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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917371/hijacker-of-the-antitumor-immune-response-autophagy-is-showing-its-worst-facet
#1
REVIEW
Elodie Viry, Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Tsolère Arakelian, Audrey Lequeux, Salem Chouaib, Guy Berchem, Etienne Moussay, Jérôme Paggetti, Bassam Janji
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a housekeeping process constitutively executed at basal level in all cells to promote cellular homeostasis by regulating organelle and protein turnover. However, autophagy deregulation caused by several stress factors, such as hypoxia, is prevalent in many cancers. It is now well established that autophagy can act as tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on tumor type, stage, and genetic context. In developed tumors, autophagy promotes the survival of cancer cells and therefore operates as a cell resistance mechanism...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899981/the-effect-and-clinical-efficacy-of-lienal-polypeptide-injection-combined-with-folfox-chemotherapy-regimen-in-colon-cancer-patients
#2
Juan Zhou, Guoping Niu, Yunfeng Pei, Chunping Cao, Chen Ding, Guangming Sun, Jing Guo, Yong Liu, Yang Yu
The aim was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunomodulatory effect of lienal polypeptide injection combined with postoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen in colon cancer patients. A total of 84 colon cancer patients were selected between January, 2014 and December, 2015. The selected patients were randomly divided into the observation (42 patients) and control (42 patients) groups. The observation group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen combined with lienal polypeptide, whereas, the control group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapeutic regimen only...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899095/effects-of-the-ayurved-siriraj-wattana-recipe-on-functional-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-and-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#3
Adisak Wongkajornsilp, Nuntarak Numchaisermsuk, Khanit Sa-Ngiamsuntorn, Pravit Akarasereenont, Valla Wamanuttajinda, Kanda Kasetsinsombat, Sunisa Duangsa-Ard, Tawee Laohapan, Kittipong Maneechotesuwan
BACKGROUND: Ayurved Siriraj Wattana recipe (AVS073), has been prescribed as tonic, to increase appetite, and for pain relief. It also exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and anti-cancer activities. However, the immunomodulatory effects on antigen-presenting cells and effector T cells remained elusive. We thus aimed to study the effects of AVS073 on differentiation, maturation, functions and proportions of CIK cells and monocyte-derived DCs. METHODS: CIK cells and monocyte-derived DCs were treated with AVS073, followed by the assessment of T-helper (Th) phenotypes using real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry...
November 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895918/classical-and-non-classical-hla-class-i-aberrations-in-primary-cervical-squamous-and-adenocarcinomas-and-paired-lymph-node-metastases
#4
Debbie M Ferns, A Marijne Heeren, Sanne Samuels, Maaike C G Bleeker, Tanja D de Gruijl, Gemma G Kenter, Ekaterina S Jordanova
BACKGROUND: Tumors avoid destruction by cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells by downregulation of classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and overexpression of non-classical HLA. This is the first study to investigate HLA expression in relation to histology (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) vs. adenocarcinoma (AC)), clinicopathological parameters and survival in a large cervical cancer patient cohort. METHODS: Classical (HLA-A and HLA-B/C)- and non-classical HLA molecules (HLA-E and HLA-G) were studied on primary tumors and paired lymph node (LN) metastases from cervical cancer patients (n = 136) by immunohistochemistry...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895646/manufacturing-natural-killer-cells-as-medicinal-products
#5
REVIEW
Christian Chabannon, Bechara Mfarrej, Sophie Guia, Sophie Ugolini, Raynier Devillier, Didier Blaise, Eric Vivier, Boris Calmels
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of human leukocyte antigen presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891129/immunological-and-translational-aspects-of-nk-cell-based-antitumor-immunotherapies
#6
REVIEW
Maxim Shevtsov, Gabriele Multhoff
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in the first line of defense against cancer. NK cells that are deficient in CD3 and a clonal T cell receptor (TCR) can be subdivided into two major subtypes, CD56(dim)CD16(+) cytotoxic and CD56(bright)CD16(-) immunoregulatory NK cells. Cytotoxic NK cells not only directly kill tumor cells without previous stimulation by cytotoxic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes or via death receptor interactions, but also act as regulatory cells for the immune system by secreting cytokines and chemokines...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889798/selective-effect-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-on-survival-of-patients-with-early-stage-melanoma
#7
Hong Li, Lan Huang, Linbo Liu, Ximei Wang, Zhen Zhang, Dongli Yue, Wei He, Kun Fu, Xueli Guo, Jianmin Huang, Xuan Zhao, Yu Zhu, Liping Wang, Wenjie Dong, Yan Yan, Li Xu, Ming Gao, Shuangning Yang, Yi Zhang
Adoptive immunotherapy using cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells has shown potential antitumor ability against several kinds of cancers, including melanoma. However, little is known about the achievable outcome of CIK cells in melanoma patients at different pathological stages. Here we recruited 55 patients treated with conventional therapy plus CIK cells as the CIK group, and 49 patients treated with conventional therapy alone as the control group. The pathological characteristics were comparable between two groups, with a follow-up period up to 40 months...
