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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076584/impact-of-bullying-victimization-on-suicide-and-negative-health-behaviors-among-adolescents-in-latin-america
#1
Matthew L Romo, Elizabeth A Kelvin
Objective: To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse) in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency. Methods: Study data were from Global School-based Student Health Surveys from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Uruguay, which covered nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069428/high-concentrations-of-lead-and-barium-in-hair-of-the-rural-population-caused-by-water-pollution-in-the-thar-jath-oilfields-in-south-sudan
#2
Fritz Pragst, Klaus Stieglitz, Hella Runge, Klaus-Dietrich Runow, David Quig, Robert Osborne, Christian Runge, John Ariki
In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068335/dengue-in-latin-america-systematic-review-of-molecular-epidemiological-trends
#3
José Ramos-Castañeda, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araujo, Graham Joint, Elsa Sarti
Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4). A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052506/predicting-north-american-scolytinae-invasions-in-the-southern-hemisphere
#4
Maria Victoria Lantschner, Thomas H Atkinson, Juan C Corley, Andrew M Liebhold
Scolytinae species are recognized as one of the most important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests worldwide, and many are known invaders because they are easily transported in wood products. Nonnative trees planted in novel habitats often exhibit exceptional growth, in part because they escape herbivore (such as Scolytinae) pressure from their native range. Increasing accidental introductions of forest pest species as a consequence of international trade, however, is expected to diminish enemy release of nonnative forest trees...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040828/whose-knowledge-whose-development-use-and-role-of-local-and-external-knowledge-in-agroforestry-projects-in-bolivia
#5
Johanna Jacobi, Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel, Helen Gambon, Stephan Rist, Miguel Altieri
Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity...
December 31, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040563/wing-geometry-of-triatoma-sordida-hemiptera-reduviidae-populations-from-brazil
#6
Daniel Pagotto Vendrami, Marcos Takashi Obara, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Walter Ceretti-Junior, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Triatoma sordida has a widespread distribution in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay and is frequently found in peridomestic environments. We investigated size and shape variability of T. sordida wings across Brazil. Field-collected adults from twelve populations were studied. For each individual female, seven landmarks on the right wing were digitalized. Shape variables derived from Procrustes superimposition were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Wing size and shape variations among populations was explored by means of ANOVA...
December 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040226/cadmium-uptake-by-cocoa-trees-in-agroforestry-and-monoculture-systems-under-conventional-and-organic-management
#7
A Gramlich, S Tandy, C Andres, J Chincheros Paniagua, L Armengot, M Schneider, R Schulin
Cadmium (Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on Cd uptake by cocoa in a long-term field trial in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia, where cocoa trees are grown in monocultures and in agroforestry systems, both under organic and conventional management...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019043/genomic-and-phenotypic-evidence-for-an-incomplete-domestication-of-south-american-grain-amaranth-amaranthus-caudatus
#8
Markus G Stetter, Thomas Müller, Karl J Schmid
The domestication syndrom comprises phenotypic changes that differentiate crops from their wild ancestors. We compared the genomic variation and phenotypic differentiation of the two putative domestication traits seed size and seed color of the grain amaranth Amaranthus caudatus, which is an ancient crop of South America, and its two close wild relatives and putative ancestors A. hybridus or A. quitensis. Genotyping 119 accessions of the three species from the Andean region using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) resulted in 9,485 SNPs that revealed a strong genetic differentiation of cultivated A...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011736/toxicological-enzymatic-and-molecular-assessment-of-the-insecticide-susceptibility-profile-of-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-triatominae-populations-from-rural-communities-of-santa-cruz-bolivia
#9
Pablo L Santo-Orihuela, Claudia V Vassena, Guillermo Carvajal, Eva Clark, Silvio Menacho, Ricardo Bozo, Robert H Gilman, Caryn Bern, Paula L Marcet
A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001196/-financial-impact-of-smoking-on-health-systems-in-latin-america-a-study-of-seven-countries-and-extrapolation-to-the-regional-level
#10
Andrés Pichon-Riviere, Ariel Bardach, Federico Augustovski, Andrea Alcaraz, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Márcia Teixeira Pinto, Marianela Castillo-Riquelme, Esperanza Peña Torres, Diana Isabel Osorio, Leandro Huayanay, César Loza Munarriz, Belén Sáenz de Miera-Juárez, Verónica Gallegos-Rivero, Catherine De La Puente, María Del Pilar Navia-Bueno, Joaquín Caporale
Objective: Estimate smoking-attributable direct medical costs in Latin American health systems. Methods: A microsimulation model was used to quantify financial impact of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer, and nine other neoplasms. A systematic search for epidemiological data and event costs was carried out. The model was calibrated and validated for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, countries that account for 78% of Latin America's population; the results were then extrapolated to the regional level...
October 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991972/air-pollution-management-and-control-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-implications-for-climate-change
#11
Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Agnes Soares da Silva, José Luis Texcalac-Sangrador, Grea Litai Moreno-Banda
Objective: To assess the status of the legal framework for air quality control in all countries of Latin America and Caribbean (LAC); to determine the current distribution of air monitoring stations and mean levels of air pollutants in all capital and large cities (more than 100 000 inhabitants); and to discuss the implications for climate change and public policymaking. Methods: From January 2015-February 2016, searches were conducted of online databases for legislation, regulations, policies, and air pollution programs, as well as for the distribution of monitoring stations and the mean annual levels of air pollution in all LAC countries...
