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Killer T cells cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677439/nanoparticle-based-photo-triggered-cancer-immunotherapy-and-its-domino-effect-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#1
Santhosh Kalash Rajendrakumar, Saji Uthaman, Chong Su Cho, In-Kyu Park
Immune system evasion by cancer cells is one of the hallmarks of cancers, and it occurs with the support of tumor-associated immune cells (TICs) in the tumor microenvironment that increase the growth and invasiveness of tumor cells. With recent advancements in the development of novel near infrared (NIR)-responsive nanoparticles, specifically eradicating TICs or inducing an inflammatory immune response by activating killer T cells has become possible. This review will discuss the mechanisms and applications of photo-triggered immunotherapy in detail...
April 20, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668066/mait-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-roles-in-host-defense-and-therapeutic-potentials-in-infectious-diseases-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Patrick T Rudak, Joshua Choi, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional, innate-like T lymphocytes that sense the presence of MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted ligands and select inflammatory cues. Consequently, they release potent immunomodulatory mediators, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and/or IL-17. MAIT cells can also be viewed as killer cells. They display several NK cell-associated receptors, carry granules containing cytotoxic effector molecules, and swiftly upregulate perforin and granzymes upon activation. Accordingly, MAIT cells are capable of lysing MR1-expressing cells infected with a variety of pathogenic bacteria in in vitro settings and may also mount cytotoxic responses during microbial infections in vivo...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662489/immunological-approaches-towards-cancer-and-inflammation-a-cross-talk
#3
REVIEW
Xinglong Qu, Ying Tang, Shucheng Hua
The inflammation is the protective response of the body against various harmful stimuli; however, the aberrant and inappropriate activation tends to become harmful. The acute inflammatory response tends to resolved once the offending agent is subside but this acute response becomes chronic in nature when the body is unable to successfully neutralized the noxious stimuli. This chronic inflammatory microenvironment is associated with the release of various pro-inflammatory and oncogenic mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), cytokines [IL-1β, IL-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], growth factor, and chemokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661791/interferon-%C3%AE-and-its-important-roles-in-promoting-and-inhibiting-spontaneous-and-therapeutic-cancer-immunity
#4
Elise Alspach, Danielle M Lussier, Robert D Schreiber
Originally identified in studies of cellular resistance to viral infection, interferon (IFN)-γ is now known to represent a distinct member of the IFN family and plays critical roles not only in orchestrating both innate and adaptive immune responses against viruses, bacteria, and tumors, but also in promoting pathologic inflammatory processes. IFN-γ production is largely restricted to T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and can ultimately lead to the generation of a polarized immune response composed of T helper (Th)1 CD4+ T cells and CD8+ cytolytic T cells...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650045/characterization-of-the-interaction-between-human-decidua-parietalis-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-and-natural-killer-cells
#5
M H Abumaree, E Bahattab, A Alsadoun, A Al Dosaimani, F M Abomaray, T Khatlani, B Kalionis, M F El-Muzaini, A O Alawad, A S AlAskar
BACKGROUND: Human decidua parietalis mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (DPMSCs) have unique phenotypic and functional properties that make them promising candidates for cell-based therapy. Here, we investigated DPMSC interaction with natural killer (NK) cells, and the effects of this interaction on NK cell phenotypic characteristics and functional activities. METHODS: DPMSCs isolated from the decidua parietalis of human fetal membranes were cultured with interleukin (IL)-2-activated and IL-2-unactivated NK cells isolated from healthy human peripheral blood...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627706/dendritic-cell-based-immunotherapy-for-solid-tumors
#6
REVIEW
Nam-Chul Jung, Jun-Ho Lee, Kwang-Hoe Chung, Yi Sub Kwak, Dae-Seog Lim
As a treatment for solid tumors, dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has not been as effective as expected. Here, we review the reasons underlying the limitations of DC-based immunotherapy for solid tumors and ask what can be done to improve immune cell-based cancer therapies. Several reports show that, rather than a lack of immune induction, the limited efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy in cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) likely results from inhibition of immune responses by tumor-secreted TGF-β and an increase in the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells in and around the solid tumor...
