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CT theory and use

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885942/enlarged-subarachnoid-spaces-and-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-children-with-accidental-head-trauma
#1
Amanda K Fingarson, Maura E Ryan, Suzanne G McLone, Corey Bregman, Emalee G Flaherty
OBJECTIVE Benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is an enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces (SASs) that can be seen in young children. It is controversial whether children with BEH are predisposed to developing subdural hemorrhage (SDH) with or without trauma. This issue is clinically relevant as a finding of unexplained SDH raises concerns about child abuse and often prompts child protection and law enforcement investigations. METHODS This retrospective study included children (1-24 months of age) who underwent head CT scanning after an accidental fall of less than 6 feet...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885318/multiscale-opening-of-conjoined-fuzzy-objects-theory-and-applications
#2
Punam K Saha, Subhadip Basu, Eric A Hoffman
Theoretical properties of a multi-scale opening (MSO) algorithm for two conjoined fuzzy objects are established, and its extension to separating two conjoined fuzzy objects with different intensity properties is introduced. Also, its applications to artery/vein (A/V) separation in pulmonary CT imaging and carotid vessel segmentation in CT angiograms (CTAs) of patients with intracranial aneurysms are presented. The new algorithm accounts for distinct intensity properties of individual conjoined objects by combining fuzzy distance transform (FDT), a morphologic feature, with fuzzy connectivity, a topologic feature...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems: a Publication of the IEEE Neural Networks Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845379/systems-level-chromosomal-parameters-represent-a-suprachromosomal-basis-for-the-non-random-chromosomal-arrangement-in-human-interphase-nuclei
#3
Sarosh N Fatakia, Ishita S Mehta, Basuthkar J Rao
Forty-six chromosome territories (CTs) are positioned uniquely in human interphase nuclei, wherein each of their positions can range from the centre of the nucleus to its periphery. A non-empirical basis for their non-random arrangement remains unreported. Here, we derive a suprachromosomal basis of that overall arrangement (which we refer to as a CT constellation), and report a hierarchical nature of the same. Using matrix algebra, we unify intrinsic chromosomal parameters (e.g., chromosomal length, gene density, the number of genes per chromosome), to derive an extrinsic effective gene density matrix, the hierarchy of which is dominated largely by extrinsic mathematical coupling of HSA19, followed by HSA17 (human chromosome 19 and 17, both preferentially interior CTs) with all CTs...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831865/the-spurs-algorithm-for-resampling-an-irregularly-sampled-signal-onto-a-cartesian-grid
#4
Amir Kiperwas, Daniel Rosenfeld, Yonina C Eldar
We present an algorithm for resampling a function from its values on a non-Cartesian grid onto a Cartesian grid. This problem arises in many applications such as MRI, CT, radio astronomy and geophysics. Our algorithm, termed SParse Uniform ReSampling (SPURS), employs methods from modern sampling theory to achieve a small approximation error while maintaining low computational cost. The given non-Cartesian samples are projected onto a selected intermediate subspace, spanned by integer translations of a compactly supported kernel function...
November 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819321/comparative-morphological-trade-offs-between-pre-and-post-copulatory-sexual-selection-in-giant-hissing-cockroaches-tribe-gromphadorhini
#5
Kate L Durrant, Ian M Skicko, Craig Sturrock, Sophie L Mowles
Sperm competition theory predicts that animals face a trade-off between investment in weaponry and investment in ejaculate composition. Within the Madagascan giant hissing cockroaches (Tribe Gromphadorhini) differences in morphology exist that may indicate differing strategies of male-male competition. We compared relative pronotal horn length using high-resolution X-ray CT scanning data, relative testes mass, and male-male agonistic behaviour between two species of hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina oblongonota and Aeluropoda insignis...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790164/changing-conspiracy-beliefs-through-rationality-and-ridiculing
#6
Gábor Orosz, Péter Krekó, Benedek Paskuj, István Tóth-Király, Beáta Bőthe, Christine Roland-Lévy
Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779137/a-general-method-to-derive-tissue-parameters-for-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-with-multi-energy-ct
#7
Arthur Lalonde, Hugo Bouchard
To develop a general method for human tissue characterization with dual- and multi-energy CT and evaluate its performance in determining elemental compositions and quantities relevant to radiotherapy Monte Carlo dose calculation. Ideal materials to describe human tissue are obtained applying principal component analysis on elemental weight and density data available in literature. The theory is adapted to elemental composition for solving tissue information from CT data. A novel stoichiometric calibration method is integrated to the technique to make it suitable for a clinical environment...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763679/theory-based-pkpd-of-s-and-r-warfarin-and-effects-on-inr-influence-of-body-size-composition-and-genotype-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#8
