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Francisco Rothhammer, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Giannina Puddu, José Capriles
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine South American population structure and prehistoric population displacements prior to the Spanish conquest, utilizing mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of extant mixed populations from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. METHOD: Relative frequencies of four pan-American haplogroups, obtained from published databases, were analyzed to evaluate patterns of variations, population structure and possible prehistoric migration pathways...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Marcelo Teixeira de Holanda, Andrea Silvestre de Sousa, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Roger Arteaga Mejía, Carina Perotti Fux, Juan-Carlos Cubides, Roberto Magalhães Saraiva, Lucia Maria Brum-Soares
Background: Up to half of patients with Chagas' disease under benznidazole treatment present adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and up to one-third do not complete standard treatment. Objectives: To verify the incidence and possible factors associated with the suspension of benznidazole treatment in a large cohort of patients. Methods: We included 2075 patients treated with benznidazole during the projects managed by the medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières) in Bolivia from 2009 to 2013...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Diego Rivera, Barry Rosenfeld, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Cognitive efforts tests, such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1997), are widely used internationally, yet there is a dearth of research that has assessed the utility of these measures in different cultures, countries, and languages. This study evaluated the specificity of the TOMM Trial 2 among a sample of 3,590 Spanish-speaking adults residing in 8 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico). Trial 2 TOMM scores were negatively associated with participants' age and positively associated with level of education...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
Johanna B Fine, Katherine Mayall, Lilian Sepúlveda
International and regional human rights norms have evolved significantly to recognize that the denial of abortion care in a range of circumstances violates women's and girls' fundamental human rights. These increasingly progressive standards have played a critical role in transforming national-level abortion laws by both influencing domestic high court decisions on abortion and serving as a critical resource in advancing law and policy reform. Courts in countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Nepal have directly incorporated these standards into groundbreaking cases liberalizing abortion laws and increasing women's access to safe abortion services, demonstrating the influence of these human rights standards in advancing women's reproductive freedom...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
Lucia Inchauste, Maritza Patzi, Kjetil Halvorsen, Susana Solano, Raul Montesano, Volga Iñiguez
BACKGROUND: The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in countries with high child mortality rates remains to be established. The RV1 rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Bolivia in August 2008. This study describes the trends in deaths, hospitalizations, and healthcare visits due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in rotavirus-related hospitalizations, among children <5 years of age, during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health Information System to calculate vaccine coverage and AGE-related health indicators...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Kevin J Blair, Marissa A Boeck, José Luis Gallardo Barrientos, José Luis Hidalgo López, Irene B Helenowski, Benedict C Nwomeh, Michael B Shapiro, Mamta Swaroop
BACKGROUND: Scaling up surgical and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries could prevent nearly 2 million annual deaths. Various survey instruments exist to measure surgical and trauma capacity, including Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) and International Assessment of Capacity for Trauma (INTACT). OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate surgical and trauma capacity in the Bolivian department of Potosí using a combined PIPES and INTACT tool, with additional questions to further inform intervention targets...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
Maria Raquel V Cosate, Tetsu Sakamoto, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Élvio C Moreira, Carlos G Regis da Silva, Bruno S A F Brasil, Camila S F Oliveira, Vasco Ariston de Azevedo, José Miguel Ortega, Rômulo C Leite, João Paulo Haddad
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. This zoonotic disease is distributed globally and affects domestic animals, including cattle. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo remain important species associated with this reproductive disease in livestock production. Previous studies on Brazilian livestock have reported that L. interrogans serovar Hardjo is the most prevalent leptospiral agent in this country and is related to clinical signs of leptospirosis, which lead to economic losses in production...
June 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
J R Ramírez-Iglesias, M C Eleizalde, A Reyna-Bello, M Mendoza
In South America Trypanosoma evansi has been determined by molecular methods in cattle from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru, reason for which the presence of this parasite is not excluded in Venezuelan livestock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform parasitological and molecular diagnosis of cattle trypanosomosis in small livestock units from two regions in this country. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by MHCT and the molecular by PCR using genus-specific ITS1 primers that differentiate T...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Nhan Tran, Etienne V Langlois, Ludovic Reveiz, Ilona Varallyay, Vanessa Elias, Arielle Mancuso, Francisco Becerra-Posada, Abdul Ghaffar
In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2014-2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Liliya Serbina, Daniel Burckhardt
The Neotropical genus Russelliana (Psyllidae: Aphalaroidinae) is revised and its phylogenetic, host-plant and biogeographical relationships are discussed. Twenty-four species are described as new, bringing the number of known species to 43. An identification key is provided for the adults. A phylogenetic analysis of 26 morphological characters resulted in 54 most parsimonious trees. The consensus tree is well resolved at the base but poorly at the crown. Most Russelliana species are monophagous or oligophagous with the exception of R...
