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Beta alanine

Noura S Abul-Husn, Xiping Cheng, Alexander H Li, Yurong Xin, Claudia Schurmann, Panayiotis Stevis, Yashu Liu, Julia Kozlitina, Stefan Stender, G Craig Wood, Ann N Stepanchick, Matthew D Still, Shane McCarthy, Colm O'Dushlaine, Jonathan S Packer, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Nehal Gosalia, David Esopi, Sun Y Kim, Semanti Mukherjee, Alexander E Lopez, Erin D Fuller, John Penn, Xin Chu, Jonathan Z Luo, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, David J Carey, Christopher D Still, Michael D Feldman, Aeron Small, Scott M Damrauer, Daniel J Rader, Brian Zambrowicz, William Olson, Andrew J Murphy, Ingrid B Borecki, Alan R Shuldiner, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, George D Yancopoulos, Helen H Hobbs, Jonathan C Cohen, Omri Gottesman, Tanya M Teslovich, Aris Baras, Tooraj Mirshahi, Jesper Gromada, Frederick E Dewey
BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the genetic factors underlying chronic liver disease may reveal new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We used exome sequence data and electronic health records from 46,544 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study to identify genetic variants associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Variants that were replicated in three additional cohorts (12,527 persons) were evaluated for association with clinical diagnoses of chronic liver disease in DiscovEHR study participants and two independent cohorts (total of 37,173 persons) and with histopathological severity of liver disease in 2391 human liver samples...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Khaled G Abdel-Wahhab, Eitedal M Daoud, Aliaa El Gendy, Hagar H Mourad, Fathia A Mannaa, Maha M Saber
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the highly occurred complication of diabetes mellitus; it has been defined as an event of peripheral nerve dysfunction characterized by pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and paraesthesia. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of neuropathy in diabetic rats. The used animals were divided into the following groups: negative control, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats with peripheral neuropathy (DNP) and DNP treated with gabapentin or with LLLT...
March 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jie Chen, Kelun Li, X Chris Le, Lizhong Zhu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are toxic chemicals widely distributed in the environment, but few studies are available on their potential toxicity to rice at metabolic level. Therefore we exposed ten rice (Oryza sativa) varieties to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a predominant congener of PBDEs, in hydroponic solutions with different concentrations. Two varieties that showed different biological effects to BDE-47, YY-9 and LJ-7, were screened as sensitive and tolerant varieties according to changes of morphological and physiological indicators...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Peter Peeling, Martyn J Binnie, Paul S R Goods, Marc Sim, Louise M Burke
A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Kelly N Greenland, Ma Faye Charmagne Aquino Carvajal, Jonathan Preston, Siri Ekblad, William L Dean, Jeff Y Chiang, Ronald L Koder, Richard Jules Wittebort
Artificial minielastin constructs have been designed which replicate the structure and function of natural elastins in a simpler context, allowing the NMR observation of structure and dynamics of elastin-like proteins with complete residue-specific resolution. We find that the alanine-rich crosslinking domains of elastin have partially helical structure, but only when capped by proline-rich hydrophobic domains. We also find that the hydrophobic domains, composed of prominent 6-residue repeats VPGVGG and APGVGV found in natural elastins appear random coil by both NMR chemical shift analysis and circular dichroism...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Mohamed A Yassin, Ashraf T Soliman, Vincenzo De Sanctis, Mohammad Aj Abdula, Lubna M Riaz, Firdous F Ghori, Anil Yousaf, Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Sandara Abusamaan, Abbas Moustafa, Samah Kohla, Dina S Soliman
Despite regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, growth impairment and pubertal delay are commonly seen in children and adolescents with transfusion-dependent Beta thalassaemia major (BTM) and sickle cell disease (SCD). We evaluated growth parameters and endocrine disorders in relation to the liver iron concentration (LIC) assessed by the Ferriscan® method in a cohort of adults with SCD (n =40) and BTM (n = 52) receiving blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy since early childhood. Before transfusion, hemoglobin concentration had not been less than 9 g/dl in the past 12 years; subcutaneous daily desferrioxamine was administered for all of them since early childhood (2- 5 years of age)...
