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Ji-Hong Chen
Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is characterized by low to very low amplitude propulsive contractions in the distal esophagus, hence primarily affecting the smooth muscle part of the esophagus. IEM is often found in patients with dysphagia or heartburn and is commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. IEM is assumed to be associated with ineffective bolus transport; however, this can be verified using impedance measurements or evaluation of a barium coated marshmallow swallow. Furthermore, water swallows may not assess accurately the motor capabilities of the esophagus, since contraction amplitude is strongly determined by the size and consistency of the bolus...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
William S Y Wong, Zbigniew H Stachurski, David R Nisbet, Antonio Tricoli
In nature, durable self-cleaning surfaces such as the Lotus leaf rely on the multiscale architecture and cohesive regenerative properties of organic tissue. Real-world impact of synthetic replicas has been limited by the poor mechanical and chemical stability of the ultrafine hierarchical textures required for attaining a highly dewetting superhydrophobic state. Here, we present the low-cost synthesis of large-scale ultradurable superhydrophobic coatings by rapid template-free micronano texturing of interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs)...
June 1, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alison Curnow, Sara J Owen
As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jun Kohyama
There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s...
2016: Brain Sciences
Michael T Friel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Marta Muñoz-Colmenero, Jose Luis Martínez, Agustín Roca, Eva Garcia-Vazquez
Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one...
March 2016: Journal of Food Science
Joanne Murray, Anna Theakston, Adrian Wells
The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood...
February 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Keysa Williams, Raegan J Wells, Mary Kay McLean
OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of suspected synthetic cannabinoid (SC) toxicosis and the response to intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-8-month-old male Boxer dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital for progressive ataxia and inappropriate mentation. The initial physical examination identified marked hypothermia (32.7°C [90.9°F]), intermittent sinus bradycardia (60/min), stuporous mentation with intermittent aggression, and severe ataxia...
November 2015: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Sameh S Zaghlool, Basim A Shehata, Ali A Abo-Seif, Hekma A Abd El-Latif
BACKGROUND: Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and marshmallow (100 mg/kg)...
July 2015: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
Laura A Ciolino
Plant based products laced with synthetic cannabinoids have become popular substances of abuse over the last decade. Quantitative analysis for synthetic cannabinoid content in the laced materials is necessary for health hazard assessments addressing overall exposure and toxicity when the products are smoked. A validated, broadly applicable HPLC-UV method for the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in plant materials is presented, using acetonitrile extraction and separation on a commercial phenylhexyl stationary phase...
September 2015: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Bonnie M Perdue, Jessica L Bramlett, Theodore A Evans, Michael J Beran
Self-control tasks used with nonhuman animals typically involve the choice between an immediate option and a delayed, but more preferred option. However, in many self-control scenarios, not only does the more impulsive option come sooner in time, it is often more concrete than the delayed option. For example, studies have presented children with the option of eating a visible marshmallow immediately, or foregoing it for a better reward that can only be seen later. Thus, the immediately available option is visible and concrete, whereas the delayed option is not visible and more abstract...
September 2015: Animal Cognition
Rod J Rohrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
E Clarebrough, G Guest, D Stupart
AIM: Anecdotally, many ostomates believe that eating marshmallows can reduce ileostomy effluent. There is a plausible mechanism for this, as the gelatine contained in marshmallows may thicken small bowel fluid, but there is currently no evidence that this is effective. METHOD: This was a randomized crossover trial. Adult patients with well-established ileostomies were included. Ileostomy output was measured for 1 week during which three marshmallows were consumed three times daily, and for one control week where marshmallows were not eaten...
December 2015: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Aarthi Madhavan, Giselle D Carnaby, Michael A Crary
Prevalence of the symptom of food 'sticking' during swallowing has been reported to range from 5 to 50%, depending on the assessment setting. However, limited objective evidence has emerged to clarify factors that contribute to this symptom. Three hundred and fifteen patient records from an outpatient dysphagia clinic were reviewed to identify patients with symptoms of 'food sticking in the throat.' Corresponding videofluoroscopic swallowing studies for patients with this complaint were reviewed for the following variables: accuracy of symptom localization, identification and characteristics (anatomic, physiologic) of an explanatory cause for the symptom, and the specific swallowed material that identified the explanatory cause...
June 2015: Dysphagia
Drew H Abney, Alexandra Paxton, Rick Dale, Christopher T Kello
Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like...
November 2015: Cognitive Processing
Marta Muñoz-Colmenero, Jose Luis Martínez, Agustín Roca, Eva García-Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Commercial candies are consumed by all population age sectors worldwide. Methods for quality control and composition authentication are therefore needed for best compliance with consumers' preferences. In this study applications of DNA-based methodology for candy quality control have been tested. Eighteen samples of commercial candies (marshmallows, gumdrops, jelly, sherbet, gelatin-based desserts) produced by five countries were analyzed to identify the component species by polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA and ribulose -1,5-diphosphate carboxylase oxygenase genes, and the species determined from BLAST comparison with universal databases and phylogenetic analysis...
February 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ivana Skrinjar, Vanja Vucicevic Boras, Iva Bakale, Ana Andabak Rogulj, Vlaho Brailo, Danica Vidovic Juras, Ivan Alajbeg, Danko Velimir Vrdoljak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of oral spray based on thermal spring water (Buccotherm®) versus commercial saliva substitute (Xeros®) and marshmallow root on the quality of life in patients with hyposalivation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients with unstimulated salivary flow rate <0.2 ml/min were randomized into three groups. In the first group, 30 patients were using Buccotherm®; in the second group, 15 patients were using Xeros®; and in the third group, 15 patients were using marshmallow root...
April 2015: Clinical Oral Investigations
Peyman Pakrokh Ghavi
Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis...
April 2015: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sergio Da Silva, Bruno Moreira, Newton Da Costa
We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification.
2014: PloS One
Helga Vamenta-Morris, Albert Dreisbach, Michael Shoemaker-Moyle, Emaad M Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: The use of complementary/alternative medicine has garnered rising interest in recent years. Natural products including herbs, vitamins, and minerals are the most popularly consumed. The Internet is a ubiquitous source of information/market for these supplements. AIM: To systematically evaluate the dietary and herbal supplement recommended for patients with CKD and ESRD on the Internet, and try to distinguish between the claim of the manufacturer and proven scientific data...
2014: American Journal of Nephrology
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