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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048633/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-anti-primary-effusion-lymphoma-activities-of-fucoidan-extracted-from-cladosiphon-okamuranus-tokida
#1
Chie Ishikawa, Naoki Mori
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is characterized by lymphomatous effusion in body cavities and poor prognosis. There is still no effective treatment for PEL. Fucoidan, a major sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown seaweeds, has an attractive array of bioactivities such as cancer inhibition. However, the effects of fucoidan on PEL cells remain unclear. We investigated the anti-PEL effects of fucoidan obtained from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida cultivated in Okinawa...
September 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043842/the-protective-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-fucoidan-against-7-12-dimethyl-benz-a-anthracene-induced-experimental-mammary-carcinogenesis-through-the-pd1-pdl1-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#2
Meilan Xue, Hui Liang, Qingjuan Tang, Chuanxing Xue, Xinjia He, Li Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Zhengyan Liang, Kang Bian, Lichen Zhang, Zhuxin Li
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide that is extracted from brown algae seaweed. This study was designed to evaluate the protective and immunomodulatory effects of dietary fucoidan on 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced experimental mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups: the control group (control group), the cancer model group (model group), and the F1 and F2 groups, which were fed fucoidan at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/kg·body weight, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040754/development-of-unique-cytotoxic-chimeric-antigen-receptors-based-on-human-scfv-targeting-b7h6
#3
Casey K Hua, Albert T Gacerez, Charles L Sentman, Margaret E Ackerman
As a stress-inducible natural killer (NK) cell ligand, B7H6 plays a role in innate tumor immunosurveillance and is a fairly tumor selective marker expressed on a variety of solid and hematologic cancer cells. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new family of single chain fragment variable (scFv) molecules targeting the human B7H6 ligand. Through directed evolution of a yeast surface displayed non-immune human-derived scFv library, eight candidates comprising a single family of clones differing by up to four amino acid mutations and exhibiting nM avidities for soluble B7H6-Ig were isolated...
October 11, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038795/immune-engineering-from-systems-immunology-to-engineering-immunity
#4
Ning Jiang
The smallpox vaccine represents the earliest attempt in engineering immunity. The recent success of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in cancer once again demonstrates the clinical potential of immune engineering. Inspired by this success, diverse approaches have been used to boost various aspects of immunity: engineering dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, antibodies, cytokines, small peptides, and others. With recent development of various high-throughput technologies (of which engineers, especially biomedical engineers/bioengineers contributed significantly), such as immune repertoire sequencing, and analytical methods, a systems level of understanding immunity (or the lack of it) beyond model animals has provided critical insights into the human immune system...
March 2017: Curr Opin Biomed Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023417/control-of-nk-cell-activation-by-immune-checkpoint-molecules
#5
REVIEW
Asma Beldi-Ferchiou, Sophie Caillat-Zucman
The development of cancer and chronic infections is facilitated by many subversion mechanisms, among which enhanced expression of immune checkpoints molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), on exhausted T cells. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown remarkable efficiency in the treatment of a number of cancers. However, expression of immune checkpoints on natural killer (NK) cells and its functional consequences on NK cell effector functions are much less explored...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022493/immunonutrition-before-esophagectomy-impact-on-immune-surveillance-mechanisms
#6
Marco Scarpa, Andromachi Kotsafti, Matteo Fassan, Melania Scarpa, Francesco Cavallin, Teresa Nardi, Eleonora Pinto, Rita Alfieri, Matteo Cagol, Marco Agostini, Massimo Rugge, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Carlo Castoro
Preoperative oral immunonutrition was demonstrated to improve immune response and to decrease the infection rate in patients with cancer. This study aimed to assess how immunonutrition could influence the immune cell response in the mucosal microenvironment of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, A prospective cohort of consecutive patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma was enrolled. A subgroup of them was given preoperative oral immunonutrition with Oral Impact® and was compared to those who received no preoperative supplementation...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018953/frequency-and-proliferative-response-of-circulating-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-in-pediatric-patients-with-malignant-solid-tumors
#7
Tomoro Hishiki, Naoko Mise, Kazuaki Harada, Fumie Ihara, Mariko Takami, Takeshi Saito, Keita Terui, Mitsuyuki Nakata, Shugo Komatsu, Hideo Yoshida, Shinichiro Motohashi
