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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864141/defects-in-intracellular-trafficking-of-fungal-cell-wall-synthases-lead-to-aberrant-host-immune-recognition
#1
Shannon K Esher, Kyla S Ost, Maria A Kohlbrenner, Kaila M Pianalto, Calla L Telzrow, Althea Campuzano, Connie B Nichols, Carol Munro, Floyd L Wormley, J Andrew Alspaugh
The human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, dramatically alters its cell wall, both in size and composition, upon entering the host. This cell wall remodeling is essential for host immune avoidance by this pathogen. In a genetic screen for mutants with changes in their cell wall, we identified a novel protein, Mar1, that controls cell wall organization and immune evasion. Through phenotypic studies of a loss-of-function strain, we have demonstrated that the mar1Δ mutant has an aberrant cell surface and a defect in polysaccharide capsule attachment, resulting in attenuated virulence...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796704/climate-research-priorities-for-policy-makers-practitioners-and-scientists-in-georgia-usa
#2
Murray A Rudd, Althea F P Moore, Daniel Rochberg, Lisa Bianchi-Fossati, Marilyn A Brown, David D'Onofrio, Carrie A Furman, Jairo Garcia, Ben Jordan, Jennifer Kline, L Mark Risse, Patricia L Yager, Jessica Abbinett, Merryl Alber, Jesse E Bell, Cyrus Bhedwar, Kim M Cobb, Juliet Cohen, Matt Cox, Myriam Dormer, Nyasha Dunkley, Heather Farley, Jill Gambill, Mindy Goldstein, Garry Harris, Melissa Hopkinson, Jean-Ann James, Susan Kidd, Pam Knox, Yang Liu, Daniel C Matisoff, Michael D Meyer, Jamie D Mitchem, Katherine Moore, Aspen J Ono, Jon Philipsborn, Kerrie M Sendall, Fatemeh Shafiei, Marshall Shepherd, Julia Teebken, Ashby N Worley
Climate change has far-reaching effects on human and ecological systems, requiring collaboration across sectors and disciplines to determine effective responses. To inform regional responses to climate change, decision-makers need credible and relevant information representing a wide swath of knowledge and perspectives. The southeastern U. S. State of Georgia is a valuable focal area for study because it contains multiple ecological zones that vary greatly in land use and economic activities, and it is vulnerable to diverse climate change impacts...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744738/unexpected-findings-and-misdiagnoses-in-coroner-s-autopsies-performed-for-trauma-at-the-university-of-the-west-indies-kingston-jamaica
#3
Althea C G Neblett, Tracey N Gibson, Carlos T Escoffery
There has been significant improvement in medical diagnostic technology, but discrepancy rates between clinical and postmortem diagnoses remain relatively high. This study aimed to identify misdiagnoses and missed (unexpected) findings documented during complete coroner's autopsies performed for trauma at the University of the West Indies (UWI) and evaluate their influence on patient outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all coroner's autopsies performed for trauma, between 2003 and 2012, at the UWI...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708963/automated-evaluation-of-quaternary-structures-from-protein-crystals
#4
Spencer Bliven, Aleix Lafita, Althea Parker, Guido Capitani, Jose M Duarte
A correct assessment of the quaternary structure of proteins is a fundamental prerequisite to understanding their function, physico-chemical properties and mode of interaction with other proteins. Currently about 90% of structures in the Protein Data Bank are crystal structures, in which the correct quaternary structure is embedded in the crystal lattice among a number of crystal contacts. Computational methods are required to 1) classify all protein-protein contacts in crystal lattices as biologically relevant or crystal contacts and 2) provide an assessment of how the biologically relevant interfaces combine into a biological assembly...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700813/the-impact-of-a-computerised-test-of-attention-and-activity-qbtest-on-diagnostic-decision-making-in-children-and-young-people-with-suspected-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Chris Hollis, Charlotte L Hall, Boliang Guo, Marilyn James, Janet Boadu, Madeleine J Groom, Nikki Brown, Catherine Kaylor-Hughes, Maria Moldavsky, Althea Z Valentine, Gemma M Walker, David Daley, Kapil Sayal, Richard Morriss
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relies on subjective methods which can lead to diagnostic uncertainty and delay. This trial evaluated the impact of providing a computerised test of attention and activity (QbTest) report on the speed and accuracy of diagnostic decision-making in children with suspected ADHD. METHODS: Randomised, parallel, single-blind controlled trial in mental health and community paediatric clinics in England...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649515/a-biopsychosocial-model-of-body-image-disordered-eating-and-breastfeeding-among-postpartum-women
#6
Rachel F Rodgers, Jennifer L O'Flynn, Althea Bourdeau, Emily Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image, eating, and feeding attitudes among postpartum women. Specifically, the model predicted that desired weight-loss, depressive symptoms, and body surveillance would predict body dissatisfaction and appearance-related barriers to breastfeeding, which in turn would predict maternal disordered eating and breastfeeding self-efficacy. METHODS: Data from 151 women, mean age = 32...
