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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653040/prospective-thinking-and-decision-making-in-primary-school-age-children
#1
Elisabetta Lombardi, Cinzia Di Dio, Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Antonella Marchetti
In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650326/to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-cofnovex-plus-ema-syrup
#2
Zubair Ali, Muhammad Daniyal, Muhammad Khalid Adhia, Anees Alam, Babar Sarfaraz, Abdul Sattar, Khan Usmanghani
The cough and cold are very widespread conditions and a common purpose for advice in general practice. Utmost often the sign and symptoms of cough are produced by acute viral airway infection and the course is frequently benign. But it can be converted into bacterial super-infection and can cause acute bronchitis. Herbal medicines are used to treat symptoms of the cough and cold, and among these medicines Ivy leaf is used to treat mucous discharge and irritation in throat due to the cough and cold. In addition to synthetic substances such as acetylcysteine, carbocisteins, ambroxol and bromhexine, herbal medicines contain saponins, which are used in these indications...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612694/-anticholinergic-syndrome-caused-by-contaminated-herbal-tea-acting-swiftly-to-identify-the-source
#3
C Oerlemans, I de Vries, A J H P van Riel
BACKGROUND: Despite good manufacturing practice and quality control, consumer products can become contaminated. In some cases, this can result in severe and life-threatening intoxication with potentially fatal consequences. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old man and a 28-year-old pregnant woman presented to the Emergency Department with severe anticholinergic syndrome after using a marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) herbal remedy, mixed into hot chocolate drink, to reduce symptoms of common cold...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586087/waiting-for-the-second-treat-developing-culture-specific-modes-of-self-regulation
#4
Bettina Lamm, Heidi Keller, Johanna Teiser, Helene Gudi, Relindis D Yovsi, Claudia Freitag, Sonja Poloczek, Ina Fassbender, Janina Suhrke, Manuel Teubert, Isabel Vöhringer, Monika Knopf, Gudrun Schwarzer, Arnold Lohaus
The development of self-regulation has been studied primarily in Western middle-class contexts and has, therefore, neglected what is known about culturally varying self-concepts and socialization strategies. The research reported here compared the self-regulatory competencies of German middle-class (N = 125) and rural Cameroonian Nso preschoolers (N = 76) using the Marshmallow test (Mischel, 2014). Study 1 revealed that 4-year-old Nso children showed better delay-of-gratification performance than their German peers...
June 6, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128955/phytochemical-characterization-of-low-molecular-weight-constituents-from-marshmallow-roots-althaea-officinalis-and-inhibiting-effects-of-the-aqueous-extract-on-human-hyaluronidase-1
#5
Jandirk Sendker, Ines Böker, Isabelle Lengers, Simone Brandt, Joachim Jose, Timo Stark, Thomas Hofmann, Careen Fink, Heba Abdel-Aziz, Andreas Hensel
Extract RE was obtained from the roots of Althaea officinalis in a yield of 8.1%, related to the dried plant material, by extraction with MeOH-H2O (1:1), followed by precipitation with EtOH to remove high molecular weight constituents. Phytochemical investigation of RE revealed the presence of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acid amides 1-5, 8% glycine betaine 6, about 9% total amino acids with proline as the main compound, and about 61% mono- and oligomeric carbohydrates with sucrose as the main compound. Further fractionation revealed the presence of a hypolaetin diglycoside (12) and four hypolaetin glycosides (7-9 and 11) with O-sulfocarbohydrate moieties; additionally, 4'-O-methylisoscutellarein-8-O-β-d-(3″-O-sulfo)glucuronopyranoside (10) and the diglycosylated coumarin haploperoside D (13) were identified...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703389/ineffective-esophageal-motility-and-the-vagus-current-challenges-and-future-prospects
#6
REVIEW
Ji-Hong Chen
Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is characterized by low to very low amplitude propulsive contractions in the distal esophagus, hence primarily affecting the smooth muscle part of the esophagus. IEM is often found in patients with dysphagia or heartburn and is commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. IEM is assumed to be associated with ineffective bolus transport; however, this can be verified using impedance measurements or evaluation of a barium coated marshmallow swallow. Furthermore, water swallows may not assess accurately the motor capabilities of the esophagus, since contraction amplitude is strongly determined by the size and consistency of the bolus...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203856/ultra-durable-and-transparent-self-cleaning-surfaces-by-large-scale-self-assembly-of-hierarchical-interpenetrated-polymer-networks
#7
William S Y Wong, Zbigniew H Stachurski, David R Nisbet, Antonio Tricoli
In nature, durable self-cleaning surfaces such as the Lotus leaf rely on the multiscale architecture and cohesive regenerative properties of organic tissue. Real-world impact of synthetic replicas has been limited by the poor mechanical and chemical stability of the ultrafine hierarchical textures required for attaining a highly dewetting superhydrophobic state. Here, we present the low-cost synthesis of large-scale ultradurable superhydrophobic coatings by rapid template-free micronano texturing of interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs)...
