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Ear anatomy and pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932858/one-stage-bone-strip-reconstruction-technique-with-balloon-sinus-dilatation-surgery-for-chronic-maxillary-atelectasis
#1
Tomoyuki Kashima, Robert A Goldberg, Jocelyne C Kohn, Daniel B Rootman
PURPOSE: Chronic maxillary atelectasis is characterized by unilateral spontaneous enophthalmos and hypoglobus due to increased orbital volume secondary to maxillary sinus inward deformation. Reformation of the sinus architecture and reconstruction of the orbit are key to a successful outcome. Here, we introduce a one-staged surgery that addresses both these goals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients treated with one-stage orbital and sinus surgery...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891421/imaging-modality-of-choice-for-pre-operative-cochlear-imaging-hrct-vs-mri-temporal-bone
#2
Poornima Digge, Rajendra N Solanki, Dipali C Shah, Rajesh Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Congenital inner ear malformations occur as a result of the arrest or aberrance of inner ear development due to the heredity, gene mutation or other factors. Ever since the availability of cochlear implants, pre-operative evaluation by imaging of temporal bone has gained much attention. Precise selection of the candidate for cochlear implant dependent on preoperative radiological investigations. Only CT (Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) can provide a better picture of anatomy and pathology...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752754/visualization-of-anatomy-in-normal-and-pathologic-middle-ears-by-cone-beam-ct
#3
Christian Güldner, Isabell Diogo, Eva Bernd, Stephanie Dräger, Magis Mandapathil, Afshin Teymoortash, Hesham Negm, Thomas Wilhelm
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, syn. digital volume tomography = DVT) was introduced into ENT imaging more than 10 years ago. The main focus was on imaging of the paranasal sinuses and traumatology of the mid face. In recent years, it has also been used in imaging of chronic ear diseases (especially in visualizing middle and inner ear implants), but an exact description of the advantages and limitations of visualizing precise anatomy in a relevant number of patients is still missing. The data sets of CBCT imaging of the middle and inner ear of 204 patients were analyzed regarding the visualization of 18 different anatomic structures...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659846/15-th-annual-meeting-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-focus-on-traditional-sensory-systems
#4
Icilio Cavero, Henry Holzgrefe
INTRODUCTION: This report summarizes and comments key talks on the five traditional senses (ear, vestibular system, vision, taste, olfaction, and touch) which were delivered during the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society. AREAS COVERED: The functional observational battery (FOB) can detect major candidate drug liabilities only on ear, touch and vision. Anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology notions on each sensory system introduce speaker talks...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633610/micro-optical-coherence-tomography-of-the-mammalian-cochlea
#5
Janani S Iyer, Shelley A Batts, Kengyeh K Chu, Mehmet I Sahin, Hui Min Leung, Guillermo J Tearney, Konstantina M Stankovic
The mammalian cochlea has historically resisted attempts at high-resolution, non-invasive imaging due to its small size, complex three-dimensional structure, and embedded location within the temporal bone. As a result, little is known about the relationship between an individual's cochlear pathology and hearing function, and otologists must rely on physiological testing and imaging methods that offer limited resolution to obtain information about the inner ear prior to performing surgery. Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) is a non-invasive, low-coherence interferometric imaging technique capable of resolving cellular-level anatomic structures...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588594/the-endoscopic-anatomy-of-the-middle-ear-approach-to-the-fundus-of-the-internal-acoustic-canal
#6
Noritaka Komune, Satoshi Matsuo, Koichi Miki, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE The application of the endoscope in the lateral skull base increases the importance of the middle ear cavity as the corridor to the skull base. The aim of this study was to define the middle ear as a route to the fundus (lateral end) of the internal acoustic canal and to propose feasible landmarks to the fundus. METHODS This was a cadaveric study; 34 adult cadaveric temporal bones and 2 dry bones were dissected with the aid of the endoscope and microscope to show the anatomy of the transcanal approach to the middle ear and fundus of the internal acoustic canal...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584554/light-and-electron-microscopy-methods-for-examination-of-cochlear-morphology-in-mouse-models-of-deafness
#7
Andrew Parker, Lauren Chessum, Philomena Mburu, Jeremy Sanderson, Michael R Bowl
Mice are an invaluable model organism for the study of auditory function. Even though there are differences in size and frequency response, the anatomy and physiology of the mouse and human ear are remarkably similar. In addition, the tools available for genetic manipulation in the mouse have enabled the generation of models carrying mutations in orthologous human deafness-causing genes, helping to validate these lesions and assess their functional consequence. Reciprocally, novel gene mutations discovered to cause auditory deficits in the mouse highlight potential new loci for human hearing loss, and expand our basic knowledge of the mechanisms and pathways important for the function of the mammalian ear...
