with conventional 2D T2w turbo-spin echo (TSE) in plaque imaging of carotid artery. 45 patients underwent 3.0-T MRI for carotid arteries imaging. MR sequences included T2w SPACE, T2w TSE, Time of flight (TOF) and T1-weighted (T1w) TSE. The signal intensity of intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH), lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and loose matrix (LM) were measured and their contrast ratios (CRs) against adjacent muscle were calculated...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Chan Wha Lee, Sun Il Choi, Sang Jin Lee, Young Taek Oh, Gunwoo Park, Na Yeon Park, Kyoung Ah Yoon, Sunshin Kim, Daehong Kim, Yun Hee Kim, Jin Suck Suh
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ferritin as a contrast agent and a potential reporter gene for tracking tumor cells or macrophages in mouse cancer models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adenoviral human ferritin heavy chain (Ad-hFTH) was administrated to orthotopic glioma models and subcutaneous colon cancer mouse models using U87MG and HCT116 cells, respectively. Brain MR images were acquired before and daily for up to 6 days after the intracranial injection of Ad-hFTH...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
Masashi Kikuchi, Norio Hayashi, Kazuma Yarita, Kozue Sakata, Koichi Ujita, Satoshi Matsuda, Yuichi Teduka
During the arterial phase acquisition of Gd-EOB-DTPA examinations, use of a small volume of the Gd-EOB-DTPA may make it difficult the encoding center of the k-space, and produce blurring. The previous studies revealed the encoding technique of the k-space was one of the most important reasons. However, there is no report to discuss the reasons with quantitative evaluations. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the characteristics of the artifacts using different k-space encoding techniques (centric-view ordering (CVO) and sequential-view ordering (SVO)) for liver dynamic MRI in computer simulation study...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Kyoko Takakura, Aki Kido, Koji Fujimoto, Kayo Kiguchi, Yasutaka Fushimi, Naotaka Sakashita, Tokunori Kimura, Kaori Togashi
The aim of this study was to compare true-steady state free precession (True-SSFP) with fast field echo (FFE) as readout imaging sequences for renal arterial spin labeling (ASL), and to optimize the imaging condition. Renal ASL perfusion images were acquired using signal targeting with alternated radio frequency using asymmetric inversion slab (ASTAR) technique with respiratory triggering at 3T MRI system, using either 3D True-SSFP or FFE as the readout sequence. Inversion time (TI) varied from 800 to 2400 ms...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Alyssa N Varanoske, David H Fukuda, Carleigh H Boone, Kyle S Beyer, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Echo intensity of skeletal muscle measured via ultrasonography has been used to assess muscle quality, however the heterogeneity of echo intensity has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study examined echo intensity in different sections of panoramic ultrasound images captured in the transverse plane. METHODS: Echo intensity of the vastus lateralis was assessed in 24 men (20.2±1.6 y) using panoramic ultrasonography. Echo intensity homogeneity was examined by dividing each image into 3 compartments of equal horizontal length (tertiles)...
November 11, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
XiaoMeng Gao, Yiping Li, Chunyan Tang, Kumud Acharya, Wei Du, Jianwei Wang, Liancong Luo, Huiyun Li, Shujun Dai, Zhongbo Yu, Jalil Abdul, Wenfei Yu, Shuangshuang Zhang, Robert Bofah-Buoh, Mercy Jepkirui, Xuchuan Lu, Baozhu Pan
Sediment resuspension plays an important role to provide nutrient release for algal growth in large shallow lakes. The settling velocity (w s ) is the key parameter for understanding the suspended sediment transport. In this paper, acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and optical backscatter sensor (OBS) instruments were used to measure in situ velocities and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) simultaneously without affecting the ambient turbulence in the bottom layer of Lake Taihu. The results showed that (1) ADV echo intensity (EI) could be transferred into SSC successfully by using a simple logarithmic relationship with a strong correlation of 0...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jens C Koblitz, Peter Stilz, Marianne H Rasmussen, Kristin L Laidre
Recordings of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) echolocation signals were made using a linear 16 hydrophone array in the pack ice of Baffin Bay, West Greenland in 2013 at eleven sites. An average -3 dB beam width of 5.0° makes the narwhal click the most directional biosonar signal reported for any species to date. The beam shows a dorsal-ventral asymmetry with a narrower beam above the beam axis. This may be an evolutionary advantage for toothed whales to reduce echoes from the water surface or sea ice surface. Source level measurements show narwhal click intensities of up to 222 dB pp re 1 μPa, with a mean apparent source level of 215 dB pp re 1 μPa...