BACKGROUND: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play an important role in tumor immunity, enhancing both innate and acquired immunity. We have previously shown the enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma by activated iNKT cells. As a first step towards clinical application, we studied the frequency and proliferative response of circulating iNKT cells in children with and without cancer. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 10 patients with pediatric malignant solid tumors and 11 patients with non-neoplastic diseases (control)...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018445/natural-killer-t-cells-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Shiny Nair, Madhav V Dhodapkar
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Following stimulation, NKT cells lead to downstream activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. This has impelled the development of NKT cell-targeted immunotherapies for treating cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the stimulatory and regulatory functions of NKT cells in tumor immunity as well as highlight preclinical and clinical studies based on NKT cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018171/dual-enhancement-of-t-and-nk-cell-function-by-pulsatile-inhibition-of-ship1-improves-antitumor-immunity-and-survival
#9
Matthew Gumbleton, Raki Sudan, Sandra Fernandes, Robert W Engelman, Christopher M Russo, John D Chisholm, William G Kerr
The success of immunotherapy in some cancer patients has revealed the profound capacity for cytotoxic lymphocytes to eradicate malignancies. Various immunotherapies work by blocking key checkpoint proteins that suppress immune cell activity. The phosphatase SHIP1 (SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase) limits signaling from receptors that activate natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. However, unexpectedly, genetic ablation studies have shown that the effector functions of SHIP1-deficient NK and T cells are compromised in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993781/natural-killer-t-cell-targeted-immunotherapy-mediating-long-term-memory-responses-and-strong-antitumor-activity
#10
Nyambayar Dashtsoodol, Tomokuni Shigeura, Takuya Tashiro, Minako Aihara, Toshihiro Chikanishi, Hiromi Okada, Keigo Hanada, Hirokazu Sano, Akihiko Kurogi, Masaru Taniguchi
Current tumor therapies, including immunotherapies, focus on passive eradication or at least reduction of the tumor mass. However, cancer patients quite often suffer from tumor relapse or metastasis after such treatments. To overcome these problems, we have developed a natural killer T (NKT) cell-targeted immunotherapy focusing on active engagement of the patient's immune system, but not directly targeting the tumor cells themselves. NKT cells express an invariant antigen receptor α chain encoded by Trav11 (Vα14)-Traj18 (Jα18) gene segments in mice and TRAV10 (Vα24)-TRAJ18 (Jα18) in humans and recognize glycolipid ligand in conjunction with a monomorphic CD1d molecule...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988508/immunological-effects-of-everolimus-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-cancer
#11
Charlotte M Huijts, Saskia J Santegoets, Tamarah D de Jong, Henk M Verheul, Tanja D de Gruijl, Hans J van der Vliet
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial kinase present in all cells. Besides its role in the regulation of cell-growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and survival of malignant tumors, mTOR additionally plays an important role in immune regulation by controlling the balance between effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). This critically affects the suppressive state of the immune system. Here, the systemic immunological effects of everolimus treatment were comprehensively investigated in five patients with metastatic renal cell cancer...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987965/emerging-targets-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Samantha Burugu, Amanda R Dancsok, Torsten O Nielsen
The first generation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1) targeted natural immune homeostasis pathways, co-opted by cancers, to drive anti-tumor immune responses. These agents led to unprecedented results in patients with previously incurable metastatic disease and may become first-line therapies for some advanced cancers. However, these agents are efficacious in only a minority of patients. Newer strategies are becoming available that target additional immunomodulatory mechanisms to activate patients' own anti-tumor immune responses...
October 5, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980517/comparison-of-chemoradiotherapy-with-radiotherapy-alone-for-early-stage-extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type-in-elderly-patients
#13
Chang Su, Kevin A Nguyen, Harrison X Bai, Dhikshitha Balaji, Ya Cao, Giorgos Karakousis, Paul J Zhang, Guiying Zhang, Rong Xiao
It remains controversial whether concurrent or subsequent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) provides additional survival benefits when compared to radiotherapy (RT) alone in localized extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type We identified 248 patients from the US National Cancer Data Base who were diagnosed with localized ENKTL from 2004-2014; 68.9% received CRT and 31.1% received RT alone. Over time, the use of CRT increased, while the use of RT alone decreased (p < .001). On multivariate analysis, CRT was associated with longer OS than RT alone (HR: 0...