June 1, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26953144/an-evaluation-of-root-phytochemicals-derived-from-althea-officinalis-marshmallow-and-astragalus-membranaceus-as-potential-natural-components-of-uv-protecting-dermatological-formulations
#8
Alison Curnow, Sara J Owen
As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840337/neural-basis-of-brain-dysfunction-produced-by-early-sleep-problems
#9
REVIEW
Jun Kohyama
There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s...
2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818348/so-%C3%A2-are-you-failing-the-marshmallow-test-connecting-and-disconnecting-in-our-information-rich-world
#10
LETTER
Michael T Friel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807698/detection-of-different-dna-animal-species-in-commercial-candy-products
#11
Marta Muñoz-Colmenero, Jose Luis Martínez, Agustín Roca, Eva Garcia-Vazquez
Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one...
March 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708331/can-the-attention-training-technique-turn-one-marshmallow-into-two-improving-children-s-ability-to-delay-gratification
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Joanne Murray, Anna Theakston, Adrian Wells
The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood...
February 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26473510/suspected-synthetic-cannabinoid-toxicosis-in-a-dog
#13
Keysa Williams, Raegan J Wells, Mary Kay McLean
OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of suspected synthetic cannabinoid (SC) toxicosis and the response to intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-8-month-old male Boxer dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital for progressive ataxia and inappropriate mentation. The initial physical examination identified marked hypothermia (32.7°C [90.9°F]), intermittent sinus bradycardia (60/min), stuporous mentation with intermittent aggression, and severe ataxia...
November 2015: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283843/protective-effects-of-ginger-and-marshmallow-extracts-on-indomethacin-induced-peptic-ulcer-in-rats
#14
Sameh S Zaghlool, Basim A Shehata, Ali A Abo-Seif, Hekma A Abd El-Latif
BACKGROUND: Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and marshmallow (100 mg/kg)...
July 2015: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26175160/quantitation-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-plant-materials-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-uv-detection-validated-method
#15
Laura A Ciolino
Plant based products laced with synthetic cannabinoids have become popular substances of abuse over the last decade. Quantitative analysis for synthetic cannabinoid content in the laced materials is necessary for health hazard assessments addressing overall exposure and toxicity when the products are smoked. A validated, broadly applicable HPLC-UV method for the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in plant materials is presented, using acetonitrile extraction and separation on a commercial phenylhexyl stationary phase...
September 2015: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26024691/waiting-for-what-comes-later-capuchin-monkeys-show-self-control-even-for-nonvisible-delayed-rewards
#16
Bonnie M Perdue, Jessica L Bramlett, Theodore A Evans, Michael J Beran
Self-control tasks used with nonhuman animals typically involve the choice between an immediate option and a delayed, but more preferred option. However, in many self-control scenarios, not only does the more impulsive option come sooner in time, it is often more concrete than the delayed option. For example, studies have presented children with the option of eating a visible marshmallow immediately, or foregoing it for a better reward that can only be seen later. Thus, the immediately available option is visible and concrete, whereas the delayed option is not visible and more abstract...
September 2015: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26017604/so-%C3%A2-are-you-failing-the-marshmallow-test-connecting-and-disconnecting-in-our-information-rich-world
#17
EDITORIAL
Rod J Rohrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25951410/eating-marshmallows-reduces-ileostomy-output-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
E Clarebrough, G Guest, D Stupart
AIM: Anecdotally, many ostomates believe that eating marshmallows can reduce ileostomy effluent. There is a plausible mechanism for this, as the gelatine contained in marshmallows may thicken small bowel fluid, but there is currently no evidence that this is effective. METHOD: This was a randomized crossover trial. Adult patients with well-established ileostomies were included. Ileostomy output was measured for 1 week during which three marshmallows were consumed three times daily, and for one control week where marshmallows were not eaten...
December 2015: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25783698/-food-sticking-in-my-throat-videofluoroscopic-evaluation-of-a-common-symptom
#19
Aarthi Madhavan, Giselle D Carnaby, Michael A Crary
Prevalence of the symptom of food 'sticking' during swallowing has been reported to range from 5 to 50%, depending on the assessment setting. However, limited objective evidence has emerged to clarify factors that contribute to this symptom. Three hundred and fifteen patient records from an outpatient dysphagia clinic were reviewed to identify patients with symptoms of 'food sticking in the throat.' Corresponding videofluoroscopic swallowing studies for patients with this complaint were reviewed for the following variables: accuracy of symptom localization, identification and characteristics (anatomic, physiologic) of an explanatory cause for the symptom, and the specific swallowed material that identified the explanatory cause...
June 2015: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25757891/movement-dynamics-reflect-a-functional-role-for-weak-coupling-and-role-structure-in-dyadic-problem-solving
#20
Drew H Abney, Alexandra Paxton, Rick Dale, Christopher T Kello
Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like...
November 2015: Cognitive Processing
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