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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933358/embodiment-and-the-origin-of-interval-timing-kinematic-and-electromyographic-data
#1
Caspar Addyman, Sinead Rocha, Lilian Fautrelle, Robert M French, Elizabeth Thomas, Denis Mareschal
Recent evidence suggests that interval timing (the judgment of durations lasting from approximately 500 ms. to a few minutes) is closely coupled to the action control system. We used surface electromyography (EMG) and motion capture technology to explore the emergence of this coupling in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds. We engaged infants in an active and socially relevant arm-raising task with seven cycles and response period. In one condition, cycles were slow (every 4 s); in another, they were fast (every 2 s)...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932695/posture-dependent-corticomotor-excitability-differs-between-the-transferred-biceps-in-individuals-with-tetraplegia-and-the-biceps-of-nonimpaired-individuals
#2
Carrie L Peterson, Lynn M Rogers, Michael S Bednar, Anne M Bryden, Michael W Keith, Eric J Perreault, Wendy M Murray
Background Following biceps transfer to enable elbow extension in individuals with tetraplegia, motor re-education may be facilitated by greater corticomotor excitability. Arm posture modulates corticomotor excitability of the nonimpaired biceps. If arm posture also modulates excitability of the transferred biceps, posture may aid in motor re-education. Objective Our objective was to determine whether multi-joint arm posture affects corticomotor excitability of the transferred biceps similar to the nonimpaired biceps...
December 8, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932678/adjustments-with-running-speed-reveal-neuromuscular-adaptations-during-landing-associated-with-high-mileage-running-training
#3
Jasper Verheul, Adam C Clansey, Mark J Lake
It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations prior to and during the first half of stance, and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n=13) and low mileage (LM; <15 km/wk, n=13) runners ran at four speeds (2...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932241/nonspecific-effects-of-gap-paradigm-on-swallowing
#4
Masaki Yoneda, Kazuya Saitoh
OBJECTIVE: Analogous to the gap paradigm in experiments for saccadic eye movements with very short reaction times, we hypothesized that the initiation of oropharyngeal swallowing movements guided by visual cues are encouraged under experimental conditions using a similar gap paradigm. METHODS: A red visual cue indicating to hold a bolus in the mouth and a blue one indicating to swallow the bolus were sequentially provided on a computer display to 11 healthy participants...
December 5, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930445/motion-and-muscle-activity-are-affected-by-instability-location-during-a-squat-exercise
#5
Brian C Nairn, Chad A Sutherland, Janessa D M Drake
Squat exercise training using instability devices have become increasingly popular for a multitude of reasons. Many devices generate instability at the feet and provide a bottom-up perturbation; however, the effect of a top-down instability device during a squat remains unclear. In order to induce instability at the upper body, a water-filled cylinder called the Attitube® was used. This study analyzed the effects of instability location (top-down, bottom-up, no instability) during a squat exercise in terms of kinematics and muscle activation...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928200/effects-of-the-drop-set-and-reverse-drop-set-methods-on-the-muscle-activity-and-intramuscular-oxygenation-of-the-triceps-brachii-among-trained-and-untrained-individuals
#6
Masahiro Goto, Shinsuke Nirengi, Yuko Kurosawa, Akinori Nagano, Takafumi Hamaoka
Influence of different load exercise to muscle activity during subsequent exercise with 75% of one repetition maximum (RM) load among trained and untrained individuals was verified. Resistance-trained men who were involved in resistance training (n = 16) and healthy young men who did not exercise regularly (n = 16) were recruited for this study. Each subject performed bench pressing with a narrow grip exercise using two different training set methods, the drop-set (DS) (3 sets × 2-10 repetitions with 95-75% of 1RM) and the reverse drop-set (RDS) (3 sets × 3-10 repetitions with 55-75% of 1RM)...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927951/effects-of-the-selective-%C3%AE-5-gabaar-antagonist-s44819-on-excitability-in-the-human-brain-a-tms-emg-and-tms-eeg-phase-i-study
