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deliberate human infection

Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Arim Min, Young Ah Lee, Kyeong Ah Kim, Jamel El-Benna, Myeong Heon Shin
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite that causes vaginitis in women and itself secretes lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Mast cells are important effector cells of tissue inflammation during infection with parasites. Membrane-bridging SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complexes are critical for fusion during exocytosis. Although T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP) have been shown to induce exocytosis in mast cells, information regarding the signaling mechanisms between mast cell activation and TvSP is limited...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
E Lahti, M Löfdahl, J Ågren, I Hansson, E Olsson Engvall
In May 2012, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis occurred in southern Sweden at a wedding reception affecting 44 persons. A total of 17 cases were notified (13 were culture positive for Campylobacter spp.). Epidemiological investigation suspected chicken liver pâté as the source of infection. The liver pâté had been deliberately undercooked, lightly fried to keep the right texture and mixed with spices. Campylobacter isolates from six cases as well as three Campylobacter isolates from chicken flocks previously raised by the producer delivering the liver were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing...
June 23, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Else M Bijker, Robert W Sauerwein, Wiebe E Bijker
Controlled human malaria infections are clinical trials in which healthy volunteers are deliberately infected with malaria under controlled conditions. Controlled human malaria infections are complex clinical trials: many different groups and institutions are involved, and several complex technologies are required to function together. This functioning together of technologies, people, and institutions is under special pressure because of potential risks to the volunteers. In this article, the authors use controlled human malaria infections as a strategic research site to study the use of control, the role of trust, and the interactions between trust and control in the construction of scientific knowledge...
February 2016: Social Studies of Science
Parvez S Islam, Christopher Chang, Carlo Selmi, Elena Generali, Arthur Huntley, Suzanne S Teuber, M Eric Gershwin
Tattoos are defined as the introduction of exogenous pigments into the dermis in order to produce a permanent design. This process may occur unintentional or may be deliberately administered for cosmetic or medical reasons. Tattoos have been around for over 5000 years and over time have evolved to represent a common cosmetic practice worldwide. Currently, adverse reactions are relatively rare and generally unpredictable and predominantly include immune-mediated reactions and skin infections. Along with better healthcare standards and more stringent public health mandates such as the provision of disposable needles, major infectious complications related to hepatitis and human retroviral infections have decreased significantly...
April 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Samia Shad, Syed Majid Hussain Shah, Alamgir, Masroor Manshad Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar is associated with a number of complications including postoperative bleeding, dry socket, postoperative infection, and injury to regional nerves. Lingual nerve damage is one of the main complications. To prevent this complication different techniques had been used. Lingual flap reflection is one of these procedures in which lingual soft tissue is reflected and retracted deliberately, the nerve is identified and is kept out of the surgical field...
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Roberto Mateo, Claude M Nagamine, Karla Kirkegaard
UNLABELLED: Dengue virus is a major human pathogen responsible for 400 million infections yearly. As with other RNA viruses, daunting challenges to antiviral design exist due to the high error rates of RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Indeed, treatment of dengue virus infection with a nucleoside analog resulted in the expected genetic selection of resistant viruses in tissue culture and in mice. However, when the function of the oligomeric core protein was inhibited, no detectable selection of drug resistance in tissue culture or in mice was detected, despite the presence of drug-resistant variants in the population...
2015: MBio
Deniz Yüksel, Piero R Bianco, Krishna Kumar
Structural mimicry of DNA is utilized in nature as a strategy to evade molecular defences mounted by host organisms. One such example is the protein Ocr - the first translation product to be expressed as the bacteriophage T7 infects E. coli. The structure of Ocr reveals an intricate and deliberate arrangement of negative charges that endows it with the ability to mimic ∼24 base pair stretches of B-DNA. This uncanny resemblance to DNA enables Ocr to compete in binding the type I restriction modification (R/M) system, and neutralizes the threat of hydrolytic cleavage of viral genomic material...
January 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Jessica R MacNeil, Lorry Rubin, Temitope Folaranmi, Ismael R Ortega-Sanchez, Manisha Patel, Stacey W Martin
At its June 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16–23 years may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes the deliberations of ACIP, the rationale for its decision, and recommendations for use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and young adults. Two MenB vaccines have recently been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 10–25 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
October 23, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sabine Delannoy, Lothar Beutin, Patrick Fach
Among strains of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are frequently associated with severe clinical illness in humans. The development of methods for their reliable detection from complex samples such as food has been challenging thus far, and is currently based on the PCR detection of the major virulence genes stx1, stx2, and eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes. However, this approach lacks resolution. Moreover, new STEC serotypes are continuously emerging worldwide...
