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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335375/assessing-the-spectral-properties-of-sunlit-and-shaded-components-in-rice-canopies-with-near-ground-imaging-spectroscopy-data
#1
Kai Zhou, Xinqiang Deng, Xia Yao, Yongchao Tian, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu, Susan L Ustin, Tao Cheng
Monitoring the components of crop canopies with remote sensing can help us understand the within-canopy variation in spectral properties and resolve the sources of uncertainties in the spectroscopic estimation of crop foliar chemistry. To date, the spectral properties of leaves and panicles in crop canopies and the shadow effects on their spectral variation remain poorly understood due to the insufficient spatial resolution of traditional spectroscopy data. To address this issue, we used a near-ground imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial and spectral resolutions to examine the spectral properties of rice leaves and panicles in sunlit and shaded portions of canopies and evaluate the effect of shadows on the relationships between spectral indices of leaves and foliar chlorophyll content...
March 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334680/assessing-driving-forces-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-by-a-mixed-method-approach-in-north-eastern-ghana-west-africa
#2
Janina Kleemann, Gülendam Baysal, Henry N N Bulley, Christine Fürst
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332950/spatiotemporal-trend-analysis-of-metal-concentrations-in-sediments-of-a-residential-california-stream-with-toxicity-and-regulatory-implications
#3
Lenwood W Hall, Ronald D Anderson, William D Killen
The objective of this study was to determine if concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc measured in the sediments of a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek) have changed temporally or spatially from 2006 to 2016. Threshold Effect Levels (TELs), conservative ecological effects benchmarks, and exceedances for the seven metals were also evaluated over the 11-year time period to provide insight into potential metal toxicity to resident benthic communities. In addition, the bioavailability of metals in sediments was also determined by calculating Simultaneous Extracted Metal/Acid Volatle Sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to allow an additional assessment of toxicity...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332867/age-related-changes-in-thoracic-skeletal-geometry-of-elderly-females
#4
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
OBJECTIVE: Both females and the elderly have been identified as vulnerable populations with increased injury and mortality risk in multiple crash scenarios. Particularly in frontal impacts, older females show higher risk to the chest and thorax than their younger or male counterparts. Thoracic geometry plays a role in this increase, and this study aims to quantify key parts of that geometry in a way that can directly inform human body models that incorporate the concept of person age...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332711/long-term-white-matter-tract-reorganization-following-prolonged-febrile-seizures
#5
Suresh S Pujar, Kiran K Seunarine, Marina M Martinos, Brian G R Neville, Rod C Scott, Richard F M Chin, Chris A Clark
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated acute white matter changes following prolonged febrile seizures (PFS), but their longer-term evolution is unknown. We investigated a population-based cohort to determine white matter diffusion properties 8 years after PFS. METHODS: We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and applied Tract-Based Spatial Statistics for voxel-wise comparison of white matter microstructure between 26 children with PFS and 27 age-matched healthy controls...
March 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332484/multivariate-regression-methods-for-estimating-velocity-of-ictal-discharges-from-human-microelectrode-recordings
#6
Jyun-You Liou, Elliot Smith, Lisa Bateman, Guy McKhann, Robert Goodman, Bradley Greger, Tyler Davis, Spencer Kellis, Paul House, Catherine Schevon
OBJECTIVE: Epileptiform discharges, an electrophysiological hallmark of seizures, can propagate across cortical tissue in a manner similar to traveling waves. Recent work has focused attention on the origination and propagation patterns of these discharges, yielding important clues to their source location and mechanism of travel. However, systematic studies of methods for measuring propagation are lacking. APPROACH: We analyzed epileptiform discharges in microelectrode array recordings of human seizures...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331833/survey-of-spatial-distribution-of-vector-borne-disease-in-neighborhood-dogs-in-southern-brazil
#7
Caroline Constantino, Edson Ferraz Evaristo de Paula, Ana Pérola Drulla Brandão, Fernando Ferreira, Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira, Alexander Welker Biondo
Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs and disseminators of vector-borne diseases in urban areas. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to ascertain the health status and the vector-borne pathogens infecting dogs living in public areas with high levels of human movement in the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil. Blood samples from 21 neighborhood dogs that were found in nine of 22 bus stations and two public parks were subjected to a complete blood cell (CBC) count, serum biochemical profiling, a commercial rapid ELISA test and a commercial real-time PCR panel of vector-borne diseases...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329939/-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics-of-hiv-aids-in-hubei-province-2010-2013
#8
M T Gao, T Wang, K K Wang, S Y Li, H Yan
Objective: To understand the spatial and temporal distribution of HIV/AIDS in Hubei province, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIDS. Methods: GeoDa software was used for autocorrelation analysis, SatScan 9.2 software was used for statistical analysis of spatial scanning, and finally geographic information system was used for visualization. Results: A total of 6 952 HIV/AIDS cases were reported during 2010-2013 in Hubei, and the spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that Global Moran's I index was 0...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328502/spatial-statistics-for-segmenting-histological-structures-in-h-e-stained-tissue-images
#9
Luong Nguyen, A Burak Tosun, Jeffrey Fine, Adrian Lee, D Lansing Taylor, Chakra Chennubhotla
Segmenting a broad class of histological structures in transmitted light and/or fluorescence-based images is a prerequisite for determining the pathological basis of cancer, elucidating spatial interactions between histological structures in tumor microenvironments (e.g. tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), facilitating precision medicine studies with deep molecular profiling, and providing an exploratory tool for pathologists. Our paper focuses on segmenting histological structures in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images of breast tissues, e...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328350/risk-factors-for-and-spatial-distribution-of-lymphoproliferative-disease-virus-lpdv-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-in-new-york-state-usa
#10
Katrina Alger, Elizabeth Bunting, Krysten Schuler, Christopher M Whipps
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an oncogenic avian retrovirus that was previously thought to exclusively infect domestic turkeys but was recently shown to be widespread in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) throughout most of the eastern US. In commercial flocks, the virus spreads between birds housed in close quarters, but there is little information about potential risk factors for infection in wild birds. Initial studies focused on distribution of LPDV nationally, but investigation of state-level data is necessary to assess potential predictors of infection and detect patterns in disease prevalence and distribution...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327698/accuracy-and-reliability-of-different-cone-beam-computed-tomography-cbct-devices-for-structural-analysis-of-alveolar-bone-in-comparison-with-multislice-ct-and-micro-ct
#11
Jeroen Van Dessel, Laura Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Yan Huang, Walter Coudyzer, Benjamin Salmon, Ivo Lambrichts, Reinhilde Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be used for clinically reliable alveolar bone quality assessment in comparison to its clinical alternatives, multislice computed tomography and the gold standard (micro-CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six dentate mandibular bone samples were scanned with seven CBCT devices (ProMax 3D Max, NewTom GiANO, Cranex 3D, 3D Accuitomo 170, Carestream 9300, Scanora 3D, I-CAT Next generation), one micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174) and one MSCT machine (Somatom Definition Flash) using two protocols (standard and high-resolution)...
