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Comparison antibiotic regimen in children

Diana A Freitas, Gabriela Ss Chaves, Thayla A Santino, Cibele Td Ribeiro, Fernando Al Dias, Ricardo O Guerra, Karla Mpp Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique.This is an update of a review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (15º to 45º head-down tilt) with modified postural drainage (15º to 30º head-up tilt) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy...
March 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mark Davenport
Given that the aetiology of biliary atresia (BA) is complex and that there is a multiplicity of possible pathogenic mechanisms then it is perhaps not surprising that the evidence for effect of a number of different agents is contradictory. Post-operative cholangitis for instance is common, bacterial in origin and various antibiotic regimens have been tested (although none in a randomized trial) but continuation beyond the early post-operative period does not appear to offer any greater protection. There is an inflammatory reaction in about 25-35% of cases of BA illustrated by abnormal expression of class II antigen and upregulation of ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin with an infiltrate of immune-activated T cells (predominantly CD4 + Th1 and Th17) and NK cells and a systemic surge in inflammatory cytokines (e...
December 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
Robert C Stowe, Davut Pehlivan, Katie E Friederich, Michael A Lopez, Shannon M DiCarlo, Varina L Boerwinkle
BACKGROUND: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis is a rare, almost uniformly fatal disease of cerebral invasion by Naegleria fowleri, occurring most commonly after swimming in warm fresh water in summer months. Treatment using the experimental medication miltefosine demonstrated improved survival and favorable neurocognitive outcome in a 2013 North American patient. There is little information about the electroencephalographic findings of such patients, and our understanding of factors predicting survival is limited...
May 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Diego Cadavid, Paul G Auwaerter, Jeffrey Rumbaugh, Harald Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Various central nervous system-penetrant antibiotics are bactericidal in vitro and in vivo against the causative agent of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), Borrelia burgdorferi. These antibiotics are routinely used clinically to treat LNB, but their relative efficacy is not clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of LNB. SEARCH METHODS: On 25 October 2016 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tania Thomas, Soumya Swaminathan, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
Children with tuberculosis are treated with drug regimens copied from adults despite significant differences in antibiotic pharmacokinetics, pathology, and the microbial burden between childhood and adult tuberculosis. We sought to develop a new and effective oral treatment regimen specific to children of different ages. We investigated and validated the concept that target drug concentrations associated with therapy failure and death in children are different from those of adults. On that basis, we proposed a 4-step program to rapidly develop treatment regimens for children...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Heidrun Boztug, Nora Mühlegger, Ulrike Pötschger, Andishe Attarbaschi, Christina Peters, Georg Mann, Michael Dworzak
Intensive chemotherapy directed against acute myeloid leukemia of childhood is followed by profound neutropenia and high risk for bacterial and fungal infections, including viridans group streptococci as a common cause for gram-positive septicemia. Few retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of various antibiotic prophylactic regimens in children. We retrospectively studied 50 pediatric patients treated on the AML-BFM 2004 protocol between 2005 and 2015 at St. Anna Children's Hospital and assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia and bacterial sepsis...
January 2017: Annals of Hematology
Diana A Freitas, Fernando A L Dias, Gabriela S S Chaves, Gardenia M H Ferreira, Cibele T D Ribeiro, Ricardo O Guerra, Karla M P P Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (greater (30° to 45° head-down tilt) and lesser (15° to 20° head-down tilt)) with modified postural drainage (greater (30º head-up tilt) or lesser (15º to 20º head-up tilt)) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Saleh Mohebbi, Fatemeh Hasan Nia, Farbood Kelantari, Sheqhayeqh Ebrahim Nejad, Yaghoob Hamedi, Reza Abd
OBJECTIVES: Tonsillectomy is one of the most common operations performed in pediatric population. One of the most prevalent tonsillectomy complications is early or delayed post-operative hemorrhage. Other important morbidity is post-operative pain. Historically, honey has been used for wound control, reducing the inflammation, and healing acceleration. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of honey on reducing pain after tonsillectomy in children 5-15 years old. METHODS: After tonsillectomy, 80 patients were randomly divided in two equal groups...
November 2014: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Yvonne Strohmeier, Elisabeth M Hodson, Narelle S Willis, Angela C Webster, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants. The most severe form of UTI is acute pyelonephritis, which results in significant acute morbidity and may cause permanent kidney damage. There remains uncertainty regarding the optimum antibiotic regimen, route of administration and duration of treatment. This is an update of a review that was first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2007. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of antibiotics used to treat children with acute pyelonephritis...
July 28, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Angela E Ballinger, Suetonia C Palmer, Kathryn J Wiggins, Jonathan C Craig, David W Johnson, Nicholas B Cross, Giovanni F M Strippoli
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that is associated with significant morbidity including death, hospitalisation, and need to change from PD to haemodialysis. Treatment is aimed to reduce morbidity and recurrence. This is an update of a review first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of treatments for PD-associated peritonitis. SEARCH METHODS: For this review update we searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to March 2014 through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review...