September 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991956/cord%C3%A3-o-formation-loess-deposits-in-the-southern-coastal-plain-of-the-state-of-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil
#12
Renato P Lopes, Sergio R Dillenburg, Cesar L Schultz
Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue) and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988706/-i-melanopareia-i-i-bitorquata-i-d-orbigny-amp-lafresnaye-1837-is-a-distinct-species-an-appraisal-of-morphological-variation-in-the-collared-crescentchest-i-melanopareia-i-i-torquata-i-zu-wied-neuwied-1831-aves-melanopareiidae
#13
Leonardo Esteves Lopes, Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga
The Collared Crescentchest Melanopareia torquata is a poorly known and inconspicuous species of open savannas and grasslands in central Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. Three subspecies are currently recognized, but their taxonomic limits, ranges and conservation status are far from well-established. This paper analyses individual and geographic variation in this species on the basis of body measurements and plumage coloration of 119 specimens. A clinal pattern of body size variation and considerable mensural overlap precludes a clear-cut separation between the two subspecies restricted to Brazil, and there is evidently sexual dichromatism in some Brazilian populations...
November 15, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988686/five-new-species-and-a-new-country-record-in-american-cerambycidae-coleoptera
#14
Maria Helena M Galileo, Antonio Santos-Silva
Five new species are described from American fauna: Stizocera boliviensis and Sphaerion lingafelteri from Bolivia (Elaphidiini); Ectenessa wappesi from Panama (Ectenessini); Mecometopus martinsi from Peru and Ecuador (Clytini); Recchia volcanensis from Bolivia (Aerenicini). The new species are included in previous keys. Sphaerion rusticum Burmeister, 1865 is recorded from Bolivia for the first time.
November 20, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988640/biogeography-and-taxonomy-of-racket-tail-hummingbirds-aves-trochilidae-i-ocreatus-i-evidence-for-species-delimitation-from-morphology-and-display-behavior
#15
Karl-L Schuchmann, André-A Weller, Dietmar Jürgens
We analyzed geographic variation, biogeography, and intrageneric relationships of racket-tail hummingbirds Ocreatus (Aves, Trochilidae). Presently, the genus is usually considered monospecific, with O. underwoodii including eight subspecies (polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, melanantherus, peruanus, annae, addae), although up to three species have been recognized by some authors. In order to evaluate the current taxonomy we studied geographic variation in coloration, mensural characters, and behavioral data of all Ocreatus taxa...
November 27, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988428/attitudes-towards-drug-policies-in-latin-america-results-from-a-latin-american-survey
#16
Andrés Mendiburo-Seguel, Salvador Vargas, Juan C Oyanedel, Francisca Torres, Eduardo Vergara, Mike Hough
BACKGROUND: In recent years Latin American countries have increasingly rejected the traditional prohibitionist paradigm of drug policy, reflecting its failure to reduce either consumption or trafficking. The extent to which these policy trends currently command pubic support is unclear, however. This article goes some way to filling this gap, providing a snapshot of public attitudes towards drug policies in nine Latin American countries. METHODS: The 2014 Annual Survey of the Observatory of Drug Policies and Public Opinion, which has representative population samples, was used to measure public opinion...
December 15, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988173/first-survey-on-antibiotic-resistance-markers-in-enterobacteriaceae-in-cochabamba-bolivia
#17
Paola M Saba Villarroel, Gabriel O Gutkind, José A Di Conza, Marcela A Radice
A molecular survey was conducted in Cochabamba, Bolivia, to characterize the mechanism involved in the resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Extended Spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) markers were investigated in a total of 101 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria recovered from different health centers during four months (2012-2013). CTX-M enzymes were detected in all isolates, being the CTX-M-1 group the most prevalent (88.1%). The presence of blaOXA-1 was detected in 76...
December 14, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982369/mapping-of-nutrition-and-sectoral-policies-addressing-malnutrition-in-latin-america
#18
María Cristina Tirado, Luis Galicia, Hannah M Husby, Jaime Lopez, Stephania Olamendi, Maria Pia Chaparro, María A González, Rubén Grajeda
Objective: To map existing policies addressing malnutrition in all its forms in Latin America and identify gaps in enabling environments supporting the five priority lines of action outlined in the World Health Organization Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (CIP) approved in 2014. Methods: This descriptive study consisted of a systematic Internet search for and mapping of publicly available nutrition-related and sectoral policies already in place to address malnutrition in all its forms in 18 Latin American countries (Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay)...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980030/present-day-african-analogue-of-a-pre-european-amazonian-floodplain-fishery-shows-convergence-in-cultural-niche-construction
#19
Doyle B McKey, Mélisse Durécu, Marc Pouilly, Philippe Béarez, Alex Ovando, Mashuta Kalebe, Carl F Huchzermeyer
Erickson [Erickson CL (2000) Nature 408 (6809):190-193] interpreted features in seasonal floodplains in Bolivia's Beni savannas as vestiges of pre-European earthen fish weirs, postulating that they supported a productive, sustainable fishery that warranted cooperation in the construction and maintenance of perennial structures. His inferences were bold, because no close ethnographic analogues were known. A similar present-day Zambian fishery, documented here, appears strikingly convergent. The Zambian fishery supports Erickson's key inferences about the pre-European fishery: It allows sustained high harvest levels; weir construction and operation require cooperation; and weirs are inherited across generations...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960210/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-latin-america
#20
Hernán A Iannella, Carlos M Luna
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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