#7
Ghazaleh Darmani, Carl M Zipser, Gabriele M Böhmer, Karine Deschet, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Paolo Belardinelli, Matthias Schwab, Ulf Ziemann
: Alpha-5 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (α5-GABAARs) are located extrasynaptically, regulate neuronal excitability through tonic inhibition, and are fundamentally important for processes such as plasticity and learning. For example, pharmacological blockade of α5-GABAAR in mice with ischemic stroke improved recovery of function by normalizing exaggerated perilesional α5-GABAAR-dependent tonic inhibition. S44819 is a novel competitive selective antagonist of the α5-GABAAR at the GABA-binding site...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925635/fatigue-detection-using-phase-space-warping
#8
Abdullatif Alwasel, Marcus Yung, Eihab Abdel-Rahman, Richard P Wells, Carl T Haas
A novel application of Phase-Space Warping (PSW) method to detect fatigue in the musculoskeletal system is presented. Experimental kinematic, force, and physiological signals are used to produce a fatigue metric. The metric is produced using time-delay embedding and PSW methods. Results showed that by using force and kinematic signals, an overall estimate of the muscle group state can be achieved. Further, when using electromyography (EMG) signals the fatigue metric can be used as a tool to evaluate muscles activation and load sharing patterns for individual muscles...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924389/which-causes-more-ergonomic-stress-laparoscopic-or-open-surgery
#9
Robert Wang, Zhe Liang, Ahmed M Zihni, Shuddhadeb Ray, Michael M Awad
BACKGROUND: There is increasing awareness of potential ergonomic challenges experienced by the laparoscopic surgeon. The purpose of this study is to quantify and compare the ergonomic stress experienced by a surgeon while performing open versus laparoscopic portions of a procedure. We hypothesize that a surgeon will experience greater ergonomic stress when performing laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: We designed a study to measure upper-body muscle activation during the laparoscopic and open portions of sigmoid colectomies in a single surgeon...
December 6, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919502/motor-fatigability-after-low-intensity-hand-grip-exercises-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Deborah Severijns, Mieke Lemmens, Ronald Thoelen, Peter Feys
INTRODUCTION: During maximal, sustained contractions, persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) show higher motor fatigability in comparison with healthy persons. It is not known if motor fatigability is also different between PwMS and healthy persons during low-intensity exercises. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the difference in hand grip fatigability between healthy persons and PwMS for both hands during low-intensity hand grip exercises. METHODS: 19 PwMS and 19 healthy controls performed 18min of hand grip exercises at a maximum of 25% of the maximal voluntary strength, with an electronic hand dynamometer...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918690/the-advantages-of-normalizing-emg-to-ballistic-rather-than-isometric-or-isokinetic-tasks
#11
Stephen M Suydam, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan
Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to non-isometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, i.e., joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916853/a-pilot-study-of-individual-muscle-force-prediction-during-elbow-flexion-and-extension-in-the-neurorehabilitation-field
#12
Jiateng Hou, Yingfei Sun, Lixin Sun, Bingyu Pan, Zhipei Huang, Jiankang Wu, Zhiqiang Zhang
This paper proposes a neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) model to predict individual muscle force during elbow flexion and extension. Four male subjects were asked to do voluntary elbow flexion and extension. An inertial sensor and surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors were attached to subject's forearm. Joint angle calculated by fusion of acceleration and angular rate using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and muscle activations obtained from the sEMG signals were taken as the inputs of the proposed NMS model to determine individual muscle force...
