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CT theory and use

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902564/relations-of-shared-and-unique-components-of-personality-and-psychosocial-functioning-to-depressive-symptoms
#1
Jeffrey R Vittengl, Lee Anna Clark, Michael E Thase, Robin B Jarrett
Consistent with theories of depression, several personality (e.g., high neuroticism, low extraversion) and psychosocial (e.g., interpersonal problems, cognitive content) variables predict depressive symptoms substantively. In this extended replication, we clarified whether 13 theoretically relevant personality and psychosocial variables were unique versus overlapping predictors of symptoms among 351 adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder who received acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT). Using factor analysis and regression methods, we partitioned the measures' variance into general components common across the two types of measures (psychosocial and personality), within-type components shared only with other measures of the same type, and scale-specific components...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885195/serrs-and-absorption-spectra-of-pyridine-on-aumagn-m-n-6-bimetallic-nanoclusters-substrate-composition-and-applied-electric-field-effects
#2
Quanjiang Li, Maodu Chen
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and absorption spectra of the pyridine molecule adsorbed on AumAgn (m+n=6) bimetallic cluster are theoretically investigated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The contributions of static chemical enhancement to the ground-state system are analyzed, and the static Raman intensity of Py-AumAgn complexes are enhanced on the order of 10. A method of visualization on charge transfer is used to distinguish the contributions of charge-transfer (CT) enhancement and electromagnetic enhancement (EM)...
September 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836244/-standardization-of-the-endoscopic-treatment-for-early-gastric-cancer
#3
Kuntang Shen, Xiaodong Gao
With the increasing incidence of early gastric cancer, endoscopic treatment has been widely used. It has also played an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. Therefore, it is very important to carry out standardized treatment with endoscopy. In theory, endoscopic resection can be performed in early gastric cancers which have no lymph node metastasis and also can be resected completely. Endoscopic therapy is absolutely indicated in macroscopically intramucosal differentiated carcinomas (pT1a) without ulcer or ulcer scar and with diameter ≤2 cm...
August 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822796/papillary-ductal-plugging-is-a-mechanism-for-early-stone-retention-in-brushite-stone-disease
#4
James C Williams, Michael S Borofsky, Sharon B Bledsoe, Andrew P Evan, Fredric L Coe, Elaine M Worcester, James E Lingeman
PURPOSE: Mechanisms of early stone retention within the kidney are understudied and poorly understood. To date, attachment via Randall's plaque is the only widely accepted theory in this regard, best described in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Brushite stone formers are known to have distinct papillary morphology relative to calcium oxalate stone formers. As such, we sought to determine whether stone attachment mechanisms in such patients may be similarly unique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing percutaneous and or ureteroscopic procedures for stone removal were consented for endoscopic renal papillary examination and individual stone collection...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809701/fuzzy-object-skeletonization-theory-algorithms-and-applications
#5
Punam K Saha, Dakai Jin, Yinxiao Liu, Gary E Christensen, Cheng Chen
Skeletonization offers a compact representation of an object while preserving important topological and geometrical features. Literature on skeletonization of binary objects is quite mature. However, challenges involved with skeletonization of fuzzy objects are mostly unanswered. This paper presents a new theory and algorithm of skeletonization for fuzzy objects, evaluates its performance, and demonstrates its applications. A formulation of fuzzy grassfire propagation is introduced; its relationships with fuzzy distance functions, level sets, and geodesics are discussed; and new results are presented...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763141/charge-transfer-excitations-in-tddft-a-ghost-hunter-index
#6
Marco Campetella, Federica Maschietto, Mike J Frisch, Giovanni Scalmani, Ilaria Ciofini, Carlo Adamo
This work presents a new index, MAC , enabling the on-the-fly detection of ghost charge transfer (CT) states, a major problem in time-dependent density-functional theory calculations. This computationally inexpensive index, derived as a modification of the Mulliken estimation of transition energy for CT excitations, relies on two basic ingredients: an effective CT distance, computed using our density-based index (DCT ), and an orbital weighted estimation of the Ionization Potential and Electron Affinity. Some model systems, representative of both intermolecular and intramolecular CT excitations, were chosen as test cases...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754640/the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-subdural-hematomas-a-study-on-the-formation-of-chronic-subdural-hematomas-and-analysis-of-ct-findings
#7
Neda Jafari, Lyle Gesner, Joseph M Koziol, Giorgio Rotoli, Otakar R Hubschmann
The origin of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) and the pathophysiology of its enlargement remain unknown. The chemical fluid composition of CSDH the contribution of CSF to its enlargement and the relationship to its appearance on CT appearance is also not entirely clear. In this prospective study, 58 samples in 41 patients treated surgically for CSDH were analyzed. The CSDH were evaluated for the presence of CSF using beta-2 transferrin (β2T) and substances, related to cell breakdown and hemolysis. These were compared to normal value of those substances in the serum and the CT appearances of the CSDH...