2017: European Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327471/motion-compensation-in-extremity-cone-beam-ct-using-a-penalized-image-sharpness-criterion
#12
Alejandro Sisniega, Joseph Stayman, John Yorkston, Jeffrey Siewerdsen, Wojciech Zbijewski
Cone-beam CT (CBCT) for musculoskeletal imaging would benefit from a method to reduce the effects of involuntary patient motion. In particular, the continuing improvement in spatial resolution of CBCT may enable tasks such as quantitative assessment of bone microarchitecture (0.1 mm - 0.2 mm detail size), where even subtle, sub-mm motion blur might be detrimental. We propose a purely image based motion compensation method that requires no fiducials, tracking hardware or prior images. A statistical optimization algorithm (CMA-ES) is used to estimate a motion trajectory that optimizes an objective function consisting of an image sharpness criterion augmented by a regularization term that encourages smooth motion trajectories...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327466/regional-deep-hyperthermia-impact-of-observer-variability-in-ct-based-manual-tissue-segmentation-on-a-simulated-temperature-distribution
#13
Bassim Aklan, Josefin Hartmann, Diana Zink, Hadi Siavooshhaghighi, Ricarda Merten, Florian Putz, Oliver Ott, Rainer Fietkau, Christoph Bert
The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of inter- and intra-observer segmentation variation of tumor and organs at risk on the simulated temperature coverage of the target. CT scans of six patients with tumors in the pelvic region acquired for radiotherapy treatment planning were used for the hyperthermia treatment planning. To study the effect of inter-observer variation, three observers manually segmented in the CT images of each patient the following structures: fat, muscle, bone and bladder...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326127/detecting-peatland-drains-with-object-based-image-analysis-and-geoeye-1-imagery
#14
J Connolly, N M Holden
BACKGROUND: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326050/what-to-choose-next-a-paradigm-for-testing-human-sequential-decision-making
#15
Elisa M Tartaglia, Aaron M Clarke, Michael H Herzog
Many of the decisions we make in our everyday lives are sequential and entail sparse rewards. While sequential decision-making has been extensively investigated in theory (e.g., by reinforcement learning models) there is no systematic experimental paradigm to test it. Here, we developed such a paradigm and investigated key components of reinforcement learning models: the eligibility trace (i.e., the memory trace of previous decision steps), the external reward, and the ability to exploit the statistics of the environment's structure (model-free vs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325371/the-role-of-spatial-statistics-in-the-control-and-elimination-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-focus-on-human-african-trypanosomiasis-schistosomiasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis
#16
M C Stanton
Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325049/antibody-subclass-detection-using-graphene-nanopore
#17
Amir Barati Farimani, Mohammad Heiranian, Kyoungmin Min, Narayana R Aluru
Solid-state nanopores are promising for label free protein detection. The large thickness, ranging from several tens of nanometers to micrometers and larger, of solid-state nanopores prohibits atomic scale scanning or interrogation of proteins. Here, a single-atom thick graphene nanopore is shown to be highly capable of sensing and discriminating between different subclasses of IgG antibodies despite their minor and subtle variation in atomic structure. Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, rigorous statistical analysis with a total aggregate simulation time of 2...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325028/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#18
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324942/quantitative-analysis-of-histological-tissue-image-based-on-cytological-profiles-and-spatial-statistics
#19
Young Hwan Chang, Guillaume Thibault, Vahid Azimi, Brett Johnson, Danielle Jorgens, Jason Link, Adam Margolin, Joe W Gray
The cellular heterogeneity and complex tissue architecture of most tumor samples is a major obstacle in image analysis on standard hematoxylin and eosin-stained (H&E) tissue sections. A mixture of cancer and normal cells complicates the interpretation of their cytological profiles. Furthermore, spatial arrangement and architectural organization of cells are generally not reflected in cellular characteristics analysis. To address these challenges, first we describe an automatic nuclei segmentation of H&E tissue sections...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324252/spatial-interpolation-methods-and-geostatistics-for-mapping%C3%A2-groundwater-contamination-in-a-coastal-area
#20
Vetrimurugan Elumalai, K Brindha, Bongani Sithole, Elango Lakshmanan
Mapping groundwater contaminants and identifying the sources are the initial steps in pollution control and mitigation. Due to the availability of different mapping methods and the large number of emerging pollutants, these methods need to be used together in decision making. The present study aims to map the contaminated areas in Richards Bay, South Africa and compare the results of ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation techniques. Statistical methods were also used for identifying contamination sources...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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