Ling Xue, Nick Holford, Xiao-Liang Ding, Zhen-Ya Shen, Chen-Rong Huang, Hua Zhang, Jing-Jing Zhang, Zhe-Ning Guo, Cheng Xie, Ling Zhou, Zhi-Yao Chen, Lin-Sheng Liu, Li-Yan Miao
AIMS: The aims of this study are to apply a theory based mechanistic model to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of S- and R-warfarin. METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from 264 patients. Total concentrations for S- and R-warfarin were measured by ultra-high performance liquid tandem mass spectrometry. Genotypes were measured using pyrosequencing. A sequential population pharmacokinetic parameter with data method was used to describe the international normalized ratio (INR) time course...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729659/biosimilars-in-ibd-from-theory-to-practice
#9
REVIEW
Silvio Danese, Stefanos Bonovas, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Biologic agents have revolutionized the care management of many life-threatening and debilitating diseases. As patents for older biologic therapies have begun to expire, the market has opened to copy versions of the originators - commonly referred to as biosimilars, follow-on biologic agents or subsequent-entry biologic agents - which are expected to gain a portion of the market, reduce health-care spending and increase treatment access worldwide. Importantly for patients with IBD, CT-P13 was the first biosimilar to infliximab that obtained regulatory approval by the European Medicines Agency in September 2013 and by the FDA in April 2016...
October 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709939/assessing-water-water-and-water-ion-dimer-interactions-in-the-amoeba-force-field-using-energy-decomposition-analysis-of-electronic-structure-calculations
#10
Yuezhi Mao, Omar Demerdash, Martin Head-Gordon, Teresa Head-Gordon
AMOEBA is a molecular mechanics force field that addresses some of the shortcomings of a fixed partial charge model, by including permanent atomic point multipoles through quadrupoles, as well as many-body polarization through the use of point inducible dipoles. In this work we investigate how well AMOEBA formulates its non-bonded interactions, and how it implicitly incorporates quantum mechanical effects such as charge penetration (CP) and charge transfer (CT), for water-water and water-ion interactions. We find that AMOEBA's total interaction energies as a function of distance and over angular scans for the water dimer and for a range of water-monovalent cations agree well with an advanced density functional theory (DFT) model, whereas the water-halides and water- divalent cations show significant disagreement with the DFT result, especially in the compressed region when the two fragments overlap...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689076/an-improved-total-variation-minimization-method-using-prior-images-and-split-bregman-method-in-ct-reconstruction
#11
Luzhen Deng, Peng Feng, Mianyi Chen, Peng He, Biao Wei
Compressive Sensing (CS) theory has great potential for reconstructing Computed Tomography (CT) images from sparse-views projection data and Total Variation- (TV-) based CT reconstruction method is very popular. However, it does not directly incorporate prior images into the reconstruction. To improve the quality of reconstructed images, this paper proposed an improved TV minimization method using prior images and Split-Bregman method in CT reconstruction, which uses prior images to obtain valuable previous information and promote the subsequent imaging process...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681985/synthesis-properties-and-light-emitting-electrochemical-cell-leec-device-fabrication-of-cationic-ir-iii-complexes-bearing-electron-withdrawing-groups-on-the-cyclometallating-ligands
#12
Amlan K Pal, David B Cordes, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Cristina Momblona, Enrique Ortı, Ifor D W Samuel, Henk J Bolink, Eli Zysman-Colman
The structure-property relationship study of a series of cationic Ir(III) complexes in the form of [Ir(C^N)2(dtBubpy)]PF6 [where dtBubpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine and C^N = cyclometallating ligand bearing an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) at C4 of the phenyl substituent, i.e., -CF3 (1), -OCF3 (2), -SCF3 (3), -SO2CF3 (4)] has been investigated. The physical and optoelectronic properties of the four complexes were comprehensively characterized, including by X-ray diffraction analysis. All the complexes exhibit quasireversible dtBubpy-based reductions from -1...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658791/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-e-methyl-2-2-oxonaphthalen-1-2h-ylidene-methylamino-acetate-as-a-biological-agent-and-an-anion-sensor
#13
Celal Tuğrul Zeyrek, Bahadir Boyacioğlu, Mustafa Yıldız, Hüseyin Ünver, Devrim Yolal, Neslihan Demir, Ayhan Elmali, Solomon Tadesse, Kadir Aslan
An amino acid based and bidentate Schiff base, (E)-methyl 2-((2-oxonaphthalen-1(2H)-ylidene)methylamino)acetate (ligand), was synthesized from the reaction of glycine-methyl ester hydrochloride with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. Characterization of the ligand was carried out using theoretical quantum-mechanical calculations and experimental spectroscopic methods. The molecular structure of the compound was confirmed using X-ray single-crystal data, NMR, FTIR and UV-Visible spectroscopy, which were in good agreement with the structure predicted by the theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT)...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637612/is-increased-acetabular-cartilage-or-fossa-size-associated-with-pincer-femoroacetabular-impingement
