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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748512/protective-effect-of-highly-polymeric-a-type-proanthocyanidins-from-seed-shells-of-japanese-horse-chestnut-aesculus-turbinata-blume-against-light-induced-oxidative-damage-in-rat-retina
#1
Tomoe Ishihara, Sachiko Kaidzu, Hideto Kimura, Yasurou Koyama, Yotaro Matsuoka, Akihiro Ohira
Retinal tissue is exposed to oxidative stress caused by visible light. Light-damaged rat used in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) studies clarified that antioxidants decrease retinal light damage. Albino rats were exposed to 5000 Lux light for 12 h with oral administration of the polyphenolic compounds fraction (PF) from the seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg body weight: BW). To evaluate the protective effects against light damage, electroretinograms (ERGs), the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, the antioxidant activity of plasma, oxidized retinal lipids, and the detection of apoptosis were examined...
May 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474858/molecular-targets-and-anti-cancer-potential-of-escin
#2
Dorothy H J Cheong, Frank Arfuso, Gautam Sethi, Lingzhi Wang, Kam Man Hui, Alan Prem Kumar, Thai Tran
Escin is a mixture of triterpenoid saponins extracted from the horse chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum. Its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-odematous properties makes it a choice of therapy against chronic venous insufficiency and odema. More recently, escin is being actively investigated for its potential activity against diverse cancers. It exhibits anti-cancer effects in many cancer cell models including lung adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and leukemia. Escin also attenuates tumor growth and metastases in various in vivo models...
May 28, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342121/%C3%AE-escin-effectively-modulates-huvecs-proliferation-and-tube-formation
#3
Lenka Varinská, Lenka Fáber, Martin Kello, Eva Petrovová, Ľudmila Balážová, Peter Solár, Matúš Čoma, Peter Urdzík, Ján Mojžiš, Emil Švajdlenka, Pavel Mučaji, Peter Gál
In the present study we evaluated the anti-angiogenic activities of β-escin (the major active compound of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seeds). Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used as an in vitro model for studying the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of β-escin. We investigated the in vitro effects on proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HUVECs and in vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285602/triterpenoid-saponins-from-the-seeds-of-aesculus-chinensis-and-their-cytotoxicities
#4
Jin-Tang Cheng, Shi-Tao Chen, Cong Guo, Meng-Jiao Jiao, Wen-Jin Cui, Shu-Hui Wang, Zhe Deng, Chang Chen, Sha Chen, Jun Zhang, An Liu
Six new triterpenoid saponins, aesculusosides A-F (1-6), together with 19 known ones, were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. The new structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with previously reported data. Some of the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 cell line by an MTT assay, and compounds 15, 16, 19, and 23-25 exhibited inhibitory activities against MCF-7 with IC50 values ranging from 7.1 to 31.3 μM.
February 2018: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104583/not-all-trees-sleep-the-same-high-temporal-resolution-terrestrial-laser-scanning-shows-differences-in-nocturnal-plant-movement
#5
András Zlinszky, Bence Molnár, Anders S Barfod
Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid measurement of distances to the targets, thus producing three dimensional point cloud models of sub-centimeter resolution and accuracy in a few minutes. Here, we aim to gain an overview of the variability of circadian movement of small trees across different taxonomic groups, growth forms and leaf anatomies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022891/escin-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-and-autophagy-through-the-ros-p38-mapk-signalling-pathway-in-human-osteosarcoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Jian Zhu, Wei Yu, Bing Liu, Yitian Wang, Jianlin Shao, Junjie Wang, Kaishun Xia, Chengzhen Liang, Weijing Fang, Chenhe Zhou, Huimin Tao
Osteosarcoma is one of the most malignant neoplasms in adolescents, and it generally develops multidrug resistance. Escin, a natural mixture of triterpene saponins isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut), has demonstrated potent anti-tumour potential in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we found that escin inhibited osteosarcoma proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, escin-induced apoptosis was evidenced by the increased expression of caspase-related proteins and the formation of apoptotic bodies...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890859/association-of-aescin-with-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins-studied-by-dft-calculations-and-spectroscopic-methods
#7
Ana I Ramos, Pedro D Vaz, Susana S Braga, Artur M S Silva