July 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574438/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-to-determine-the-effect-of-community-mobilisation-and-advocacy-on-men-s-use-of-violence-in-periurban-south-africa-study-protocol
#7
Nicola J Christofides, Abigail M Hatcher, Angelica Pino, Dumisani Rebombo, Ruari Santiago McBride, Althea Anderson, Dean Peacock
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the design and methods of a cluster randomised controlled trial (C-RCT) to determine the effectiveness of a community mobilisation intervention that is designed to reduce the perpetration of violence against women (VAW). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A C-RCT of nine intervention and nine control clusters is being carried out in a periurban, semiformal settlement near Johannesburg, South Africa, between 2016 and 2018. A community mobilisation and advocacy intervention, called Sonke CHANGE is being implemented over 18 months...
March 23, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518906/innate-immunity-against-cryptococcus-from-recognition-to-elimination
#8
REVIEW
Althea Campuzano, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329309/time-series-sightability-modeling-of-animal-populations
#9
Althea A ArchMiller, Robert M Dorazio, Katherine St Clair, John R Fieberg
Logistic regression models-or "sightability models"-fit to detection/non-detection data from marked individuals are often used to adjust for visibility bias in later detection-only surveys, with population abundance estimated using a modified Horvitz-Thompson (mHT) estimator. More recently, a model-based alternative for analyzing combined detection/non-detection and detection-only data was developed. This approach seemed promising, since it resulted in similar estimates as the mHT when applied to data from moose (Alces alces) surveys in Minnesota...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117887/correlates-to-problem-behaviors-in-pediatric-narcolepsy-a-pilot-study
#10
Althea Robinson Shelton, Beth Malow
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Excessive daytime sleepiness, the hallmark of narcolepsy, predisposes patients to serious performance decrements in multiple areas of function. Psychosocial dysfunction has been demonstrated in adults and children with narcolepsy. Several factors could influence psychosocial functioning in children. The objective of this study was to examine neurobehavioral problems in children with narcolepsy and to define associations with these problem behaviors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed where the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by guardians of children (age 18 years or younger) in whom narcolepsy with or without cataplexy was diagnosed (based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition) between July 2008 and October 2014...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114434/usability-evaluation-of-laboratory-information-systems
#11
Althea Mathews, David Marc
Background: Numerous studies have revealed widespread clinician frustration with the usability of electronic health records (EHRs) that is counterproductive to adoption of EHR systems to meet the aims of health-care reform. With poor system usability comes increased risk of negative unintended consequences. Usability issues could lead to user error and workarounds that have the potential to compromise patient safety and negatively impact the quality of care.[1] While there is ample research on EHR usability, there is little information on the usability of laboratory information systems (LISs)...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960475/impulse-control-disorders-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-with-dyskinesia-the-althea-study
#12
Roberta Biundo, Luca Weis, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Pietro Cortelli, Maria Cristina Jori, Leonardo Lopiano, Roberto Marconi, Angela Matinella, Francesca Morgante, Alessandra Nicoletti, Tiziano Tamburini, Michele Tinazzi, Mario Zappia, Ruxandra Julia Vorovenci, Angelo Antonini
BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders and dyskinesia are common and disabling complications of dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease. They may coexist and are possibly related. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and severity of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease patients with dyskinesia. METHODS: The ALTHEA study enrolled 251 Parkinson's disease patients with various degrees of dyskinesia severity from 11 movement disorders centers in Italy...
November 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936148/the-potential-anticoagulant-property-of-caulerpa-lentillifera-crude-extract
#13
Althea R Arenajo, Adrian P Ybañez, Maria Maichol P Ababan, Charlotte E Villajuan, May Rose M Lasam, Chiqui P Young, Julie Lynn A Reyes
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulants have been used in the treatment of several circulatory diseases and thrombotic disorders, and in the blood sampling for hematologic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides (SP), which have anticoagulant properties, are found in most seaweeds, including Caulerpa spp. OBJECTIVE: The study generally aimed to evaluate the potential anticoagulant property of Caulerpa lentillifera. METHODOLOGY: The whole plant of fresh C. lentillifera was washed thoroughly with distilled water and manually expressed to obtain the extract...