July 25, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724865/proposal-of-a-new-index-based-on-signal-to-noise-ratio-for-low-contrast-detectability-in-computed-tomographic-imaging
#8
Junichi Hashimoto, Shinji Abe, Yoshiyuki Ishimori, Masahiko Monma, Akio Tsumuraya, Kaneyoshi Miyauchi
The low-contrast detectability of computed tomography (CT) images is commonly evaluated by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) because of its convenience to measure. However, the correlation between CNR and visual detectability is poor because the CNR is a simple index determined by both the contrast of the object and the standard deviation of the image noise. On the other hand, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially SNR based on the statistical decision theory model (SNRS, D) and SNR based on the matched-filter model (SNRM) are considered superior to CNR...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715692/propping-the-optical-and-electronic-properties-of-potential-photo-sensitizers-with-different-%C3%AF-spacers-td-dft-insights
#9
Basant A Ali, Nageh K Allam
We report density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations on the widely used N3 dye (cis-[Ru(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)2(NCS)2] and its trans isomer with different π-spacers. The study compared the sensitization properties of the two isomers in terms of their electronic properties such as light harvesting efficiency (LHE), absorbed wavelength (λMax) and molecular orbital distribution. Also, charge transfer descriptors, such as the charge transfer distance (D(CT)), dipole moment (μ(CT)), and the amount of charge transferred (q(CT)) were investigated...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697576/sparse-view-image-reconstruction-via-total-absolute-curvature-combining-total-variation-for-x-ray-computed-tomography
#10
Zhizhong Zheng, Ailong Cai, Lei Li, Bin Yan, Fulong Le, Linyuan Wang, Guoen Hu
Sparse-view imaging is a promising scanning approach which has fast scanning rate and low-radiation dose in X-ray computed tomography (CT). Conventional L1-norm based total variation (TV) has been widely used in image reconstruction since the advent of compressive sensing theory. However, with only the first order information of the image used, the TV often generates dissatisfactory image for some applications. As is widely known, image curvature is among the most important second order features of images and can potentially be applied in image reconstruction for quality improvement...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676768/beyond-monologicality-exploring-conspiracist-worldviews
#11
Bradley Franks, Adrian Bangerter, Martin W Bauer, Matthew Hall, Mark C Noort
Conspiracy theories (CTs) are widespread ways by which people make sense of unsettling or disturbing cultural events. Belief in CTs is often connected to problematic consequences, such as decreased engagement with conventional political action or even political extremism, so understanding the psychological and social qualities of CT belief is important. CTs have often been understood to be "monological," displaying the tendency for belief in one conspiracy theory to be correlated with belief in (many) others...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660812/sex-differences-in-the-splenic-flexure
#12
A F Brookes, Caw Macano, T Stone, M Cheetham, L Meecham
INTRODUCTION Anecdotally, surgeons claim splenic flexure mobilisation is more difficult in male patients. There have been no scientific studies to confirm or disprove this hypothesis. The implications in colorectal surgery could be profound. The aim of this study was to assess quantitatively whether there is an anatomical difference in the position of the splenic flexure between men and women using computed tomography (CT). METHODS Portal venous phase CT performed for preoperative assessment of colorectal malignancy was analysed using the hospital picture archiving and communication system...
July 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660372/a-finite-element-study-of-traditional-chinese-cervical-manipulation
#13
Zhen Deng, Kuan Wang, Huihao Wang, Tianying Lan, Hongsheng Zhan, Wenxin Niu
PURPOSE: Traditional Chinese cervical manipulation (TCCM) has been claimed as an effective treatment for diseases of the cervical spine, but its biomechanical effects on the vertebral body and intervertebral discs remain unclear. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a detailed finite element model of cervical spine, which was then used to investigate the biomechanical response of the cervical spine to TCCM. METHODS: The model of a C2-T1 cervical spine was constructed based on CT images of a healthy male volunteer and validated against published in vitro studies under different loading conditions...