Background: Aescin, a natural mixture of saponins occurring in Aesculus hippocastanum, exhibits important flebotonic properties, being used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency in legs. The inclusion of aescin into cyclodextrins (CDs) is a technical solution for its incorporation into the textile of stockings, but details of the physicochemistry of these host-guest systems are lacking. This work investigates the inclusion of aescin into the cavities of two native cyclodextrins, β-CD and γ-CD. Results: The continuous variation method applied to aqueous-phase (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) has demonstrated that the preferred CD/aescin inclusion stoichiometries are 2:1 with β-CD and 1:1 with γ-CD...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527823/antiviral-escin-derivatives-from-the-seeds-of-aesculus-turbinata-blume-japanese-horse-chestnut
#8
Ji Won Kim, Thi-Kim-Quy Ha, Hyomoon Cho, Eunhee Kim, Sang Hee Shim, Jun-Li Yang, Won Keun Oh
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe diarrhea and high fatality of piglets, influencing the swine industry. Japanese horse chestnut (seed of Aesculus turbinata) contains many saponin mixtures, called escins, and has been used for a long time as a traditional medicinal plant. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on escins have revealed that acylations at C-21 and C-22 with angeloyl or tigloyl groups were important for their cytotoxic effects. However, the strong cytotoxicity of escins makes them hard to utilize for other diseases and to develop as nutraceuticals...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465233/aesculin-modulates-bone-metabolism-by-suppressing-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-and-transduction-signals
#9
Xiao-Li Zhao, Lin-Feng Chen, Zhen Wang
Aesculin (AES), a coumarin compound derived from Aesculus hippocasanum L, is reported to exert protective role against inflammatory diseases, gastric disease and cancer. However, direct effect of AES in bone metabolism is deficient. In this study, we examined the effects of AES on osteoclast (OC) differentiation in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW264.7 cells. AES inhibits the OC differentiation in both dose- and time-dependent manner within non-toxic concentrations, as analyzed by Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418070/a-signature-of-tree-health-shifts-in-the-microbiome-and-the-ecological-drivers-of-horse-chestnut-bleeding-canker-disease
#10
Britt Koskella, Sean Meaden, William J Crowther, Roosa Leimu, C Jessica E Metcalf
Host susceptibility to pathogens can be shaped by genetic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. The ability to predict the spread of disease therefore requires an integrated understanding of these factors, including effects of pests on pathogen growth and competition between pathogens and commensal microbiota for host resources. We examined interactions between the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, the bacterial causal agent of bleeding canker disease Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi, and the bark-associated microbiota of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317733/antioxidant-activities-and-structural-characterization-of-flavonol-o-glycosides-from-seeds-of-japanese-horse-chestnut-aesculus-turbinata-blume
#11
Hideto Kimura, Satoshi Ogawa, Tomoe Ishihara, Mahoko Maruoka, Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Mitsuo Jisaka, Kazushige Yokota
We attempted to evaluate the contents and distribution of antioxidants in the whole seeds, seed shells, and peeled seeds of the Japanese horse chestnut. The seed shells exhibited the highest antioxidant activities due to the presence of highly polymeric proanthocyanidins as we have reported recently. On the other hand, the peeled seeds predominantly contained flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol at a high level of 66.7% of total polyphenols, also contributing to the predominant antioxidant activities...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065925/small-genomes-and-large-seeds-chromosome-numbers-genome-size-and-seed-mass-in-diploid-aesculus-species-sapindaceae
#12
Anna Krahulcová, Pavel Trávnícek, František Krahulec, Marcel Rejmánek
Background and Aims: Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Methods: Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727329/molecular-mechanism-for-cellular-response-to-%C3%AE-escin-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#13
Dominik Domanski, Oliwia Zegrocka-Stendel, Anna Perzanowska, Malgorzata Dutkiewicz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Iwona Grabowska, Dorota Maciejko, Anna Fogtman, Michal Dadlez, Katarzyna Koziak
β-escin is a mixture of triterpene saponins isolated from the horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory and venotonic properties of β-escin have been the most extensively clinically investigated effects of this plant-based drug and randomized controlled trials have proved the efficacy of β-escin for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. However, despite the clinical recognition of the drug its pharmacological mechanism of action still remains largely elusive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699277/potential-tree-species-for-use-in-urban-areas-in-temperate-and-oceanic-climates
#14
Miklas Scholz, Vincent C Uzomah, Furat A M Al-Faraj
This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology...