#14
Stephanie Y Pun, Andreas Hingsammer, Michael B Millis, Young-Jo Kim
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment for pincer femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) of the hip remains controversial, between trimming the prominent acetabular rim and reverse periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) that reorients the acetabulum. However, rim trimming may decrease articular surface size to a critical threshold where increased joint contact forces lead to joint degeneration. Therefore, knowledge of how much acetabular articular cartilage is available for resection is important when evaluating between the two surgical options...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634400/accuracy-of-mandibular-force-profiles-for-bite-force-estimation-and-feeding-behavior-reconstruction-in-extant-and-extinct-carnivorans
#15
François Therrien, Annie Quinney, Kohei Tanaka, Darla K Zelenitsky
Mandibular force profiles apply the principles of beam theory to identify mandibular biomechanical properties that reflect the bite force and feeding strategies of extant and extinct predators. While this method uses the external dimensions of the mandibular corpus to determine its biomechanical properties, more accurate results could potentially be obtained by quantifying its internal cortical bone distribution. To test this possibility, mandibular force profiles were calculated using both external mandibular dimensions ('solid mandible model') and quantification of internal bone distribution of the mandibular corpus obtained from computed tomography scans ('hollow mandible model') for five carnivorans (Canis lupus, Crocuta crocuta, Panthera leo, Neofelis nebulosa and the extinct Canis dirus)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586403/modeling-and-designing-health-care-payment-innovations-for-medical-imaging
#16
Hui Zhang, Christian Wernz, Danny R Hughes
Payment innovations that better align incentives in health care are a promising approach to reduce health care costs and improve quality of care. Designing effective payment systems, however, is challenging due to the complexity of the health care system with its many stakeholders and their often conflicting objectives. There is a lack of mathematical models that can comprehensively capture and efficiently analyze the complex, multi-level interactions and thereby predict the effect of new payment systems on stakeholder decisions and system-wide outcomes...
September 1, 2016: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585495/curved-beam-computed-tomography-based-structural-rigidity-analysis-of-bones-with-simulated-lytic-defect-a-comparative-study-with-finite-element-analysis
#17
R Oftadeh, Z Karimi, J Villa-Camacho, E Tanck, N Verdonschot, R Goebel, B D Snyder, H N Hashemi, A Vaziri, A Nazarian
In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections...
September 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549656/self-directed-learning-modules-of-ct-scan-images-to-improve-students-perception-of-gross-anatomy
#18
Pananghat Achutha Kumar, Ramakrishnan Jothi, Dharmalingam Mathivanan
BACKGROUND: A contemporary anatomy curriculum that aims to be clinically relevant requires medical students to be introduced to radiological anatomy in the preclinical years. Ideally, the curriculum should also support self-directed learning, a habit best instilled early. Based on these educational requirements, we designed an interesting and clinically-meaningful program of self-learning modules in radiological anatomy to augment students' learning of gross anatomy. The program is guided by current theories of learning, which emphasize an individualized learning pace for students...
May 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487403/charge-transfer-states-in-dilute-donor-acceptor-blend-organic-heterojunctions
#19
Xiao Liu, Kan Ding, Anurag Panda, Stephen R Forrest
We study the charge transfer (CT) states in small-molecule blend heterojunctions comprising the nonpolar donor, tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the acceptor, C70, using electroluminescence and steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy along with density functional theory calculations. We find that the CT exciton energy blue shifts as the C70 concentration in the blend is either decreased or increased away from 50 vol %. At 20 K, the increase in CT state lifetime is correlated with the increasing diameter of C70 nanocrystallites in the blends...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440489/photoinduced-long-lived-charge-transfer-excited-states-in-at-dna-strands
#20
Lara Martinez-Fernandez, Yuyuan Zhang, Kimberly de La Harpe, Ashley A Beckstead, Bern Kohler, Roberto Improta
The IR spectrum of a charge transfer (CT) excited electronic state in DNA has been computed for the first time, enabling assignment of the long-lived component of the transient IR spectrum of a d(AT)9 single strand to an A → T CT state. Experimentally, the CT state lifetime is much shorter than in the double strand, and our calculations explain this result using Marcus Theory.
August 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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