April 5, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619076/immunogenicity-of-a-fap2-peptide-mimotope-of-fusobacterium-nucleatum-and-its-potential-use-in-the-diagnosis-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
Leonardo A Guevarra, Andrea Claudine F Afable, Patricia Joyce O Belza, Karen Joy S Dy, Scott Justin Q Lee, Teresa T Sy-Ortin, Pia Marie S P Albano
Background: The role of Fusobacterium nucleatum Fap2 protein in the development of colorectal cancer has recently been explained. Fap2, when bound to the human inhibitory receptor, TIGIT, inhibits the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells, thus, allowing proliferation of the latter eventually leading to tumor growth. The aim of the study was to identify the immunogenicity of a peptide mimotope of the Fap2 protein and to determine the reactivity of colorectal cancer patients' sera against the mimotope...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616022/temporal-regulation-of-natural-killer-t-cell-interferon-gamma-responses-by-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-and-independent-wnt-signaling
#8
Jessica C Kling, Margaret A Jordan, Lauren A Pitt, Jana Meiners, Thao Thanh-Tran, Le Son Tran, Tam T K Nguyen, Deepak Mittal, Rehan Villani, Raymond J Steptoe, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, Stuart P Berzins, Alan G Baxter, Dale I Godfrey, Antje Blumenthal
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are prominent innate-like lymphocytes in the liver with critical roles in immune responses during infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-4 are key cytokines rapidly produced by NKT cells upon recognition of glycolipid antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). It has previously been reported that the transcriptional coactivator β-catenin regulates NKT cell differentiation and functionally biases NKT cell responses toward IL-4, at the expense of IFN-γ production...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605760/next-generation-natural-killer-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy-the-promise-of-genetic-engineering
#9
REVIEW
May Daher, Katayoun Rezvani
Recent advances in the field of cellular therapy have focused on autologous T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) against tumor antigens. Remarkable responses have been observed in patients receiving autologous CD19-redirected T cells for the treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies. However, the generation of autologous products for each patient is logistically challenging and expensive. Extensive research efforts are ongoing to generate an off-the-shelf cellular product for the treatment of cancer patients...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601534/heterogeneity-in-immune-cell-content-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#10
REVIEW
Jorien Minnema-Luiting, Heleen Vroman, Joachim Aerts, Robin Cornelissen
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer with limited therapy options and dismal prognosis. In recent years, the role of immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) has become a major area of interest. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of heterogeneity in immune cell content and checkpoint expression in MPM in relation to prognosis and prediction of treatment efficacy. Generally, immune-suppressive cells such as M2 macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells are present within the TME, with extensive heterogeneity in cell numbers...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599780/bi-allelic-mutations-in-stxbp2-reveal-a-complementary-role-for-stxbp1-in-cytotoxic-lymphocyte-killing
#11
Jamie A Lopez, Tahereh Noori, Adrian Minson, Lu Li Jovanoska, Kevin Thia, Michael S Hildebrand, Hedieh Akhlaghi, Phillip K Darcy, Michael H Kershaw, Natasha J Brown, Andrew Grigg, Joseph A Trapani, Ilia Voskoboinik
The ability of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL) to eliminate virus-infected or cancerous target cells through the granule exocytosis death pathway is critical to immune homeostasis. Congenital loss of CL function due to bi-allelic mutations in PRF1, UNC13D, STX11 , or STXBP2 leads to a potentially fatal immune dysregulation, familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). This occurs due to the failure of CLs to release functional pore-forming protein perforin and, therefore, inability to kill the target cell...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596308/ep4-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-aggressive-human-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Mousumi Majumder, Pinki Nandi, Ahmed Omar, Kingsley Chukwunonso Ugwuagbo, Peeyush K Lala
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also called seven-transmembrane or heptahelical receptors) are a superfamily of cell surface receptor proteins that bind to many extracellular ligands and transmit signals to an intracellular guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein). When a ligand binds, the receptor activates the attached G-protein by causing the exchange of Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) for guanosine diphosphate (GDP). They play a major role in many physiological functions, as well as in the pathology of many diseases, including cancer progression and metastasis...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576533/dual-modifications-of-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-synergize-to-promote-activation-of-human-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-and-stimulate-anti-tumor-immunity
#13
Divya Chennamadhavuni, Noemi Alejandra Saavedra-Avila, Leandro J Carreño, Matthew J Guberman-Pfeffer, Pooja Arora, Tang Yongqing, Hui-Fern Koay, Dale I Godfrey, Santosh Keshipeddy, Stewart K Richardson, Srinivasan Sundararaj, Jae Ho Lo, Xiangshu Wen, José A Gascón, Weiming Yuan, Jamie Rossjohn, Jérôme Le Nours, Steven A Porcelli, Amy R Howell
Glycosylceramides that activate CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have potential therapeutic applications for augmenting immune responses against cancer and infections. Previous studies using mouse models identified sphinganine variants of α-galactosylceramide as promising iNKT cell activators that stimulate cytokine responses with a strongly proinflammatory bias. However, the activities of sphinganine variants in mice have generally not translated well to studies of human iNKT cell responses...