February 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
H Kaya, B Polat, A Albayrak, T Mercantepe, B Buyuk
Paracetamol (P), one of the most popular and commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agents, causes hepatotoxicity in overdoses. Amlodipine (AML), an L-type calcium channel blocker, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity by reversing the effect of calcium in the inflammation pathogenesis. In this study, the hepatoprotective activity of AML on P-induced hepatotoxicity was evaluated. Thirty male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (1) control, (2) 2 g/kg of P, (3) 2 g/kg of P + 5 mg/kg of AML, (4) 2 g/kg of P + 10 mg/kg of AML, and (5) 10 mg/kg of AML...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Serenella Anzilotti, Paola Brancaccio, Giuseppe Simeone, Valeria Valsecchi, Antonio Vinciguerra, Agnese Secondo, Tiziana Petrozziello, Natascia Guida, Rossana Sirabella, Ornella Cuomo, Pasquale Cepparulo, Andrè Herchuelz, Salvatore Amoroso, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Preconditioning (PC) is a phenomenon wherein a mild insult induces resistance to a later, severe injury. Although PC has been extensively studied in several neurological disorders, no studies have been performed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we hypothesize that a sub-toxic acute exposure to the cycad neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is able to delay ALS progression in SOD1 G93A mice and that NCX3, a membrane transporter able to handle the deregulation of ionic homeostasis occurring during ALS, takes part to this neuroprotective effect...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Tyler Shugg, Derrick E Johnson, Minghai Shao, Xianyin Lai, Frank Witzmann, Theodore R Cummins, Michael Rubart-Von-der Lohe, Andy Hudmon, Brian R Overholser
BACKGROUND: Sustained β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation causes pathophysiologic changes during heart failure (HF), including inhibition of the slow component of the delayed rectifier current, IKs. Aberrant calcium handling, including increased activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), contributes to arrhythmia development during HF. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CaMKII regulation of KCNQ1 (pore-forming subunit of IKs) during sustained β-AR stimulation and associated functional implications on IKs...
February 1, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Linlin Zhang, Huizong Su, Yue Li, Yujuan Fan, Qian Wang, Jian Jiang, Yiyang Hu, Gaofeng Chen, Bo Tan, Furong Qiu
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced acute and recovery stage of cholestasis model mice. In the acute stage of model mice, pretreatment with UDCA (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1, ig) for 12 days prior to ANIT administration (50 mg·kg-1, ig) resulted in the dramatic increase in serum biochemistry, with aggrevation of bile infarcts and hepatocyte necrosis. The elevation of beta-muricholic acid (β-MCA), cholic acid (CA), and taurocholic acid (TCA) in serum and liver, and reduction of these bile acids (BAs) in bile was observed...
February 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Xiongbing Tu, Zhongkuan Liu, Zehua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Plant breeding for resistance to agricultural pests is an essential element in the development of integrated crop management systems; however, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. In this pilot study, a transcriptomic analysis of a resistant (R) vs. a susceptible (S) variety of alfalfa, with (+T) or without (-T) thrips (= 4 treatments) was conducted, 'GN-1' (China) was defined as the resistant cultivar, and 'WL323' (America) was defined as the susceptible cultivar...
February 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Satabdi Ganguly, Arabinda Mahanty, Tandrima Mitra, Sasmita Mohanty, Basanta Kumar Das, Bimal Prasanna Mohanty
The Indian shad hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), a commercially important food fish rich in oils, enjoys high consumer preference in the South Asian countries owing to its unique flavour and culinary properties. The present study was undertaken with the primary objective of determining the flesh quality attributes of hilsa in terms of nutritive value (gross chemical composition, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral composition), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism and flesh quality...