2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452760/-comparative-study-of-ct-versus-gross-pathology-in-rabbit-vx2-colorectal-cancer-model
#8
Guoyang Sun, Fengqi Lu, Zhuiyang Zhang, Danping Wu, Jianming Ni, Xiaoping Wu, Rongrong Zhang, Hongbo Huang
OBJECTIVE: To establish rabbit VX2 colorectal cancer(CRC) model and to compare CT images with gross pathology in order to offer help for TNM staging in patients with CRC. METHODS: VX2 tumor pieces were implanted into colonic wall in 9 New Zealand white rabbits and rectal wall in 2 New Zealand white rabbits. Four weeks after inoculation, Ultravist(370 mg/ml) was injected through ear marginal vein with high pressure injector for stage 3 scanning of chest, abdomen and pelvis, and enhanced CT (collimation 0...
July 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228017/surgical-anatomy-of-the-human-round-window-region-implication-for-cochlear-endoscopy-through-the-external-auditory-canal
#9
Takeshi Fujita, Jung Eun Shin, MaryBeth Cunnane, Kyoko Fujita, Simon Henein, Demetri Psaltis, Konstantina M Stankovic
OBJECTIVE: To enable development of an endoscope for cellular-level optical imaging of the inner ear. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 50 cadaveric human temporal bones to define detailed surgical anatomy of the round window (RW) region and the range of angles necessary to reach the RW membrane perpendicularly via the external ear canal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The transcanal angle to the RW membrane was surgically measured in 3D intact specimens, and correlated with the angle calculated from temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans of the same specimens obtained before and after measurements in situ...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106776/endoscopic-approach-for-cochlear-implantation-in-advanced-otosclerosis-a-case-report
#10
Daniele Marchioni, Davide Soloperto, Luca Bianconi, Maria C Guarnaccia, Elisabetta Genovese, Livio Presutti
HYPOTHESIS: Ossification of the cochlea was once considered to be a contraindication for cochlear implantation. Advances in cochlear implant technology and coding strategies have led to developments in different surgical procedures to manage cochlear ossification. The endoscopic technique allows a direct approach to the round window and the cochlea, especially in remodeled labyrinth, allowing a better vision of scala tympani. BACKGROUND: Tertiary referral ENT center...
April 19, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090280/the-age-related-orientational-changes-of-human-semicircular-canals
#11
Hui-Ying Lyu, Ke-Guang Chen, Dong-Ming Yin, Juan Hong, Lin Yang, Tian-Yu Zhang, Pei-Dong Dai
OBJECTIVES: Some changes are found in the labyrinth anatomy during postnatal development. Although the spatial orientation of semicircular canals was thought to be stable after birth, we investigated the age-related orientational changes of human semicircular canals during development. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the computed tomography (CT) images of both ears of 76 subjects ranged from 1 to 70 years old. They were divided into 4 groups: group A (1-6 years), group B (7-12 years), group C (13-18 years), and group D (>18 years)...
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963666/high-frequency-ex-vivo-ultrasound-imaging-of-the-middle-ear-to-show-simulated-ossicular-pathology
#12
James W Rainsbury, Thomas G Landry, Jeremy A Brown, Robert A Adamson, Manohar Bance
HYPOTHESIS: To illustrate the ability of high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) using a transducer array to demonstrate a variety of simulated clinical scenarios involving the ossicular chain. BACKGROUND: HFUS (>20 MHz) is a relatively new area of ultrasonic imaging that provides an order of magnitude better image resolution than the conventional low-frequency systems. HFUS may be a real-time imaging system that could be used in the clinic and would complement computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to enhance the decision-making process for patients with middle ear pathology...
June 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527977/anatomical-variants-of-tympanic-compartments-and-their-aeration-pathways-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-middle-ear-inflammatory-disease
#13
Alma Maniu, Iuliu V Catana, Oana Harabagiu, Maria Petri, Marcel Cosgarea
AIM: The aim of this article is to review the anatomy of middle ear compartments and folds and to demonstrate through anatomical evidence their presence at birth. Additionally, their role in the obstructions of middle ear ventilatory pathway is highlighted. METHODS: Ninety-eight adult temporal bones, with no history of auricular disease and fifteen newborn temporal bones were studied by micro dissection. Documentation was done by color photography using the operation microscope...