June 28, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646272/rhesus-cochlear-and-vestibular-functions-are-preserved-after-inner-ear-injection-of-saline-volume-sufficient-for-gene-therapy-delivery
#14
Chenkai Dai, Mohamed Lehar, Daniel Q Sun, Lani Swarthout Rvt, John P Carey, Tim MacLachlan, Doug Brough, Hinrich Staecker, Alexandra M Della Santina, Timothy E Hullar, Charles C Della Santina
Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634897/the-effect-of-surgical-technique-and-spacer-texture-on-bone-regeneration-a-caprine-study-using-the-masquelet-technique
#15
Viviane Luangphakdy, G Elizabeth Pluhar, Nicolás S Piuzzi, Jean-Claude D'Alleyrand, Cathy S Carlson, Joan E Bechtold, Jonathan Forsberg, George F Muschler
BACKGROUND: The Masquelet-induced-membrane technique is a commonly used method for treating segmental bone defects. However, there are no established clinical standards for management of the induced membrane before grafting. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Two clinically based theories were tested in a chronic caprine tibial defect model: (1) a textured spacer that increases the induced-membrane surface area will increase bone regeneration; and (2) surgical scraping to remove a thin tissue layer of the inner induced-membrane surface will enhance bone formation...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633299/structural-covariance-networks-in-children-with-autism-or-adhd
#16
R A I Bethlehem, R Romero-Garcia, E Mak, E T Bullmore, S Baron-Cohen
Background: While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Method: Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69)...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629942/can-a-target-zone-safer-than-lewinnek-s-safe-zone-be-defined-to-prevent-instability-of-total-hip-arthroplasties-case-control-study-of-56-dislocated-tha-and-93-matched-controls
#17
N Reina, S Putman, R Desmarchelier, E Sari Ali, P Chiron, M Ollivier, J Y Jenny, D Waast, C Mabit, E de Thomasson, C Schwartz, P Oger, L E Gayet, H Migaud, N Ramdane, M H Fessy
BACKGROUND: Various factors contribute to instability of total hip arthroplasty (THA), with implant orientation being a major contributor. We performed a case-control study with computed tomography (CT) data to determine whether: 1) orientation contributes to THA instability and 2) a safer target zone for stability than Lewinnek's classic safe zone can be defined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included prospectively 363 cases of THA dislocation that occurred during the calendar 2013 year in 24 participating hospitals...
June 16, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622019/patient-perceptions-of-illness-identity-in-cancer-clinical-trial-decision-making
#18
Angela L Palmer-Wackerly, Phokeng M Dailey, Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Nancy D Rhodes, Janice L Krieger
When patients are diagnosed with cancer, they begin to negotiate their illness identity in relation to their past and future selves, their relationships, and their group memberships. Thus, how patients view their cancer in relation to their other identities may affect how and why they make particular decisions about treatment options. Using the Communication Theory of Identity (CTI), the current study explores: (1) how and why illness identity is framed across identity layers in relation to one particular cancer treatment: participation in a cancer clinical trial (CT); and (2) how and why patients experience identity conflicts while making their treatment decisions...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607762/can-visual-assessment-of-blood-flow-patterns-by-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-distinguish-between-malignant-and-benign-lung-tumors
#19
Stefan Walbom Harders, Hans Henrik Madsen, Hanne Marie Nellemann, Torben Riis Rasmussen, Jesper Thygesen, Henrik Hager, Niels Trolle Andersen, Finn Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a tool, which, in theory, can quantify the blood flow and blood volume of tissues. In structured qualitative analysis, parametric color maps yield a visual impression of the blood flow and blood volume within the tissue being studied, allowing for quick identification of the areas with the highest or lowest blood flow and blood volume. PURPOSE: To examine whether DCE-CT could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors in patients with suspected lung cancer...
May 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595390/electron-phonon-coupling-in-anthracene-pyromellitic-dianhydride
#20
Derek Vermeulen, Nathan Corbin, Katelyn P Goetz, Oana D Jurchescu, Veaceslav Coropceanu, L E McNeil
In this study, the electron-phonon coupling constants of the mixed-stack organic semiconductor anthracene-pyromellitic dianhydride (A-PMDA) are determined from experimental resonant Raman and absorption spectra of the charge transfer (CT) exciton using a time-dependent resonant Raman model. The reorganization energies of both intermolecular and intramolecular phonons are determined and compared with theoretical estimates derived from density functional theory calculations; they are found to agree well. We found that the dominant contribution to the total reorganization energy is due to intramolecular phonons, with intermolecular phonons only contributing a small percentage...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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