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Brain apnoea syndrome

Marco Zaffanello, Giorgio Piacentini, Giuseppe Lippi, Vassilios Fanos, Emma Gasperi, Luana Nosetti
Nocturnal enuresis is usually diagnosed and treated by a primary paediatrician or family practitioner; if there is any doubt, the children may be referred to a paediatric urologist. Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is considered an important factor associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Enuresis and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing are both frequent problems of sleep in childhood. We conducted an electronic search in Medline, Scopus and the ISI Web of Science to look for published material and identify a putative link between nocturnal enuresis and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing...
February 6, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
P J Santosh, L Bell, K Lievesley, J Singh, F Fiori
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT), caused by a loss-of-function in the epigenetic modulator: X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is a pervasive neurological disorder characterized by compromised brain functions, anxiety, severe mental retardation, language and learning disabilities, repetitive stereotyped hand movements and developmental regression. An imbalance in the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system (dysautonomia) and the resulting autonomic storms is a frequent occurrence in patients with RTT...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Sofia Konstantinopoulou, Ignacio E Tapia
The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is common in children and results in several complications when untreated. Considering that children are undergoing important brain development, recent research has focused on neurocognitive and behavioural (NCB) complications of OSAS. Studies have shown that treatment of paediatric OSAS may improve a child's long-term cognitive and social potential and school performance. There is demonstrated benefit in terms of behaviour, attention, and social interactions, as well as likely improvement in cognitive abilities with academic and social achievements...
September 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Luca Faes, Daniele Marinazzo, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Fabrice Jurysta, Alberto Porta, Nollo Giandomenico
This work introduces a framework to study the network formed by the autonomic component of heart rate variability (cardiac processη) and the amplitude of the different electroencephalographic waves (brain processes δ, θ, α, σ, β) during sleep. The framework exploits multivariate linear models to decompose the predictability of any given target process into measures of self-, causal and interaction predictability reflecting respectively the information retained in the process and related to its physiological complexity, the information transferred from the other source processes, and the information modified during the transfer according to redundant or synergistic interaction between the sources...
May 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Ana Paula Abdala, Marie A Toward, Mathias Dutschmann, John M Bissonnette, Julian F R Paton
Life threatening breathing irregularity and central apnoeas are highly prevalent in children suffering from Rett syndrome. Abnormalities in inhibitory synaptic transmission have been associated with the physiopathology of this syndrome, and may underlie the respiratory disorder. In a mouse model of Rett syndrome, GABAergic terminal projections are markedly reduced in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) in the dorsolateral pons, an important centre for control of respiratory rhythm regularity. Administration of a drug that augments endogenous GABA localized to this region of the pons reduced the incidence of apnoea and the respiratory irregularity of Rett female mice...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Alessandro Silvani, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Eduardo E Benarroch, Roger A L Dampney, Pietro Cortelli
Studies involving genetic engineering on animal models and mathematical analysis of cardiovascular signals on humans are shedding new light on the interactions between the arterial baroreceptor reflex (baroreflex) and arousal. Baroreceptor stimulation, if very mild or performed under anaesthesia, may inhibit cortical arousal. However, substantial increases or decreases in baroreflex activation cause arousal in animal models and human subjects in physiological conditions. On the other hand, cardiovascular changes during autonomic arousals and between the states of wakefulness and sleep involve changes in the baroreflex set point and balance with central autonomic commands...
February 2015: Sleep Medicine
Subeer Wadia, Betty Tran
We describe a 51-year-old man who developed renal and neural toxicity after the administration of colistin. He developed respiratory apnoea, neuromuscular blockade and severe comatose encephalopathy with the lack of brainstem reflexes. After discontinuation of the antibiotic, he made a prompt recovery to his baseline neurological function. The case illustrates the importance of recognising the toxicities associated with colistin. Although recent literature details its nephrotoxicity, current data have been discordant with the rare cases of respiratory apnoea or neuromuscular blockade once cited over 30 years ago...
2014: BMJ Case Reports
M Lamberts, O W Nielsen, G Y H Lip, M H Ruwald, C B Christiansen, S L Kristensen, C Torp-Pedersen, M L Hansen, G H Gislason
BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of age and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on cardiovascular disease in patients with sleep apnoea has not been assessed previously. METHODS: Using nationwide databases, the entire Danish population was followed from 2000 until 2011. First-time sleep apnoea diagnoses and use of CPAP therapy were determined. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) were analysed using Poisson regression models...
December 2014: Journal of Internal Medicine
J M Marin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Journal of Internal Medicine
Emre Kacar, Sevinc Sarinc Ulasli, Ersin Günay, Gülay Güngör, Ebru Ünlü, Mehtap Beker Acay, Tülay Koyuncu, Mehmet Ünlü, Alpay Haktanir
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our aim was to investigate whether neurological alteration in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) with apparently normal cerebral and cerebellar structures can be assessed by means of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement and to investigate the association between OSAS severity and ADC values. METHODS: Following the acquisition of diffusion-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging, ADC measurements were performed in 24 different apparently normal cerebral and cerebellar structures, including the bilateral frontal and parietal cortices, insulae, cingulate gyri, hippocampi, frontal and parieto-occipital periventricular white matter (PWM), caudate nuclei, putamen, thalami, cerebellar hemispheres, pons and mesencephalon in 47 OSAS patients and 20 control subjects...