2013: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26482007/surgical-anatomy-and-pathology-of-the-middle-ear
#14
REVIEW
Jan Christoffer Luers, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink
Middle ear surgery is strongly influenced by anatomical and functional characteristics of the middle ear. The complex anatomy means a challenge for the otosurgeon who moves between preservation or improvement of highly important functions (hearing, balance, facial motion) and eradication of diseases. Of these, perforations of the tympanic membrane, chronic otitis media, tympanosclerosis and cholesteatoma are encountered most often in clinical practice. Modern techniques for reconstruction of the ossicular chain aim for best possible hearing improvement using delicate alloplastic titanium prostheses, but a number of prosthesis-unrelated factors work against this intent...
February 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26460217/radiology-of-external-ear-indications-normal-anatomy-and-pathological-processes
#15
M Mazón, E Pont, P Montesinos, J Carreres-Polo, F Más-Estellés
The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors...
May 2016: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449979/the-extracranial-venous-system-in-the-heads-of-beaked-whales-with-implications-on-diving-physiology-and-pathogenesis
#16
Alexander M Costidis, Sentiel A Rommel
Beaked whales are a poorly known but diverse group of whales that have received considerable attention due to strandings that have been temporally and spatially associated with naval sonar deployment. Postmortem studies on stranded carcasses have revealed lesions consistent with decompression sickness, including intravascular gas and fat emboli. These findings have been supported by analyses of intravascular gas emboli showing composition dominated by nitrogen gas. To increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of nitrogen bubble formation and intravascular embolization, we examined the gross and microscopic anatomy of the venous system in the head of beaked whales...
January 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26360798/utility-of-preoperative-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-adult-and-pediatric-cochlear-implant-candidates
#17
Matthew Tamplen, Adam Schwalje, Lawrence Lustig, Aurash S Alemi, Mia E Miller
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Determine the utility of preoperative imaging in adult and pediatric cochlear implant candidates. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Medical records of 101 consecutive adult and 20 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent 137 cochlear implantation (CI) procedures at a single institution were reviewed. RESULTS: Computed tomography (CT) was obtained preoperatively in 110 (90.9%) patients, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained in 102 (84...
June 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26355974/the-evaluation-of-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-nasal-geometry-using-objective-and-subjective-methods
#18
Necdet Demir, Arif Sanli, Gokhan Demir, Banu Atalay Erdogan, Huseyin Baki Yilmaz, Mustafa Paksoy
INTRODUCTION: It is known that obesity causes obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by increasing upper airway resistance. Also, obese patients are admitted to the ear, nose, and throat clinic very often because of nasal obstruction complaint. The aim of this study is to identify the change and relation among body mass index (BMI), nasal resistance, reduction in nasal ariflow, nasal anatomy, and patients' subjective complaints. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 67 patients admitted to our clinic between August 2013 and January 2014 were included in the study...
September 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26313160/indications-of-cone-beam-ct-in-head-and-neck-imaging
#19
Malene Stutzki, Evelyn Jahns, Magis Matthew Mandapathil, Isabell Diogo, Jochen Alfred Werner, Christian Güldner
CONCLUSION: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can be widely used in imaging of bony structures of the anterior and lateral skull base. Significant differences of applied dosages result from the different protocols of the various indications. OBJECTIVES: CBCT is increasingly being used in head and neck imaging. Until now, no precise knowledge about its dedicated usage existed. METHODS: All CBCT of 2012 and 2013 were analysed with regard to the technical parameters, the performance, and the indication for imaging...
2015: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26310903/the-veiled-chameleon-chamaeleo-calyptratus-dum%C3%A3-ril-and-dum%C3%A3-ril-1851-a-model-for-studying-reptile-body-plan-development-and-evolution
#20
Raul E Diaz, Christopher V Anderson, Diana P Baumann, Richard Kupronis, David Jewell, Christina Piraquive, Jill Kupronis, Kristy Winter, Federica Bertocchini, Paul A Trainor
Vertebrate model organisms have facilitated the discovery and exploration of morphogenetic events and developmental pathways that underpin normal and pathological embryological events. In contrast to amniotes such as Mus musculus (Mammalia) and Gallus gallus (Aves), our understanding of early patterning and developmental events in reptiles (particularly nonavians) remains weak. Squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) comprise approximately one-third of all living amniotes. But studies of early squamate development have been limited because, in most members of this lineage, embryo development at the time of oviposition is very advanced (limb bud stages and older)...
October 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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