November 29, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913353/embroidered-electromyography-a-systematic-design-guide
#13
Ali Shafti, Roger Ribas Manero, Amanda Borg, Kaspar Althoefer, Matthew Howard
Muscle activity monitoring or Electromyography (EMG) is a useful tool. However, EMG is typically invasive, expensive and difficult to use for untrained users. A possible solution is textile-based surface EMG (sEMG) integrated into clothing as a wearable device. This is, however, challenging due to (i) uncertainties in the electrical properties of conductive threads used for electrodes, (ii) imprecise fabrication technologies (e.g., embroidery, sewing), and (iii) lack of standardization in design variable selection...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#14
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911336/decreased-aerobic-capacity-in%C3%A2-ano5-muscular-dystrophy
#15
Emil Ylikallio, Mari Auranen, Ibrahim Mahjneh, Antti Lamminen, Maria Kousi, Ann-Liz Träskelin, Tiina Muurinen, Mervi Löfberg, Tapani Salmi, Anders Paetau, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki, Päivi Piirilä, Sari Kiuru-Enari
BACKGROUND: Anoctaminopathies are muscle diseases caused by recessive mutations in the ANO5 gene. The effects of anoctaminopathy on oxidative capacity have not previously been studied in a controlled setting. OBJECTIVE: To characterize oxidative capacity in a clinically and genetically well-defined series of patients with anoctaminopathy. METHODS: We sequenced the ANO5 gene in 111 Finnish patients with suspected LGMD2. Patients with positive findings underwent close clinical examination, including electromyography, muscle MRI, and, in selected cases, muscle biopsy...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911086/affective-and-autonomic-responses-to-erotic-images-evidence-of-disgust-based-mechanisms-in-female-sexual-interest-arousal-disorder
#16
Natasha S DePesa, Jeffrey E Cassisi
Disgust has recently been implicated in the development and maintenance of female sexual dysfunction, yet most empirical studies have been conducted with a sexually healthy sample. The current study contributes to the literature by expanding the application of a disgust model of sexual functioning to a clinically relevant sample of women with low sexual desire/arousal and accompanying sexual distress. Young women (mean age = 19.12 years) with psychometrically defined sexual dysfunction (i.e., female sexual interest/arousal disorder [FSIAD] group) and a healthy control group were compared in their affective (i...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910234/luminal-contents-from-the-gut-of-colicky-infants-induce-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-mice
#17
H Eutamène, C L Garcia-Rodenas, S Yvon, E d'Aldebert, F Foata, B Berger, J Sauser, V Theodorou, G Bergonzelli, E Mas
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of infantile colic is poorly understood, though various studies report gut microbiota dysbiosis in colicky infants. We aimed to test the hypothesis that colic-related dysbiosis is associated with visceral hypersensitivity triggered by an altered luminal milieu. METHODS: Fecal samples from seven colicky and seven non-colicky infants were studied. Fecal supernatants (FS) were infused into the colons of C57/Bl6 mice (n=10/specimen). Visceral sensitivity was subsequently assessed in the animals by recording their abdominal muscle response to colorectal distension (CRD) by electromyography (EMG)...
December 1, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909939/a-novel-fuzzy-approach-for-automatic-brunnstrom-stage-classification-using-surface-electromyography
#18
Luca Liparulo, Zhe Zhang, Massimo Panella, Xudong Gu, Qiang Fang
Clinical assessment plays a major role in post-stroke rehabilitation programs for evaluating impairment level and tracking recovery progress. Conventionally, this process is manually performed by clinicians using chart-based ordinal scales which can be both subjective and inefficient. In this paper, a novel approach based on fuzzy logic is proposed which automatically evaluates stroke patients' impairment level using single-channel surface electromyography (sEMG) signals and generates objective classification results based on the widely used Brunnstrom stages of recovery...
December 1, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909651/hybrid-decompression-and-fixation-technique-for-the-treatment-of-multisegmental-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#19
Barón Zárate-Kalfopulos, Walter Araos-Silva, Alejandro Reyes-Sánchez, Luis Miguel Rosales-Olivarez, Armando Alpizar-Aguirre, Francisco Lopez Melendez
BACKGROUND: Cervical spondilotic myelopathy (CSM) is defined as the compromise of the spinal cord due to degenerative changes of the cervical spine. It is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in patients over 55 years. An early surgical management it is paramount to achieve better neurological outcome. There is still controversy regarding the appropriate surgical treatment for multisegmental CSM involving three or more levels. The hybrid decompression and fixation technique combines one or two level corpectomy and a single level discectomy in order to obtain optimum decompression and fixation in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy...
2016: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909406/assessment-of-a-wearable-force-and-electromyography-device-and-comparison-of-the-related-signals-for-myocontrol
#20
Mathilde Connan, Eduardo Ruiz Ramírez, Bernhard Vodermayer, Claudio Castellini
In the frame of assistive robotics, multi-finger prosthetic hand/wrists have recently appeared, offering an increasing level of dexterity; however, in practice their control is limited to a few hand grips and still unreliable, with the effect that pattern recognition has not yet appeared in the clinical environment. According to the scientific community, one of the keys to improve the situation is multi-modal sensing, i.e., using diverse sensor modalities to interpret the subject's intent and improve the reliability and safety of the control system in daily life activities...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
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