November 26, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882171/role-of-microrna-141-in-colorectal-cancer-with-lymph-node-metastasis
#8
Li Feng, Hongqing Ma, Liang Chang, Xinliang Zhou, Na Wang, Lianmei Zhao, Jing Zuo, Yudong Wang, Jing Han, Guiying Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-141 in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In total, 58 CRC patients were included in the present study. The mRNA and protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAP4K4) were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The miRNA-141 expression was measured by RT-qPCR, while serum MAP4K4 content was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878235/accelerated-cell-cycle-progression-of-human-regulatory-t%C3%A2-cell-like-cell-line-caused-by-continuous-exposure-to-asbestos-fibers
#9
Suni Lee, Hidenori Matsuzaki, Megumi Maeda, Shoko Yamamoto, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Tamayo Hatayama, Miho Ikeda, Kei Yoshitome, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
Asbestos exposure causes malignant tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Based on our hypothesis in which continuous exposure to asbestos of immune cells cause reduction of antitumor immunity, the decrease of natural killer cell killing activity with reduction of NKp46 activating receptor expression, inhibition of cytotoxic T cell clonal expansion, reduced CXCR3 chemokine receptor expression and production of interferon-γ production in CD4+ T cells were reported using cell line models, freshly isolated peripheral blood immune cells from health donors as well as asbestos exposed patients such as pleural plaque and mesothelioma...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875974/nanoparticle-systems-modulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#10
Avia Wilkerson, Julian Kim, Alex Y Huang, Mei Zhang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are preferentially expanded in cancer. They arise from myeloid progenitor cells that do not differentiate into mature dendritic cells (DCs), granulocytes, or macrophages, and are rather thought to play a pivotal role in immune escape and cancer progression. MDSCs are characterized by the ability to suppress T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, inhibit natural killer T (NKT) cell activation, and induce the differentiation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg)...
November 22, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874833/a-herpesviral-induction-of-rae-1-nkg2d-ligand-expression-occurs-through-release-of-hdac-mediated-repression
#11
Trever T Greene, Maria Tokuyama, Giselle M Knudsen, Michele Kunz, James Lin, Alexander L Greninger, Victor R DeFilippis, Joseph L DeRisi, David H Raulet, Laurent Coscoy
Natural Killer (NK) cells are essential for control of viral infection and cancer. NK cells express NKG2D, an activating receptor that directly recognizes NKG2D ligands. These are expressed at low level on healthy cells, but are induced by stresses like infection and transformation. The physiological events that drive NKG2D ligand expression during infection are still poorly understood. We observed that the mouse cytomegalovirus encoded protein m18 is necessary and sufficient to drive expression of the RAE-1 family of NKG2D ligands...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869649/randomized-trial-of-calcipotriol-combined-with-5-fluorouracil-for-skin-cancer-precursor-immunotherapy
#12
Trevor J Cunningham, Mary Tabacchi, Jean-Pierre Eliane, Sara Moradi Tuchayi, Sindhu Manivasagam, Hengameh Mirzaalian, Ahu Turkoz, Raphael Kopan, Andras Schaffer, Arturo P Saavedra, Michael Wallendorf, Lynn A Cornelius, Shadmehr Demehri
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis is a precursor to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Long treatment durations and severe side effects have limited the efficacy of current actinic keratosis treatments. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelium-derived cytokine that induces a robust antitumor immunity in barrier-defective skin. Here, we investigated the efficacy of calcipotriol, a topical TSLP inducer, in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as an immunotherapy for actinic keratosis...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866236/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-markers-of-cellular-immunosenescence-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
H Cao Dinh, I Beyer, T Mets, O O Onyema, R Njemini, W Renmans, M De Waele, K Jochmans, S Vander Meeren, I Bautmans
Aging affects negatively the immune system, defined as immunosenescence, which increases the susceptibility of elderly persons to infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. There are strong indications that physical exercise in elderly persons may prevent the age-related decline in immune response without significant side effects. Consequently, exercise is being considered as a safe mode of intervention to reduce immunosenescence. The aim of this review was to appraise the existing evidence regarding the impact of exercise on surface markers of cellular immunosenescence in either young and old humans or animals...
November 19, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863436/chemotherapy-plus-dendritic-cells-co-cultured-with-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-versus-chemotherapy-alone-to-treat-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#14
Cuiling Zhou, Donglan Liu, Jie Li, Huanhuan Sun, Xiaobin Zheng, Shuncong Wang, Guobin Hong, Saradhi Mallampati, Hongliu Sun, Xiuling Zhou, Zhibin Cheng, Hongyu Zhang, Haiqing Ma
This study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the combination treatment of dendritic cells co-cultured with cytokine-induced killer cells and chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Literatures were searched from the Cochrane Library Central, PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE. The primary endpoint of interest was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoints were disease control rate (DCR) and progression free survival (PFS). Finally 7 trials published between January 2005 and March 2016 met inclusion criteria and totally 610 patients were enrolled...