March 9, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563317/extended-release-of-perioperative-immunotherapy-prevents-tumor-recurrence-and-eliminates-metastases
#14
Chun Gwon Park, Christina A Hartl, Daniela Schmid, Ellese M Carmona, Hye-Jung Kim, Michael S Goldberg
Cancer immunotherapy can confer durable benefit, but the percentage of patients who respond to this approach remains modest. The ability to concentrate immunostimulatory compounds at the site of disease can overcome local immune tolerance and reduce systemic toxicity. Surgical resection of tumors may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy by removing the concentrated immunosuppressive microenvironment; however, it also removes tumor-specific leukocytes as well as tumor antigens that may be important to establishing antitumor immunity...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562195/unconventional-t-cell-targets-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Dale I Godfrey, Jérôme Le Nours, Daniel M Andrews, Adam P Uldrich, Jamie Rossjohn
Most studies on the immunotherapeutic potential of T cells have focused on CD8 and CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigens (Ag) presented by polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II molecules, respectively. However, unconventional T cells, which interact with MHC class Ib and MHC-I like molecules, are also implicated in tumor immunity, although their role therein is unclear. These include unconventional T cells targeting MHC class Ib molecules such as HLA-E and its murine ortholog Qa-1b, natural killer T (NKT) cells, mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γδ T cells...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560551/impaired-natural-killer-cell-subset-phenotypes-in-human-obesity
#16
Ina Bähr, Janine Jahn, Alexander Zipprich, Inge Pahlow, Julia Spielmann, Heike Kielstein
Obesity is associated with alterations in functionality of immune cells, like macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells, leading to an increased risk for severe infections and several cancer types. This study aimed to examine immune cell populations and functional NK cell parameters focusing on NK cell subset phenotypes in normal-weight and obese humans. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from normal-weight and obese individuals and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results show no significant changes in the frequency of monocytes, B lymphocytes, or NKT cells but a significantly increased frequency of T lymphocytes in obesity...
March 20, 2018: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559978/human-body-composition-and-immunity-visceral-adipose-tissue-produces-il-15-and-muscle-strength-inversely-correlates-with-nk-cell-function-in-elderly-humans
#17
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558107/tumor-ablation-and-therapeutic-immunity-induction-by-an-injectable-peptide-hydrogel
#18
Honglin Jin, Chao Wan, Zhenwei Zou, Guifang Zhao, Lingling Zhang, Yuanyuan Geng, Tong Chen, Ai Huang, Fagang Jiang, Jue-Ping Feng, Jonathan F Lovell, Jing Chen, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments (TMEs) create tremendous obstacles for an effective cancer therapy. Herein, we developed a melittin-RADA32 hybrid peptide hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for a potent chemoimmunotherapy against melanoma through the active regulation of TMEs. The formed melittin-RADA32-DOX (MRD) hydrogel has an interweaving nanofiber structure and exhibits excellent biocompatibility, controlled drug release properties both in vitro and in vivo, and an enhanced killing effect to melanoma cells...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553870/improved-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-cd303-expressing-targets-of-the-chimeric-122a2-antibody-selected-for-specific-glycosylation-pattern
#19
Nathalie Fournier, Emilie Jacque, Alexandre Fontayne, Delphine Derache, Gilles Dupont, Lucie Verhaeghe, Linda Baptista, Aurélie Dehenne, Anne-Sophie Dezetter, Aurélie Terrier, Alain Longue, Virginie Pochet-Beghin, Cecile Beghin, Sami Chtourou, Christophe de Romeuf
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a central role for both innate and adaptive antiviral responses, as they direct immune responses through their unique ability to produce substantial concentrations of type I interferon (IFNs) upon viral encounter while also activating multiple immune cells, including macrophages, DCs, B, natural killer and T cells. Recent evidence clearly indicates that pDCs also play a crucial role in some cancers and several auto-immune diseases. Although treatments are currently available to patients with such pathologies, many are not fully efficient...
March 19, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552207/-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-peripheral-blood-natural-killer-cells-and-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-from-lung-cancer-patients
#20
Hoang Thi My Nhung, Bui Viet Anh, Truong Linh Huyen, Doan Trung Hiep, Chu Thi Thao, Phung Nam Lam, Nguyen Thanh Liem
Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer with the highest cancer-associated mortality rates worldwide, as well as in Vietnam. Numerous studies have demonstrated that higher numbers and higher rate of activity of infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the tumor are closely correlated with positive prognosis, tumor size decrease and longer survival of lung cancer patients. In the present study, the effectiveness of BINKIT® kit in the ex vivo expansion of NK cells and CTLs in the peripheral blood of 7 patients aged between 30 and 84 years with metastatic lung cancer was evaluated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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