2016: PloS One
Qun Hao, Yang Cheng, Jie Cao, Fanghua Zhang, Xinmu Zhang, Haoyong Yu
The integrated model of echo laser pulse profile (ELPP) of a target with arbitrary shape is studied under the condition of the ELPP affected by target and atmospheric turbulence simultaneously. The ELPPs of four typical targets (a plane, a cone, a sphere and an aspherical surface) are employed to test the validity of the model by analytical and numerical approaches. Based on simulations of the ELPP under different targets and atmospheric turbulence intensity, the results show a good agreement between two methods, and the ELPP of a target with discontinuous surface is more easily affected by atmospheric turbulence than that with a continuous surface...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
Angel B Zuccolotto-Bernez, Nasser Ben Braham, Catalina Haro-Pérez, Luis F Rojas-Ochoa
We describe the implementation of echo dynamic light scattering in a cross-correlation detection scheme, which enables the study of slow dynamics in moderately turbid colloidal systems by adapting a commercial light scattering device. Our setup combines a 3D cross-correlation detection scheme (3DDLS), which allows for suppression of multiple scattering, with the speckle echo technique for dynamic light scattering. The recorded cross-correlation echoes provide precise ensemble-averaged results that appropriately describe sample dynamics of ergodic and non-ergodic colloidal systems of different turbidities...
November 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Barbara J Wilkey, Nathaen S Weitzel
Aortic arch surgery requires meticulous teamwork in the true perioperative sense. Planning and communication at all phases from preoperative evaluation, through intraoperative management, to postoperative care should be well coordinated between surgical, anesthesia, perfusion, and intensive care unit teams. This review discusses intraoperative management from the anesthesiologist's perspective, with particular emphasis on transesophageal echo evaluation and coagulation management.
December 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
C E Sherlock, T S Mair
Recognition of artefacts is an essential component of the accurate interpretation of diagnostic images. This study aimed to investigate the presence of magic angle effect in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in the equine proximal pastern region. The proximal pastern of four cadaver limbs was imaged using a 0.27 Tesla magnet with high-resolution sequences that are commonly utilised in clinical equine practice. The limbs were imaged in a neutral position and positions that simulated the horse 'leaning in', 'leaning out' and having internal and external rotation of the distal limb...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
Louise Dunphy, Elizabeth Keating, T Parke
A man aged 33 years, born in Nepal, but resident in the UK for 7 years presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of general malaise, fever (temperature 38.6°C) and a non-productive cough. His medical history was unremarkable and no high-risk behaviour was identified. Clinical examination confirmed decreased air entry bilaterally with bibasal crackles. He was tachycardic, with a heart rate of 120 bpm. Further investigation with a 12-lead ECG confirmed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) which was terminated with vagal manoeuvres...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
T Oda, M Hino, M Kitaguchi, P Geltenbort, Y Kawabata
We propose a basic formula and demonstration for a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) by combining the time-of-flight (TOF) method with Modulation of Intensity by Zero Effort (MIEZE) type neutron spin echo spectroscopy. The MIEZE technique has the potential to develop a unique approach to study on slow dynamics of condensed matter; however, the energy resolution is limited owing to the hypersensitivity of the MIEZE signal contrast to the echo condition, which is strongly affected by the alignment of the instruments and the sample...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Konstantinos Bratis, Markus Henningsson, Chrisanthos Grigoratos, Matteo Dell' Omodarme, Konstantinos Chasapides, Rene Botnar, Eike Nagel
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic value of three-dimensional late enhancement (3D-LGE) for the detection of myocardial necrosis in a routine clinical setting. 3D-LGE has been proposed as a novel magnetic resonance (MR) technique for the accurate detection of myocardial scar in both the ventricles and atria. Its performance in clinical practice has been poorly examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients referred for cardiac MR examination including scar imaging were prospectively enrolled...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Yasushi Ogasawara, Yuiko Sato, Shinsuke Narumi, Makoto Sasaki, Shunrou Fujiwara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kenji Yoshida, Yasuo Terayama, Kuniaki Ogasawara
The aim of the present study was to determine whether preoperative three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for severely stenotic cervical carotid arteries could accurately predict the development of artery-to-artery emboli during exposure of the carotid arteries in carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Seventy-five patients underwent preoperative MR plaque imaging and CEA under transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery. On reformatted axial MR image slices showing the maximum plaque occupation rate (POR) and maximum plaque intensity for each patient, the contrast ratio (CR) was calculated by dividing the internal carotid artery plaque signal intensity by the sternocleidomastoid muscle signal intensity...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marta Cicuendez, Ana Castaño-León, Ana Ramos, Amaya Hilario, Pedro A Gómez, Alfonso Lagares
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between corpus callosum (CC) injury and prognosis in traumatic axonal injury (TAI). METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 264 patients with severe head trauma who underwent a conventional MR imaging in the first 60 days after injury. They were selected from a prospectively collected database of 1048 patients with severe head trauma admitted in our hospital. TAI lesions were defined as areas of increased signal intensity on T2 and FLAIR or areas of decreased signal on gradient-echo T2...
October 31, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Chisato Matsuo-Hagiyama, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hisashi Tanaka, Hiroto Takahashi, Atsuko Arisawa, Eri Yoshioka, Shin Nabatame, Sayaka Nakano, Noriyuki Tomiyama
PURPOSE: Silent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans produce reduced acoustic noise and are considered more gentle for sedated children. The aim of this study was to compare the validity of T1- (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) silent sequences for myelination assessment in children with conventional spin-echo sequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 children (21 boys, 9 girls; age range: 1-83 months, mean age: 35.5 months, median age: 28.5 months) were examined using both silent and spin-echo sequences...
October 31, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
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