July 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862527/agency-lapse-in-condom-use-and-relationship-intimacy-among-female-sex-workers-in-jamaica
#14
Althea E Bailey, John Peter Figueroa
This paper explores barriers to consistent condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica in a qualitative study using grounded theory. Multiple perspectives were sought through 44 in-depth interviews conducted with female sex workers, clients, the partners of sex workers and facilitators of sex work. Poverty and lack of education or skills, severely limited support systems as well as childhood abuse served to push the majority of participants into sex work and created vulnerability to HIV and other STIs. Despite these constraints, women found ways to exercise agency, ensure condom use, adopt protective measures and gain economic advantage in various aspects of the Jamaican sex trade...
May 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664654/acne-keloidalis-nuchae-risk-factors-and-associated-disorders-a-retrospective-study
#15
Althea D C East-Innis, Kaderina Stylianou, Alexandra Paolino, Jonathan D Ho
BACKGROUND: Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic scarring folliculitis which usually occurs in young adult males of African descent. Studies have suggested that AKN may be associated with other dermatologic conditions and even general medical disorders. The aim of this study was to identify cutaneous and extracutaneous associated disorders and to examine risk factors in our population for developing AKN. METHODS: The study was a retrospective, descriptive, and analytical study conducted at the Dermatology Outpatient department of the University Hospital of the West Indies...
August 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591573/phosphorylation-of-txnip-by-akt-mediates-acute-influx-of-glucose-in-response-to-insulin
#16
Althea N Waldhart, Holly Dykstra, Anderson S Peck, Elissa A Boguslawski, Zachary B Madaj, Jennifer Wen, Kelsey Veldkamp, Matthew Hollowell, Bin Zheng, Lewis C Cantley, Timothy E McGraw, Ning Wu
Growth factors, such as insulin, can induce both acute and long-term glucose uptake into cells. Apart from the rapid, insulin-induced fusion of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 storage vesicles with the cell surface that occurs in muscle and adipose tissues, the mechanism behind acute induction has been unclear in other systems. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) has been shown to be a negative regulator of cellular glucose uptake. TXNIP is transcriptionally induced by glucose and reduces glucose influx by promoting GLUT1 endocytosis...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532548/mtorc1-in-agrp-neurons-integrates-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-food-related-cues-in-the-modulation-of-adaptive-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#17
Luke K Burke, Tamana Darwish, Althea R Cavanaugh, Sam Virtue, Emma Roth, Joanna Morro, Shun-Mei Liu, Jing Xia, Jeffrey W Dalley, Keith Burling, Streamson Chua, Toni Vidal-Puig, Gary J Schwartz, Clémence Blouet
Energy dissipation through interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis is an important contributor to adaptive energy expenditure. However, it remains unresolved how acute and chronic changes in energy availability are detected by the brain to adjust iBAT activity and maintain energy homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that AGRP inhibitory tone to iBAT represents an energy-sparing circuit that integrates environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability. We establish a role for the nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signaling pathway within AGRP neurons in the detection of environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability, and in the bi-directional control of iBAT thermogenesis during nutrient deficiency and excess...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523850/n-aryl-groups-are-ubiquitous-in-cross-dehydrogenative-couplings-because-they-stabilize-reactive-intermediates
#18
Althea S-K Tsang, A Stephen K Hashmi, Peter Comba, Marion Kerscher, Bun Chan, Matthew H Todd
The mechanism of cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reactions has been examined by experimental and computational methods. We provide a rationale for the ubiquity of the N-aryl group in these reactions. The aryl substituent stabilizes two intermediates and the high-energy transition state that connects them, which together represent the rate-determining step. This knowledge has enabled us to predict whether new CDC substrates will react either well or poorly.
July 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396796/evolutionary-medicine-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#19
Althea Anne D Perez, Scott W Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392993/patterns-of-marijuana-and-tobacco-use-associated-with-suboptimal-self-rated-health-among-us-adult-ever-users-of-marijuana
#20
James Tsai, Italia V Rolle, Tushar Singh, Sheree L Boulet, Timothy A McAfee, Althea M Grant
The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of marijuana and tobacco use and their associations with suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) among US adults who reported "ever, even once, using marijuana or hashish." Data came from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricting to respondents aged 20 years and older who reported using marijuana at least once in their lifetime (n = 3,210). We assessed the age-adjusted prevalence of mutually exclusive groups of regular (at least once a month for more than one year) and non-regular marijuana smoking by current (serum cotinine ≥ 3...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
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