March 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Sarah N Biggs, Gillian M Nixon, Rosemary S C Horne
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in children and describes a continuum of nocturnal respiratory disturbance from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Historically, PS has been considered benign, however there is growing evidence that children with PS exhibit cognitive and behavioural deficits equivalent to children with OSA. There are two popular mechanistic theories linking SDB with daytime morbidity: hypoxic insult to the developing brain; and sleep disruption due to repeated arousals...
December 2014: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Lidia Sabater, Carles Gaig, Ellen Gelpi, Luis Bataller, Jan Lewerenz, Estefanía Torres-Vega, Angeles Contreras, Bruno Giometto, Yaroslau Compta, Cristina Embid, Isabel Vilaseca, Alex Iranzo, Joan Santamaría, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus
BACKGROUND: Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen. METHODS: In this observational study, we used clinical and video polysomnography to identify a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain, for abnormal sleep behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea...
June 2014: Lancet Neurology
Ds Urquhart
Sleep-disordered breathing includes disorders of breathing that affect airway patency, e.g. obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, and also conditions that affect respiratory drive (central sleep disorders) or cause hypoventilation, either as a direct central effect or due to peripheral muscle weakness. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is an increasingly-recognised clinical entity affecting up to 5.7% of children, which, if left untreated, is associated with adverse effects on growth and development including deleterious cognitive and behavioural outcomes...
July 2013: Hippokratia
B W Wunderlin, J Kesselring, H Ginzler, B Walser, M Kuhn, W H Reinhart
Fatigue is a frequent and disabling phenomenon among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Daytime sleepiness is a typical symptom of the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome due to nocturnal hypoxia and recurrent arousals causing sleep fragmentation. Since MS plaques are often found in the midbrain, brain stem and upper cervical cord on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we hypothesized that fatigue in MS patients might be caused by a central respiratory dysfunction. We investigated 10 patients with definite MS by oligography, two questionnaires assessing fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS), MRI and pulmonary function tests...
January 1997: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Kirsty L Hett, Lily J Chutter, Mohamed Hassan, Onyebuchi E Okosieme
A 37-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a history of headaches, blurred vision and declining visual acuity. She had a history of obstructive sleep apnoea associated with Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterised by craniofacial deformities and obstruction of the upper airways. On funduscopy we noted bilateral papilloedema and retinal haemorrhages. A CT scan of the brain excluded a space occupying lesion and contrast-enhanced CT did not show evidence of venous sinus thrombosis...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
Muhammed Emin Akkoyunlu, Levent Kart, Rukiye Kılıçarslan, Mehmet Bayram, Ayşe Aralasmak, Rasul Sharifov, Alpay Alkan
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder characterized by repeated apnoeic episodes during sleep. Neurocognitive changes secondary to OSAS are likely to occur due to hypoxia in certain brain locations. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging technology, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), enable non-invasive and accurate identification of OSAS-induced changes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to use DWI to investigate changes in the brain secondary to hypoxia in OSAS...
2013: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Peter Dolliner, Lindsay Brammen, Senta Graf, Martin Huelsmann, Leopold Stiebellehner, Andreas Gleiss, Philipp Ubl, Guenter Steurer
BACKGROUND: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has important clinical implications in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We performed portable recording in unselected CHF patients on contemporary therapy. Data on the interactions of SDB in patients supervised at heart failure clinics are rare and we illustrate diversities of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and central sleep apnoea (CSA). METHODS: We studied 176 consecutive subjects on contemporary medical therapy with a median left ventricular ejection fraction of 25...
July 2013: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Akiomi Yoshihisa, Satoshi Suzuki, Takayoshi Yamaki, Koichi Sugimoto, Hiroyuki Kunii, Kazuhiko Nakazato, Hitoshi Suzuki, Shu-ichi Saitoh, Yasuchika Takeishi
AIMS: Effective pharmacotherapy for heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is still unclear. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes cardiovascular dysfunction, giving rise to factors involved in HFpEF. However, it remains unclear whether adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) improves cardiovascular function and long-term prognosis of patients with HFpEF and SDB. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with HFpEF (LVEF >50%) and moderate to severe SDB (apnoea-hypopnoea index >15/h) were enrolled...
May 2013: European Journal of Heart Failure
Michael Arzt, Stephan Schroll, Frederic Series, Keir Lewis, Amit Benjamin, Pierre Escourrou, Ruth Luigart, Victoria Kehl, Michael Pfeifer
We tested the hypotheses that in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) auto-servoventilation (ASV) improves cardiac function and quality of life. Between March 2007 and September 2009, patients with stable CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%) and SDB (apnoea/hypopnoea index ≥ 20 events · h(-1)) were randomised to receive either ASV (BiPAP ASV (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA), n=37) and optimal medical management, or optimal medical management alone (n=35)...
November 2013: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Thais Manzotte, Camila Guindalini, Diego R Mazzotti, Luciana Palombini, Altay L de Souza, Dalva Poyares, Lia R A Bittencourt, Sergio Tufik
Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*0602 allele, a well-known genetic risk factor for narcolepsy, has been associated with sleep parameters in healthy subjects. We aimed to assess the association of this allele with daytime sleepiness and altered sleep electroencephalogram characteristics in the general population and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Eight hundred and ninety-four individuals from the Epidemiologic Study of Sleep were genotyped for the HLA DQB1*0602 allele. Full-night polysomnography was performed, and daytime sleepiness was analysed according to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale...
April 2013: Journal of Sleep Research
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