October 5, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977785/innate-immunity-protein-tag7-induces-3-distinct-populations-of-cytotoxic-cells-that-use-different-mechanisms-to-exhibit-their-antitumor-activity-on-human-leukocyte-antigen-deficient-cancer-cells
#14
Tatiana N Sharapova, Olga K Ivanova, Natalia V Soshnikova, Elena A Romanova, Lidia P Sashchenko, Denis V Yashin
The search for new immune response mechanisms capable of controlling immune-evasive tumor cells devoid of the MHC antigen is a challenging task for immunologists. In this study, we found that the treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the innate immunity protein Tag7 (PGRP-S, PGLYRP1) induces differentiation of the populations of NK (natural killer) cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes that are cytotoxic for human leukocyte antigen-negative tumor cells. These populations employ different mechanisms of tumor cell lysis (based on the release of granzymes in the case of NK cells and on the FasL-Fas interaction in the case of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes) and induce different death pathways (apoptosis or necroptosis) in tumor cells...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970093/a-mathematical-model-of-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-adcc
#15
F Hoffman, D Gavaghan, J Osborne, I P Barrett, T You, H Ghadially, R Sainson, R W Wilkinson, H M Byrne
Immunotherapies exploit the immune system to target and kill cancer cells, while sparing healthy tissue. Antibody therapies, an important class of immunotherapies, involve the binding to specific antigens on the surface of the tumour cells of antibodies that activate natural killer (NK) cells to kill the tumour cells. Preclinical assessment of molecules that may cause antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) involves co-culturing cancer cells, NK cells and antibody in vitro for several hours and measuring subsequent levels of tumour cell lysis...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966461/natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-invading-the-orbit-and-globe
#16
Lance J Lyons, Ivan Vrcek, Marie Somogyi, Kevin Taheri, Joan H Admirand, Saradha Chexal, Demetrius F Loukas, Tanuj Nakra
Natural killer/T-cell lymphomas are extremely rare and carry high mortality rates. Epidemiologically, these cancers tend to affect mainly Asian and South American patients and are associated with Epstein-Barr virus seropositivity. This report details a 78-year-old Vietnamese woman who presented initially with vitritis of unknown cause, but later developed proptosis and conjunctival involvement as her disease spread. Biopsies of the orbit, ethmoid sinus, and conjunctiva were found to be significant for natural killer/T-cell lymphoma...
October 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941416/increased-cycles-of-dc-cik-immunotherapy-decreases-frequency-of-tregs-in-patients-with-resected-nsclc
#17
Haiping Song, Shujuan Liu, Ziyun Zhao, Weihong Sun, Xiaofang Wei, Xuezhen Ma, Peng Zhao, Daiqing Gao
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress antitumor immune responses. Cycles of Dendritic cells (DC) vaccination combined with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells (DC/CIK) treatment were significantly related with good prognosis. Therefore, we investigated whether increased cycles of immunotherapy could decrease frequency of Tregs in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous study from our laboratory has determined that the optimal cutoff point of the cycle count was 3cycles. We examined the levels of Tregs and the related cytokines by flow cytometric and cytokine analysis in these patients after more than (≥) 3cycles or less than (<) 3cycles of DC/CIK cell treatment...
September 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937369/study-of-association-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-lymphomas-by-epstein-barr-virus-encoded-rna-in-situ-hybridization-an-indian-perspective-from-a-tertiary-care-cancer-institute
#18
Roshani Gala, Jatin S Gandhi, Gurudutt Gupta, Shrruti K Grover, Anila Sharma, Sunil Pasricha, Anurag Mehta
BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4, is a virus of the herpes family. The EBV-associated lymphomas include Burkitt lymphoma, classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), lymphomas arising in immunocompromised individuals, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, and other rare histotypes. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the role of EBV as an etiologic agent in various lymphomas and determined an Indian perspective in a tertiary care cancer center compared to that of Western literature...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932640/co-delivery-of-the-nkt-agonist-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-and-tumor-antigens-to-cross-priming-dendritic-cells-breaks-tolerance-to-self-antigens-and-promotes-antitumor-responses
#19
Reem Ghinnagow, Julie De Meester, Luis Javier Cruz, Caroline Aspord, Stéphanie Corgnac, Elodie Macho-Fernandez, Daphnée Soulard, Josette Fontaine, Laurence Chaperot, Julie Charles, Fabrice Soncin, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Joel Plumas, Christelle Faveeuw, François Trottein
Vaccines designed to abrogate the tolerance of tumor self-antigens and amplify cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells (CTLs) have promise for the treatment of cancer. Type I natural killer (NKT) cells have attracted considerable interest in the cancer therapy field. In the current study, we have exploited the unique ability of NKT cells to serve as T-helper cells to license dendritic cells (DCs) for cross priming with the aim to generate efficient CTL antitumor responses. To this end, we designed a nanoparticle-based vaccine to target cross-priming DCs via the Clec9a endocytic pathway...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930684/tumor-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-use-distinct-mechanisms-to-block-the-activity-of-natural-killer-cell-subsets
#20
Sabine Galland, Joanna Vuille, Patricia Martin, Igor Letovanec, Anne Caignard, Giulia Fregni, Ivan Stamenkovic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display pleiotropic functions, which include secretion of soluble factors with immunosuppressive activity implicated in cancer progression. We compared the immunomodulatory effects on natural killer (NK) cells of paired intratumor (T)- and adjacent non-tumor tissue (N)-derived MSCs from patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC). We observed that T-MSCs were more strongly immunosuppressive than N-MSCs and affected both NK function and phenotype, as defined by CD56 expression...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
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