January 2018: Food Research International
Sally A El Awdan, Mohamed M Amin, Azza Hassan
Even though cilostazol was assessed before in several models of atherosclerosis, so far its full systematic effect as a natural anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mediator in the protection of liver damage and complication has not been fully clarified, which is the target of this study. For that purpose, we examined the protective effect of cilostazol (10 and 5mg/kg, p.o. b.wt.) in an acute hepatic injury model by orally injecting it for 3 weeks prior to a single dose of TAA (300mg/kg, i.p) injection. Ursodeoxycholic acid was used as a standard drug (50mg/kg, p...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Christopher H Bailey, Joseph F Signorile, Arlette C Perry, Kevin A Jacobs, Nicholas D Myers
To investigate the potential of beta-alanine to increase muscular endurance of elder individuals in specific resistance-training protocols, we randomly assigned 27 participants (60-82 years of age) to a 12-week double-blind intervention using 3.2 g/day beta-alanine or placebo with or without resistance training to determine the effects on anthropometrics, muscular performance, and activities of daily living (ADL). The endurance-based resistance-training program (ERT) was given three times per week and included two sets of 15-25 repetitions on 11 computerized pneumatic machines (alternating upper and lower body) at an intensity of 50% of maximum lifting weight (1RM)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M Bradford, Qing Ye, Olivia F Lamping, Tomas Vanagunas, Mary Pat Moyer, Patrick C Keller, Preetika Sinh, Josep M Llovet, Tianyan Gao, Qing-Bai She, Linheng Li, Terrence A Barrett
Nuclear activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for cell proliferation in inflammation and cancer. Studies from our group indicate that β-catenin activation in colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC) correlates with increased nuclear levels of β-catenin phosphorylated at serine 552 (pβ-Cat552). Biochemical analysis of nuclear extracts from cancer biopsies revealed the existence of low molecular weight (LMW) pβ-Cat552, increased to the exclusion of full size (FS) forms of β-catenin. LMW β-catenin lacks both termini, leaving residues in the armadillo repeat intact...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mehri Mortazavi, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Soroush Sardari, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Reza Mahdian, Hooman Kaghazian, Seyed Nezamedin Hosseini, Elnaz Shams
Recombinant protein aggregation is a problematic issue and can provoke immunological response. The aim of this study was to analyze the stability of erythropoietin, as a therapeutic protein expressed in mammalian cells, in the presence of different chemicals and find a specific stabilizer for erythropoietin. The effects of several chemicals, including mannitol, betaine, trehalose, taurine, linoleic acid, beta cyclodextrin, copper sulfate, spermidine, maltose, maltodextrin, sucrose, dextran, beta alanine, myo-inositol and cysteine, on protein stabilization through the thermally induced aggregation of erythropoietin were monitored...
January 9, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
O V Gasanova, E O Sarkisova, A A Chumak, L M Ovsyannikova, O V Nosach, L M Alohina, V A Gasanov, V V Kryzhanivska
Objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of various groups of hepatoprotectors in the treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) sufferers of the accident at the Chornobyl NPP following the assessment of metabolic changes and control of persistent infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 104 males with NASH, who were sufferers of the Chornobyl disaster and underwent examination and treatment in the conditions of the clinics of the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Luke W Johnston, Stewart B Harris, Ravi Retnakaran, Adria Giacca, Zhen Liu, Richard P Bazinet, Anthony J Hanley
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to determine the longitudinal associations of individual NEFA with the pathogenesis of diabetes, specifically with differences in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function over 6 years in a cohort of individuals who are at risk for diabetes. METHODS: In the Prospective Metabolism and Islet Cell Evaluation (PROMISE) longitudinal cohort, 477 participants had serum NEFA measured at the baseline visit and completed an OGTT at three time points over 6 years...
December 24, 2017: Diabetologia
Eun Kyung Choi, Jongyoon Baek, Sangyoung Park, Suk Hwan Baek, Joon-Hyuk Choi, Chae Hoon Lee, Eon-Gi Sung, Daelim Jee
BACKGROUND: Hepatic innate immune cells are considered to play a central role in the early phase of hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. Transfusion of old red blood cells (RBCs) is known to prime immune cells, and transfusion before IR may exacerbate liver injury because of the expected hyperresponsiveness of immune cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham operation (Sham); hepatic IR only (IR Control); and two transfusion groups, preischemic (Pre-T) and postischemic (Post-T), in which allogeneic RBCs stored for 2 weeks were transfused before hepatic IR or after reperfusion, respectively...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Gaurav Kumar, Sarmistha Biswal, Soshina Nathan, Anindya S Ghosh
Extensive production of SHV-14 beta-lactamase makes Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to beta-lactams. The presence of omega-loop has been reported to influence the beta-lactamase activity, which is also present in SHV-14. Its omega-loop has three glutamates in nearly alternating positions 162, 164 and 167 but their concise role on the behaviour of SHV-14 is unknown. To uncover the influence of each glutamate on SHV-14, we replaced glutamates with alanine and estimated the effect of each mutation by assessing the change in beta-lactam sensitivities in the surrogate Escherichia coli cells and catalytic efficiencies for hydrolysis with the purified proteins...
February 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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