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Killer T cells cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321810/overview-of-basic-immunology-for-clinical-investigators
#1
Bettzy Stephen, Joud Hajjar
Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. The location, density, functionality, and the cross talk between the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment influence the nature of immune response, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in cancer patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321480/a-new-peptide-vaccine-ocv-501-in-vitro-pharmacology-and-phase-1-study-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#2
Yukio Kobayashi, Toru Sakura, Shuichi Miyawaki, Kazuyuki Toga, Shinji Sogo, Yuji Heike
Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) is a promising target of new immunotherapies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as for other cancers. OCV-501 is a helper peptide derived from the WT1 protein. OCV-501 induced OCV-501-specific Type 1 T-helper (Th1) responses dose-dependently and stimulated helper activity of the specific Th1 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. OCV-501 also enhanced the increase in WT1-killer peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. OCV-501 stimulated the OCV-501-specific Th1 clones in an HLA class-II restricted manner and formed a complex with HLA class-II protein...
March 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301281/cell-based-immunotherapy-with-cytokine-induced-killer-cik-cells-from-preparation-and-testing-to-clinical-application
#3
Yiming Meng, Zhifu Yu, Yefeng Wu, Tianzhao Du, Shi Chen, Fanjuan Meng, Nan Su, Yushu Ma, Xiaoxi Li, Sulan Sun, Guirong Zhang
Cell-based immunotherapy holds promise in the quest for the treatment of cancer, having potential synergy with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As a novel approach for adoptive cell-based immunotherapy, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have moved from the 'bench to bedside'. CIK cells are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vitro expanded, polyclonal T-effector cells with both natural killer (NK) and T-cell properties, which present potent non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor target cells...
February 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297626/clinical-applications-of-the-genomic-landscape-of-aggressive-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#4
Andrea B Moffitt, Sandeep S Dave
In this review, we examine the genomic landscapes of lymphomas that arise from B, T, and natural killer cells. Lymphomas represent a striking spectrum of clinical behaviors. Although some lymphomas are curable with standard therapy, the majority of the affected patients succumb to their disease. Here, the genetic underpinnings of these heterogeneous entities are reviewed. We consider B-cell lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296542/the-autophagy-machinery-restrains-inkt-cell-activation-through-cd1d1-internalization
#5
Christian W Keller, Monica Loi, Svenja Ewert, Isaak Quast, Romina Theiler, Monique Gannagé, Christian Münz, Gennaro De Libero, Stefan Freigang, Jan D Lünemann
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells with powerful immune regulatory functions that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1D protein. While iNKT-cell-activating glycolipids are currently being explored for their efficacy to improve immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancer, little is known about the mechanisms that control CD1D antigen presentation and iNKT cell activation in vivo. CD1D molecules survey endocytic pathways to bind lipid antigens in MHC class II containing compartments (MIICs) before recycling to the plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294381/cd3-cd8-nkg2d-t-lymphocytes-induce-apoptosis-and-necroptosis-in-hla-negative-cells-via-fasl-fas-interaction
#6
O K Ivanova, T N Sharapova, E A Romanova, L P Sashchenko, D V Yashin
An important problem in cellular immunology is to identify new populations of cytotoxic lymphocytes capable of killing tumor cells that have lost classical components of MHC-machinery and to understand mechanisms of the death of these cells. We have previously found that CD4(+) CD25(+) lymphocytes appear in the lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell culture, which carry Tag7 (PGRP-S) and FasL proteins on their surface and can kill Hsp70- and Fas-expressing HLA-negative cells. In this work, we have continued to study the mechanisms of killing of the HLA-negative tumor cells, focusing this time on the CD8+ lymphocytes...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294313/suppression-of-murine-tumor-growth-through-cd8-ctls-via-activated-dec-205-dendritic-cells-by-sequential-administration-of-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-in-vivo
#7
Hideki Kogo, Masumi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Negishi, Eiji Uchida, Hidemi Takahashi
Cancer immunity is mediated through the effective priming and activation of tumor-specific class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecule-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). DEC-205(+) dendritic cells (DCs) can cross-present the epitope(s) of captured tumor antigens associated with class I MHC molecules alongside co-stimulatory molecules to prime and activate tumor-specific CD8(+) CTLs. Immunosuppressive tolerogenic DCs with reduced co-stimulatory molecules may be a cause of impaired CTL induction...