November 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858864/can-aidi-injection-restore-cellular-immunity-and-improve-clinical-efficacy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy-a-meta-analysis-of-17-randomized-controlled-trials-following-the-prisma-guidelines
#15
Zheng Xiao, Chengqiong Wang, Yongping Sun, Nana Li, Jing Li, Ling Chen, Xingsheng Yao, Jie Ding, Hu Ma
BACKGROUND: Aidi injection is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug commonly used in China. Can Aidi injection restore the cellular immunity and improve the clinical efficacy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy? There is a lack of strong evidence to prove it. To further reveal it, we systematically evaluated all related studies. We collected all studies about the clinical efficacy and cellular immunity of Aidi injection plus platinum-based chemotherapy for NSCLC in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, China national knowledge infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP), Wanfang, China biological medicine database (CBM) (established to June 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCRCT) (June 2015), Chinese clinical trial registry, and US-clinical trials (June 2015)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857713/killing-of-microbes-and-cancer-by-the-immune-system-with-three-mammalian-pore-forming-killer-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Eckhard R Podack, George P Munson
Immunology is the science of biological warfare between the defenses of our immune systems and offensive pathogenic microbes and cancers. Over the course of his scientific career, Eckhard R. Podack made several seminal discoveries that elucidated key aspects of this warfare at a molecular level. When Eckhard joined the complement laboratory of Müller-Eberhard in 1974, he was fascinated by two questions: (1) what is the molecular mechanism by which complement kills invasive bacteria? and (2) which one of the complement components is the killer molecule? Eckhard's quest to answer these questions would lead to the discovery C9 and later, two additional pore-forming killer molecules of the immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835762/il-15-signaling-in-nk-cell-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Jai Rautela, Nicholas D Huntington
While cancer has been traditionally treated by chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapies and surgery, a fifth pillar of cancer treatment, immunotherapy, has emerged over the past 10 years and revolutionized our war on cancer. The benchmark for drugs in this category has been set by the development of CD8 T cell checkpoint (CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors. These therapies effectively expand and reactivate the pool of tumor-specific T cells leading to objective response rates of up to 50% in patients with certain cancers...
November 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821119/insufficient-natural-killer-cell-responses-against-retroviruses-how-to-improve-nk-cell-killing-of-retrovirus-infected-cells
#18
REVIEW
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Ulf Dittmer, Kathrin Sutter
Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and inhibitory receptors on their cell surface and often become activated after recognizing virus-infected cells. They have diverse antiviral effector functions like the release of cytotoxic granules, cytokine production and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The importance of NK cell activity in retroviral infections became evident due to the discovery of several viral strategies to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells...
November 8, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815354/cytokine-induced-killer-cells-kill-chemo-surviving-melanoma-cancer-stem-cells
#19
Dario Sangiolo, Loretta Gammaitoni, Lidia Giraudo, Marco Macagno, Valeria Leuci, Giulia Mesiano, Ramona Rotolo, Francesco Sassi, Martina Sanlorenzo, Alessandro Zaccagna, Alberto Pisacane, Rebecca Senetta, Michela Cangemi, Giulia Cattaneo, Valentina Martin, Valentina Coha, Susanna Gallo, Ymera Pignochino, Anna Sapino, Giovanni Grignani, Fabrizio Carnevale-Schianca, Massimo Aglietta
PURPOSE: The MHC-unrestricted activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against chemo-surviving melanoma cancer stem cells (mCSCs) was explored, as CSCs are considered responsible for chemo-resistance and relapses. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Putative mCSCs were visualized by engineering patient-derived melanoma cells (MCs) with a lentiviral-vector encoding eGFP under expression control by stemness gene promoter oct4. Their stemness potential was confirmed in vivo by limiting dilution assays...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810924/single-cell-imaging-of-normal-and-malignant-cell-engraftment-into-optically-clear-prkdc-null-scid-zebrafish
#20
John C Moore, Qin Tang, Nora Torres Yordán, Finola E Moore, Elaine G Garcia, Riadh Lobbardi, Ashwin Ramakrishnan, Dieuwke L Marvin, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan I Sadreyev, David M Langenau
Cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice has revolutionized our understanding of regeneration, stem cell self-renewal, and cancer; yet models for direct imaging of engrafted cells has been limited. Here, we characterize zebrafish with mutations in recombination activating gene 2 (rag2), DNA-dependent protein kinase (prkdc), and janus kinase 3 (jak3). Histology, RNA sequencing, and single-cell transcriptional profiling of blood showed that rag2 hypomorphic mutant zebrafish lack T cells, whereas prkdc deficiency results in loss of mature T and B cells and jak3 in T and putative Natural Killer cells...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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