April 26, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maria Ioannidou, Fani Apostolidou-Kiouti, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Ioannis Niopas, Emmanuel Roilides
UNLABELLED: Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibacterial agent, with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linezolid in children with infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. A systematic search was conducted by two independent reviewers to identify published studies up to September 2013. The accumulated relevant literature was subsequently systematically reviewed, and a meta-analysis was conducted. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials assessing the clinical efficacy and safety of linezolid in children versus other antimicrobial agents for infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria...
September 2014: European Journal of Pediatrics
Mohammad-Javad Mohseni, Zahra Aryan, Sahra Emamzadeh-Fard, Koosha Paydary, Vahid Mofid, Hasan Joudaki, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
OBJECTIVE: We examined the preventive effect of probiotic and antibiotics versus antibiotics alone, in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) in a preliminary randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Between March 2007 and April 2011, children with the history of RUTI and unilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) were randomly assigned to receive concomitant probiotic and antibiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium lactis, 10(7)/ml, as 0...
August 2013: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Pranita D Tamma, Gwen L Robinson, Jeffrey S Gerber, Jason G Newland, Chloe M DeLisle, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Aaron M Milstone
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns across US pediatric healthcare institutions are unknown. A national pooled pediatric antibiogram (1) identifies nationwide trends in antimicrobial resistance, (2) allows across-hospital benchmarking, and (3) provides guidance for empirical antimicrobial regimens for institutions unable to generate pediatric antibiograms. METHODS: In January 2012, a request for submission of pediatric antibiograms between 2005 and 2011 was sent to 233 US hospitals...
December 2013: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko, Carolyn Nabasumba, Halidou Tinto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Martin Peter Grobusch, Pascal Lutumba, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy is currently recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Recommendations were adapted in 2010 regarding rescue treatment in case of treatment failure. Instead of quinine monotherapy, it should be combined with an antibiotic with antimalarial properties; alternatively, another artemisinin-based combination therapy may be used. However, for informing these policy changes, no clear evidence is yet available...
September 23, 2013: Trials
J Picot, D Hartwell, P Harris, D Mendes, A J Clegg, A Takeda
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) arises as a consequence of a sudden period of food shortage and is associated with loss of a person's body fat and wasting of their skeletal muscle. Many of those affected are already undernourished and are often susceptible to disease. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable as they require extra nutrition for growth and development, have comparatively limited energy reserves and depend on others. Undernutrition can have drastic and wide-ranging consequences for the child's development and survival in the short and long term...
2012: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Francine D Breckler, Frederick J Rescorla, Deborah F Billmire
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There is little published data on the efficacy of surgical infection prophylaxis in children. The purpose of this study was to assess wound infection rate in children undergoing colostomy closure for imperforate anus and evaluate the impact of bowel preparation and antibiotics. METHODS: Children younger than 18 years with imperforate anus who had a colostomy closure between January 1996 and December 2007 were identified. Data collected included demographics, bowel preparation, antibiotics, operative details, and postoperative infections...
July 2010: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Chi-Hui Cheng, Yong-Kwei Tsau, Chee-Jen Chang, Yu-Chen Chang, Chen-Yen Kuo, I-Jung Tsai, Yi-Hsien Hsu, Tzou-Yien Lin
BACKGROUND: Acute lobar nephronia (ALN) is a severe nonliquefactive inflammatory renal bacterial infection, and requires a longer duration of treatment. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate renal scarring after ALN and to examine the risk factors for renal scarring in children with ALN compared with those with acute pyelonephritis (APN). METHODS: Patients with computed tomography-diagnosed ALN were enrolled and randomly allocated, with serial entry, to either a 2- or 3-week antibiotic treatment regimen...
July 2010: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shawn D St Peter, Susan W Sharp, Daniel J Ostlie
HYPOTHESIS: Diphenhydramine blocks the H(1) receptor to treat pruritus or to induce sleep, while ranitidine blocks the H(2) receptor to suppress gastric acid. They are often given to ill patients, such as those with perforated appendicitis. However, these receptors are integral to the inflammatory response, and to our knowledge, the impact of H(1) or H(2) blockade on outcome in the setting of perforated appendicitis has never been evaluated. DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial...
February 2010: Archives of Surgery
Anjana Gulani, H P S Sachdev, Shamim A Qazi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of a short course of antibiotics (<4 days) in comparison to a longer course (>4 days) for the treatment of acute otitis media in children. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, hand search of reviews, bibliographies of books, abstracts and proceedings of international conferences. REVIEW METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of the empiric treatment of acute otitis media comparing antibiotic regimens of <4 days versus > 4 days in children between four weeks to eighteen years of age were included...
January 2010: Indian Pediatrics
Robert Tracy Ballock, Peter O Newton, Sean J Evans, Michelle Estabrook, Christine L Farnsworth, John S Bradley
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes of children with bacterial septic arthritis, common in the pediatric age group, are often satisfactory with early recognition, prompt surgical drainage, and appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, the optimal duration and route of antibiotic administration for treatment of septic arthritis continues to be debated, as traditional treatment favored longer intravenous (IV) therapies yet oral regimens are increasingly available that are more cost effective, safe and produce satisfactory disease resolution...
September 2009: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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