September 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515267/efficacy-of-horse-chestnut-leaf-extract-alh-l1005-as-a-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-in-ligature-induced-periodontitis-in-canine-model
#15
Se Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Shin Ae Park, Won Tae Kim, Young Woo Park, Jae Sang Ahn, Manbok Jeong, Min-Young Kim, Kangmoon Seo
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main proteinases associated with periodontal tissue destruction and remodeling. Therefore, inhibition of host-derived MMPs has a key role in the prevention and reduction of periodontitis progression. Horse chestnut ( Aesculus hippocastanum L.) extracts have been used as treatments for inflammatory disease, traditionally. This study assessed the clinical effect as a MMP inhibitor of horse chestnut leaf extract ALH-L1005 on periodontitis. ALH-L1005 was obtained from horse chestnut leaf and its MMP inhibitory activities estimated...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459035/bioaccumulation-of-metals-in-the-trees-of-novi-sad-serbia
#16
Snežana Štrbac, Marjana Gavrilović, Ljiljana Budakov
In urban and industrial areas, higher plants are used as biomonitors of exposure. The objective of this study was to assess metals accumulation in leaves of dendroflora for the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, in May and September. The investigation was conducted at three sites in the urban area of Novi Sad. Determination of metals concentration for Al, As, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sample was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES). In the leaves of the examined tree species the highest concentrations were obtained for: Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424320/the-efficacy-of-aesculus-hippocastanum-seeds-on-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rat-model
#17
Onur Elmas, Oytun Erbas, Gurkan Yigitturk
Cytokines, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, and increased oxidative stress are considered to be responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that Aesculus hippocastanum (AH) seeds may have preventive effects on oxidative stress and TGF-β-related diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups (n=7). Except for the control group, they all had diabetic nephropathy induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ...
October 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268715/testing-the-monophyly-of-aesculus-l-and-billia-peyr-woody-genera-of-tribe-hippocastaneae-of-the-sapindaceae
#18
A J Harris, Chengxin Fu, Qiu-Yun Jenny Xiang, LaRinda Holland, Jun Wen
Hippocastaneae is a well-supported clade in Sapindaceae that comprises 15+ species; 12+ in Aesculus, two in Billia, and one in Handeliodendron Rehder. The monophyly of Aesculus and Billia were widely assumed, but a recent molecular phylogenetic study of Sapindanceae used seven species of Aesculus and one each of Billia and Handeliodendron and showed that Billia and Handeliodendron were nested within Aesculus. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Aesculus and Billia are mutually monophyletic using phylogenetic analyses of seven molecular markers and 31 accessions of Hippocastaneae representing 14 species...
September 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259638/physiological-aspects-of-seed-recalcitrance-a-case-study-on-the-tree-aesculus-hippocastanum
#19
REVIEW
Natalie Obroucheva, Irina Sinkevich, Snejana Lityagina
Recalcitrant seeds are typical of some tropical and subtropical trees. Their post-shedding life activity proceeds in humid air and wet litter. They are desiccation sensitive and, for this reason, have a short life span and need some special procedures for cryopreservation. This review is devoted to the post-shedding life strategy of recalcitrant seeds, which includes the maintenance of high hydration status, metabolic readiness and ability to rapidly germinate before desiccation-induced damage exerts a lethal effect...
September 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241229/host-preference-and-host-colonization-of-the-asian-long-horned-beetle-anoplophora-glabripennis-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-southern-europe
#20
M Faccoli, R Favaro
The Asian long-horned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is a highly polyphagous invasive pest with a broad range of host species, but showing relevant differences between infestation areas. Host preference and host colonization (female fecundity, egg and larval survival) were assessed in a population in Northern Italy by choice and no-choice experiments conducted in both field and laboratory conditions. During 5 years of field observations, ALB was found to infest seven genera of trees: Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Prunus, Salix and Ulmus...
June 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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