May 12, 2017: Zootaxa
Diego Rodrigo Dolibaina, Eduardo Carneiro, Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke, Mirna Martins Casagrande, Gerardo Lamas
A new species belonging to the previously monotypic genus Panca Evans, 1955, P. moseri Dolibaina, Carneiro & O. Mielke sp. nov., from grasslands areas of Peru, Bolivia and Brazil is described. Adults and male and female genitalia of the new species are illustrated, described in detail, and compared with the type species of the genus, Lerodea subpunctuli Hayward, 1934, and with its externally most similar and sympatric species, Vidius mictra Evans, 1955. The systematic position of the genus Panca and its association with lowland open natural habitats of South America are discussed...
May 19, 2017: Zootaxa
Steven W Lingafelter, Alexey K Tishechkin
Two new species of high-elevation Parandrinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are described from Bolivia and Ecuador, South America. Both species are unusual in having piceous coloration over most of the dorsal surface. Parandra (Tavandra) santossilvai Lingafelter & Tishechkin, new species, is described from Achira, Santa Cruz Province, Bolivia, a site at 2,000 meters elevation. Acutandra caterinoi Lingafelter & Tishechkin, new species, is described from Pichincha Province, Ecuador, from sites between 1,900-2,500 meters...
May 30, 2017: Zootaxa
Natali Hurtado, Víctor Pacheco
The large spiny mouse Neacomys spinosus (Thomas, 1882) has been considered the widest ranging species of the genus, occurring in southern Colombia, eastern Peru, western Brazil and northern Bolivia. The morphological variation between subspecies and populations of N. spinosus has been noted; nonetheless, this variation has not been assessed in a morphological or molecular context. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Neacomys spinosus s.l. using qualitative and quantitative morphological analyses. These analyses were complemented with molecular analysis to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among species of Neacomys, based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Diego Matheus DE Mello Mendes, Jomara Cavalcante DE Oliveira, João Rafael Alves-Oliveira, José Albertino Rafael
Phlugiola Karny, 1907 is a genus of small predatory katydids with six included species distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Suriname. In this paper two new Brazilian species are described, Phlugiola longipedes sp. nov. (type locality: Amazonas, Tefé) and Phlugiola igarape sp. nov., (type locality: Acre, Bujari) both from tropical rainforests. Behavioral data and natural history notes are provided.
March 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Stephania Sandoval Arango, Ranulfo González Obando, Alfonso Neri García Aldrete
The genus Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan presently includes nine species, all described when the genus was erected; since then, no other species have been discovered. Here, we describe and illustrate one Bolivian and three Mexican species. This is the first record of Prolachesilla from Bolivia. A key to the species of the genus is included.
March 20, 2017: Zootaxa
Thiago V V Costa, José Fernando Pacheco, Luís Fábio Silveira
The Curl-crested Aracari Pteroglossus beauharnaesii Wagler, 1832 is one of the most remarkable species in the family Ramphastidae. Among other distinctive plumage traits, its modified curly, shiny black crown feathers are unique in the family and are modified to an extent not found in any other living bird species (Brush 1967; Short & Horne 2002). The crown feathers, along with the distinct white throat, were considered sufficient justification in the past to include the species in the monotypic genus Beauharnaisius Bonaparte; however, molecular studies have shown that it is embedded within the genus Pteroglossus Illiger, sister to P...
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
Maria Helena M Galileo, Antonio Santos-Silva, James E Wappes
The differences between Lycidola Thomson, 1864 and Apeba Martins & Galileo, 1991 are discussed, and a new concept proposed for both genera. Lycidola popeba Galileo & Martins, 2006 is transferred to Apeba. The authorship of Lycidola palliata nigrohumeralis (type species of Acabanga Martins & Galileo, 1991) is corrected. Hemilophus togatus sensu Haase (1892) and sensu Heyne & Taschenberg (1908) are excluded from the synonym of Apeba togata (Klug, 1825). Apeba herrerae sp. nov. is described from Bolivia, and a key to species of this genus is provided...
March 28, 2017: Zootaxa
Matheus Vieira Volcan, Ândrio Cardozo Gonçalves, Luis Esteban Krause Lanés
Austrolebias Costa is a genus of annual fish inhabiting temporary wetlands in the Chaco-Pampasic region of southern Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Argentina (Costa, 2006, Nielsen & Pillet, 2015, Alonso et al., 2016). Currently, about 45 species of Austrolebias are known (Costa, 2006, Volcan et al., 2014, Nielsen & Pillet, 2015), and of these, 24 occur in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, distributed across the Rio Uruguay basin and the Patos-Mirim lagoon system and adjacent coastal areas (Volcan et al...
April 18, 2017: Zootaxa
Jonas R Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Andrius Remeikis, Ole Karsholt, Nixon Cumbicus Torres
We review forty-five species of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) based on an analysis of samples collected in the central Andean region of Peru and Bolivia. Thirteen of these species are new to science, and are named and described here: Stigmella paracosma Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. expressa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. acalyphae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lepida Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. misera Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. inca Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. eiffeli Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S...
April 24, 2017: Zootaxa
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