March 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292730/chemotherapy-in-combination-with-cytokine-induced-killer-cell-transfusion-an-effective-therapeutic-option-for-patients-with-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Jianmin Huang, Quancheng Kan, Lan, Xuan Zhao, Zhen Zhang, Shuangning Yang, Hong Li, Liping Wang, Li Xu, Zhe Cheng, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the past decade of clinical studies, the combination of chemotherapy with cytokine induced killer (CIK) cell transfusion has confirmed a promised efficacy in several types of cancer. CIK cells are a mixture of T lymphocytes, generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by multiple cytokines. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy combined with CIK- cell therapy in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES SCLC)...
March 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292432/antibodies-create-killer-bonds-in-myeloma
#9
Marta Chesi, Rafael Fonseca
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li et al. and Seckinger et al. describe promising results of two T-cell-dependent bi-specific antibodies for the treatment of multiple myeloma: one targets FcRH5 expressed on B cells, whereas the other targets the B cell maturation antigen expressed on plasma cells.
March 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283580/er-mitochondria-contacts-control-surface-glycan-expression-and-sensitivity-to-killer-lymphocytes-in-glioma-stem-like-cells
#10
Esen Yonca Bassoy, Atsuko Kasahara, Valentina Chiusolo, Guillaume Jacquemin, Emma Boydell, Sebastian Zamorano, Cristina Riccadonna, Serena Pellegatta, Nicolas Hulo, Valérie Dutoit, Madiha Derouazi, Pierre Yves Dietrich, Paul R Walker, Denis Martinvalet
Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous aggressive primary brain tumor, with the glioma stem-like cells (GSC) being more sensitive to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing than glioma differentiated cells (GDC). However, the mechanism behind this higher sensitivity is unclear. Here, we found that the mitochondrial morphology of GSCs modulates the ER-mitochondria contacts that regulate the surface expression of sialylated glycans and their recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. GSCs displayed diminished ER-mitochondria contacts compared to GDCs...
March 10, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282218/immunotoxins-in-cancer-therapy-review-and-update
#11
Bahman Akbari, Safar Farajnia, Shiva Ahdi Khosroshahi, Fatemeh Safari, Mohammadreza Yousefi, Hassan Dariushnejad, Leila Rahbarnia
Immunotoxins are a novel class of cancer therapeutics that contains a cytotoxic agent fused to a targeting moiety. Various toxic agents from different sources are used in immunotoxin development, including bacterial, plant and human origin cytotoxic elements. Although bacterial and plant-derived toxins are highly toxic and commonly used in immunotoxins, their immunogenicity for human restricted their application in cancer therapy. Here, we discuss the advantages and limitations of bacterial toxins such as Pseudomonas and Diphtheria toxins, plant toxins such as ricin and gelonin, and some endogenous protein of human origin such as RNases and Granzymes...
March 1, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280786/global-dynamics-of-a-colorectal-cancer-treatment-model-with-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Kristen Abernathy, Zachary Abernathy, Kelsey Brown, Claire Burgess, Rebecca Hoehne
We present and analyze a mathematical model of the treatment of colorectal cancer using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model describes the effectiveness of immunotherapy and chemotherapy for treatment of tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The effects of CD8(+)T cells, natural killer cells, and interleukin proteins on tumor cells and CSCs under the influence of treatment are also illustrated. Using the method of localization of compact invariant sets, we present conditions on treatment parameters to guarantee a globally attracting tumor clearance state...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272202/effects-of-combined-epidural-and-general-anesthesia-on-intraoperative-hemodynamic-responses-postoperative-cellular-immunity-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-gallbladder-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Jun Zhu, Xue-Rong Zhang, Hu Yang
BACKGROUND: This study is supposed to investigate the effects of combined epidural and general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamic responses, postoperative cellular immunity, and prognosis in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC). METHODS: One hundred forty-four GBC patients were selected and randomly divided into the general anesthesia (GA) group and the combined epidural-general anesthesia (CEGA) group. Before anesthesia induction (t0), at intubation (t1), at the beginning of surgery (t2), 5 minutes after pneumoperitoneum (t3), at the end of surgery (t4), after recovery of spontaneous breathing (t5), after regaining consciousness (t6), and after extubation (t7), the heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the depth of anesthesia (bispectral index [BIS]) were detected...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261220/dual-role-of-natural-killer-cells-on-graft-rejection-and-control-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-renal-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Miguel López-Botet, Carlos Vilches, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Aura Muntasell, Aldi Pupuleku, José Yélamos, Julio Pascual, Marta Crespo
Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. Several studies have addressed the impact of this variable in kidney transplant with conflicting conclusions; yet, increasing evidence supports that alloantibody-mediated NK cell activation via FcγRIIIA (CD16) contributes to rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258695/tigit-and-cd96-new-checkpoint-receptor-targets-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
William C Dougall, Sema Kurtulus, Mark J Smyth, Ana C Anderson
While therapies targeting the co-inhibitory or immune checkpoint receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4 have shown remarkable success in many cancers, not all patients benefit from these therapies. This has catalyzed enormous interest in the targeting of other immune checkpoint receptors. In this regard, TIGIT and CD96 have recently entered the limelight as novel immune checkpoint receptor targets. TIGIT and CD96 together with the co-stimulatory receptor CD226 form a pathway that is analogous to the CD28/CTLA-4 pathway, in which shared ligands and differential receptor:ligand affinities fine-tune the immune response...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249902/hypercholesterolemia-increases-colorectal-cancer-incidence-by-reducing-production-of-nkt-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-from-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#16
Guodong Tie, Jinglian Yan, Lyne Khair, Julia Messina, April Deng, Joonsoo Kang, Thomas Fazzio, Louis M Messina
Obesity will soon surpass smoking as the most preventable cause of cancer. Hypercholesterolemia, a common comorbidity of obesity, has been shown to increase cancer risk, especially colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism by which hypercholesterolemia or any metabolic disorder increases cancer risk remains unknown. In this study, we show that hypercholesterolemia increases the incidence and pathological severity of colorectal neoplasia in two independent mouse models. Hypochlosterolemia induced an oxidant-stress dependent increase in miR101c which downregulated Tet1 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), resulting in reduced expression of genes critical to natural killer T cell (NKT) and γδ T cell differentiation...
March 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245613/from-lysosomal-storage-diseases-to-nkt-cell-activation-and-back
#17
REVIEW
Cátia S Pereira, Helena Ribeiro, M Fatima Macedo
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of different types of substrates in the lysosome. With a multisystemic involvement, LSDs often present a very broad clinical spectrum. In many LSDs, alterations of the immune system were described. Special emphasis was given to Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, a population of lipid-specific T cells that is activated by lipid antigens bound to CD1d (cluster of differentiation 1 d) molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells...
February 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240761/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-cxcr3-chemokines-a-narrative-review
#18
E Giusy, F Poupak
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from several factors like viral hepatitis infection [hepatitis B, or C (25%)] or occupational exposure. T-helper (Th)1 inflammatory cells, characterized by interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion, predominate in the liver during chronic HCV infection, and chemokines attracting these cells are particularly important in disease progression. Among C-X-C chemokines, the non-ELR group [as IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) and IFN-inducible T-cell-alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)], attracts Th1-cells interacting with chemokine C-X-C receptor (CXCR3)...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231294/association-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-and-t-lymphocytes-with-the-pathogenesis-and-progression-of-hbv-associated-primary-liver-cancer
#19
Xiaoli Liu, Lingling He, Junyan Han, Lijia Wang, Mengge Li, Yuyong Jiang, Xianbo Wang, Zhiyun Yang
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new prognostic predictor for patients with liver cancer. The association of NLR and T lymphocytes with the pathogenesis and progression of liver cancer is poorly understood. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated primary liver cancer (HBV-PLC), 50 patients with HBV-associated liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC) and 37 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) were prospectively enrolled from July 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014 in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University (Beijing, China)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215281/emerging-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-related-functions-of-nlrc5
#20
S T Chelbi, A T Dang, G Guarda
Recent evidence demonstrates a key role for the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRC5 (NLR family, CARD domain containing protein 5) in the transcriptional regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and related genes. Detailed information on NLRC5 target genes in various cell types and conditions is emerging. Thanks to its analogy to CIITA (class II major MHC transactivator), a NLR family member known for over 20 years to be the master regulator of MHC class II gene transcription, also the molecular mechanisms underlying NLRC5 function are being rapidly unraveled...
2017: Advances in Immunology
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