May 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jeffrey H Barsuk, Elaine R Cohen, Anessa Mikolajczak, Stephanie Seburn, Maureen Slade, Diane B Wayne
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the impact of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum on central line maintenance and care among a group of ICU nurses. METHODS: The intervention included 5 tasks: (a) medication administration, (b) injection cap (needleless connector) changes, (c) tubing changes, (d) blood drawing, and (e) dressing changes. All participants underwent a pretest, engaged in deliberate practice with directed feedback, and completed a posttest...
October 2015: Journal of Nursing Administration
Laura Kinsperger, Stefanie Maria Mayrhofer, Birgit Pichler, Hong Qin, Iris Rheinfrank, Berta Schrems
PROBLEM: This case report deals with the unsatisfying pain management of a 44 year old patient with cardiac arrest and subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The patient has (1) a reduced consciousness, (2) is isolated due to an infection with multi-resistant germs, (3) has a tracheotomy and (4) contractures of the muscles in fingers and hands. During nursing care he shows facial expressions and body postures that indicate pain which is insufficiently addressed. METHOD: The case was processed according to the model of reflexive case report by Johns (1995) and interpreted by theoretical expertise and the change of the perspective...
October 2015: Pflege
Tania L Slatter, Natalie Gly Hung, William M Clow, Janice A Royds, Celia J Devenish, Noelyn A Hung
Viral infections are known to adversely affect pregnancy, but scant attention has been given to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. We aimed to determine the molecular and histopathological features of placental HPV infection, in association with pregnancy complications including fetal growth restriction, pre-maturity, pre-eclampsia, and diabetes. Three hundred and thirty-nine placentae were selected based on the presence or absence of pregnancy complications. Five independent methods were used to identify HPV in the placenta, namely, immunohistochemistry for L1 viral capsid, in situ hybridization to high-risk HPV DNA, PCR, western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy...
October 2015: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
David C Bloom, Joyce Feller, Peterjon McAnany, Nuria Vilaboa, Richard Voellmy
UNLABELLED: We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes...
October 2015: Journal of Virology
Kishor Tewary, Hassib Narchi
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common childhood infections. Permanent renal cortical scarring may occur in affected children, especially with recurrent UTIs, leading to long-term complications such as hypertension and chronic renal failure. To prevent such damage, several interventions to prevent UTI recurrences have been tried. The most established and accepted prevention at present is low dose long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. However it has a risk of break through infections, adverse drug reactions and also the risk of developing antibiotic resistance...
June 26, 2015: World Journal of Methodology
Krista L Niece, Natalie K Boyd, Kevin S Akers
Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent used for the treatment of severe fungal infections. Maintaining therapeutic concentrations of 1 to 5.5 μg/ml is currently recommended to maximize the exposure-response relationship of voriconazole. However, this is challenging, given the highly variable pharmacokinetics of the drug, which includes metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isotypes CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, through which common metabolic pathways for many medications take place and which are also expressed in different isoforms with various metabolic efficacies...
September 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ying-Ru Lo, Carissa Chu, Jintanat Ananworanich, Jean-Louis Excler, Joseph D Tucker
Clinical and basic science advances have raised considerable hope for achieving an HIV cure by accelerating research. This research is dominated primarily by issues about the nature and design of current and future clinical trials. Stakeholder engagement for HIV cure remains in its early stages. Our analysis examines timing and mechanisms of historical stakeholder engagement in other HIV research areas for HIV-uninfected individuals [vaccine development and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)], and HIV-infected individuals (treatment as prevention, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and treatment of acute HIV infection) and articulate a plan for HIV cure stakeholder engagement...
July 2015: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Thomas C Darton, Christoph J Blohmke, Vasee S Moorthy, Daniel M Altmann, Frederick G Hayden, Elizabeth A Clutterbuck, Myron M Levine, Adrian V S Hill, Andrew J Pollard
Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research...
July 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sulabha M Naik, Mahendra S Naik, Nainjot Kaur Bains
Introduction Traditionally, surgical training in otology, is imparted by dissecting harvested human cadaveric temporal bones. However, maintenance of a cadaveric temporal bone laboratory is expensive and carries risk of exposure to infection. In recent times, other modalities of training are gaining ground and are likely to eventually replace cadaveric temporal bone dissection altogether. Objectives Other alternative methods of training are emerging. New technology like simulation and virtual reality as high-fidelity, safer alternatives, are making rapid strides as teaching tools...
January 2014: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Carol A Gilchrist, Stephen D Turner, Margaret F Riley, William A Petri, Erik L Hewlett
In addition to the ever-present concern of medical professionals about epidemics of infectious diseases, the relative ease of access and low cost of obtaining, producing, and disseminating pathogenic organisms or biological toxins mean that bioterrorism activity should also be considered when facing a disease outbreak. Utilization of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in outbreak analysis facilitates the rapid and accurate identification of virulence factors of the pathogen and can be used to identify the path of disease transmission within a population and provide information on the probable source...
July 2015: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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