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deliberate human infection

Aaron M Scherer, Heather Schacht Reisinger, Marin L Schweizer, Natoshia M Askelson, Angela Fagerlin, Charles F Lynch
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide and can lead to the development of genital warts, and cancers throughout the body. Despite the availability of HPV vaccines for over a decade, uptake in the United States among adolescents and young adults remains well below national targets. While most efforts to improve HPV vaccine uptake have rightly focused on adolescents, there is still a tremendous opportunity to improve vaccination among young adults who have not been vaccinated against HPV...
2018: PloS One
Doris E Campo-Duarte, Olga Vasilieva, Daiver Cardona-Salgado, Mikhail Svinin
Wolbachia-based biocontrol has recently emerged as a potential method for prevention and control of dengue and other vector-borne diseases. Major vector species, such as Aedes aegypti females, when deliberately infected with Wolbachia become less capable of getting viral infections and transmitting the virus to human hosts. In this paper, we propose an explicit sex-structured population model that describes an interaction of uninfected (wild) male and female mosquitoes and those deliberately infected with wMelPop strain of Wolbachia in the same locality...
June 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Daiki Kanbayashi, Takako Kurata, Kazuo Takahashi, Tetsuo Kase, Jun Komano
A large rubella outbreak occurred in Japan 2013, and 14,344 rubella and 45 congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases were reported. At that time, the populational immunity was above the protective threshold assessed by hemmaglutination inhibition (HI) titer. The genotype 2B rubella virus (RV) strains were responsible for the outbreak, which are non-indigenous in Japan. In this work, a cell-based high throughput assay was established to measure the neutralizing antibody (NA) titer against circulating RV isolates...
February 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
(no author information available yet)
Basic science holds enormous power for revealing the biological mechanisms of disease and, in turn, paving the way toward new, effective interventions. Recognizing this power, the 2011 Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication included key priorities in fundamental research that, if attained, could help accelerate progress toward disease elimination and eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies reviewed the progress, continuing challenges, and major opportunities for future research...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
Ilaria Dorigatti, Clare McCormack, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Neil M Ferguson
Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans, responsible for a substantial disease burden across the tropics. Traditional insecticide-based vector-control programmes have limited effectiveness, and the one licensed vaccine has a complex and imperfect efficacy profile. Strains of the bacterium Wolbachia, deliberately introduced into Aedes aegyptimosquitoes, have been shown to be able to spread to high frequencies in mosquito populations in release trials, and mosquitoes infected with these strains show markedly reduced vector competence...
February 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Meta Roestenberg, Annie Mo, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
The principle of deliberately infecting humans with infectious agents in a controlled setting, so-called controlled human infections (CHI), is not novel. Many CHI models have a long history and were established decades ago such as the intentional exposure to yellow fever and dengue performed in the 1900's (Reed, 1902) [2]. In these times bioethics and scientific reasoning were in their infancy. Nowadays, clinical trials are highly regulated and CHI are executed worldwide. Controlled human malaria infections and influenza infections are the two most frequently practiced...
December 18, 2017: Vaccine
Subhrajit Biswas, Sampa Ghose
Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexually dimorphic organ...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Danielle I Stanisic, James S McCarthy, Michael F Good
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic...
January 2018: Infection and Immunity
Robert H Cowie
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is a dangerous invasive species that is the agent of a potentially fatal globally emerging infectious disease. Humans are infected most commonly by ingestion, deliberately or inadvertently, of the parasite larvae in their intermediate snail hosts. The larvae make their way to the brain where they can cause severe neurological damage before eventually dying. Symptoms of the disease are diverse, making it difficult to diagnose. Treatment is primarily with corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, while treatment with anthelmintics to kill the worms remains controversial...
September 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Stanley M Lemon, Jördis J Ott, Pierre Van Damme, Daniel Shouval
Although epidemic jaundice was well known to physicians of antiquity, it is only in recent years that medical science has begun to unravel the origins of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the unique pathobiology underlying acute hepatitis A in humans. Improvements in sanitation and the successful development of highly efficacious vaccines have markedly reduced the worldwide prevalence and incidence of this enterically-transmitted infection over the past quarter century, yet the virus persists in vulnerable populations and remains a common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks in economically-advantaged societies...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Ying Yang, Qiang Ye, Kang Li, Zongwei Li, Xiaochen Bo, Zhen Li, Yingchun Xu, Shengqi Wang, Peng Wang, Huipeng Chen, Junzhi Wang
Over the last 50 years, newly described species of Emmonsia-like fungi have been implicated globally as sources of systemic human mycosis (emmonsiosis). Their ability to convert into yeast-like cells capable of replication and extra-pulmonary dissemination during the course of infection differentiates them from classical Emmonsia species. Immunocompromised patients are at highest risk of emmonsiosis and exhibit high mortality rates. In order to investigate the molecular basis for pathogenicity of the newly described Emmonsia species, genomic sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of Emmonsia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
March 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Arim Min, Young Ah Lee, Kyeong Ah Kim, Jamel El-Benna, Myeong Heon Shin
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite that causes vaginitis in women and itself secretes lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Mast cells are important effector cells of tissue inflammation during infection with parasites. Membrane-bridging SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complexes are critical for fusion during exocytosis. Although T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP) have been shown to induce exocytosis in mast cells, information regarding the signaling mechanisms between mast cell activation and TvSP is limited...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
E Lahti, M Löfdahl, J Ågren, I Hansson, E Olsson Engvall
In May 2012, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis occurred in southern Sweden at a wedding reception affecting 44 persons. A total of 17 cases were notified (13 were culture positive for Campylobacter spp.). Epidemiological investigation suspected chicken liver pâté as the source of infection. The liver pâté had been deliberately undercooked, lightly fried to keep the right texture and mixed with spices. Campylobacter isolates from six cases as well as three Campylobacter isolates from chicken flocks previously raised by the producer delivering the liver were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing...
February 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Else M Bijker, Robert W Sauerwein, Wiebe E Bijker
Controlled human malaria infections are clinical trials in which healthy volunteers are deliberately infected with malaria under controlled conditions. Controlled human malaria infections are complex clinical trials: many different groups and institutions are involved, and several complex technologies are required to function together. This functioning together of technologies, people, and institutions is under special pressure because of potential risks to the volunteers. In this article, the authors use controlled human malaria infections as a strategic research site to study the use of control, the role of trust, and the interactions between trust and control in the construction of scientific knowledge...
February 2016: Social Studies of Science
Parvez S Islam, Christopher Chang, Carlo Selmi, Elena Generali, Arthur Huntley, Suzanne S Teuber, M Eric Gershwin
Tattoos are defined as the introduction of exogenous pigments into the dermis in order to produce a permanent design. This process may occur unintentional or may be deliberately administered for cosmetic or medical reasons. Tattoos have been around for over 5000 years and over time have evolved to represent a common cosmetic practice worldwide. Currently, adverse reactions are relatively rare and generally unpredictable and predominantly include immune-mediated reactions and skin infections. Along with better healthcare standards and more stringent public health mandates such as the provision of disposable needles, major infectious complications related to hepatitis and human retroviral infections have decreased significantly...
April 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Samia Shad, Syed Majid Hussain Shah, Alamgir, Masroor Manshad Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar is associated with a number of complications including postoperative bleeding, dry socket, postoperative infection, and injury to regional nerves. Lingual nerve damage is one of the main complications. To prevent this complication different techniques had been used. Lingual flap reflection is one of these procedures in which lingual soft tissue is reflected and retracted deliberately, the nerve is identified and is kept out of the surgical field...
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Roberto Mateo, Claude M Nagamine, Karla Kirkegaard
UNLABELLED: Dengue virus is a major human pathogen responsible for 400 million infections yearly. As with other RNA viruses, daunting challenges to antiviral design exist due to the high error rates of RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Indeed, treatment of dengue virus infection with a nucleoside analog resulted in the expected genetic selection of resistant viruses in tissue culture and in mice. However, when the function of the oligomeric core protein was inhibited, no detectable selection of drug resistance in tissue culture or in mice was detected, despite the presence of drug-resistant variants in the population...
2015: MBio
Deniz Yüksel, Piero R Bianco, Krishna Kumar
Structural mimicry of DNA is utilized in nature as a strategy to evade molecular defences mounted by host organisms. One such example is the protein Ocr - the first translation product to be expressed as the bacteriophage T7 infects E. coli. The structure of Ocr reveals an intricate and deliberate arrangement of negative charges that endows it with the ability to mimic ∼24 base pair stretches of B-DNA. This uncanny resemblance to DNA enables Ocr to compete in binding the type I restriction modification (R/M) system, and neutralizes the threat of hydrolytic cleavage of viral genomic material...
January 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Jessica R MacNeil, Lorry Rubin, Temitope Folaranmi, Ismael R Ortega-Sanchez, Manisha Patel, Stacey W Martin
At its June 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16–23 years may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes the deliberations of ACIP, the rationale for its decision, and recommendations for use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and young adults. Two MenB vaccines have recently been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 10–25 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
October 23, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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