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Antibiotic and fever in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196318/common-skin-conditions-in-children-skin-infections
#1
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Recognition of their common and atypical presentations is necessary to differentiate them from other skin conditions of similar morphology. Impetigo, cellulitis, and abscess comprise the majority of childhood bacterial skin infections and are treated with topical or systemic antibiotics that cover group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185626/prevalence-of-concomitant-acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-neonates-with-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#2
Sowdhamini S Wallace, Danielle N Brown, Andrea T Cruz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of concomitant acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in neonates with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study from 2005 to 2013 of infants ≤30 days old evaluated in the emergency department of a quaternary care children's hospital with fever and laboratory-confirmed UTI. Definite ABM was defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture with growth of pathogenic bacteria and probable ABM if pleocytosis with ≥ 20 white blood cell was present in an antibiotic-pretreated patient...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183731/c-septicum-complicating-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-survival-without-surgical-intervention
#3
Rachel M Engen, Elizabeth Y Killien, Jessica L Davis, Jordan M Symons, Silvia M Hartmann
Clostridium septicum is an anaerobic bacterium that causes rapidly progressive myonecrosis, bacteremia, and central nervous system infection. It has been reported as a complication of Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in 8 children worldwide; 5 children died, and the 3 reported survivors had surgically treated disease. We present 3 cases of C septicum complicating HUS in children, including the first 2 reported cases of survival without surgical intervention. All patients presented with classic cases of HUS with initial clinical improvement followed by deterioration...
February 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154598/kawasaki-disease-with-fever-and-cervical-lymphadenopathy-as-the-sole-initial-presentation
#4
Woo Young Jun, Yu Kyung Ann, Ja Yeong Kim, Jae Sung Son, Soo-Jin Kim, Hyun Suk Yang, Sun Hwan Bae, Sochung Chung, Kyo Sun Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) present with fever and cervical lymphadenopathy alone. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features of these unusual KD patients and determine whether this is a severe form of KD associated with increased risks of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and coronary artery lesions (CALs). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 146 children with KD were reviewed retrospectively, and classified into two groups according to initial clinical features...
January 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151844/impact-of-percutaneous-drainage-on-outcome-of-intra-abdominal-infection-associated-with-pediatric-perforated-appendicitis
#5
William Bonadio, Miriam Langer, Julie Cueva, Astrid Haaland
BACKGROUND: Perforated appendicitis can result in potentially serious complications requiring prolonged medical care. The optimal approach to successfully managing this condition is controversial. METHODS: Review of 80 consecutive cases of pediatric acute perforated appendicitis with intra-abdominal infection [IAI] medically managed with parenteral antibiotics and percutaneous drainage [PD] during a 7-year period. RESULTS: All patients received broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151843/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-associated-diarrheal-diseases-in-children
#6
Chih-Hsien Chuang, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Yi-Hsin Wang, Hsin-Ju Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Tzou-Yien Lin, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is not the common infection site of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The role of P. aeruginosa as a causative agent for diarrhea in children without pre-existing disease is controversial. METHODS: From 2003 to 2012 we reviewed the records of 259 diarrheal patients less than 5 years of age whose stool culture grew P. aeruginosa. Virulence phenotypes of bacterial isolates were determined in vitro, including cytotoxicity, penetration and adherence to epithelial cells...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128095/antimicrobial-prescribing-patterns-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#7
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Ping Du, Fang Huang, Dong-Jie Li, Jun Gu, Fu-Ming Shen, Yuan-Ying Jiang
Whilst the 'Principles of clinical use of antibiotics' was released by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China in 2004, limited research has been conducted to evaluate the quality of antibiotic use in real-world practice. In this study, we sought to examine antimicrobial prescribing patterns in a large tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. De-identified outpatient and emergency department pharmacy records containing antimicrobials were extracted from the hospital electronic health records system...
December 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122594/development-of-a-theory-and-evidence-based-program-to-promote-community-treatment-of-fevers-in-children-under-five-in-a-rural-district-in-southern-ghana-an-intervention-mapping-approach
#8
Mercy Abbey, L Kay Bartholomew, Margaret A Chinbuah, Margaret Gyapong, John O Gyapong, Bart van den Borne
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the development and implementation of a program to promote prompt and appropriate care seeking for fever in children under the age of five. Designed as a multicomponent program, the intervention comprises elements to influence the behavior of caregivers of children, Community Health Workers, professional health care providers and the wider community. METHODS: Following the six fundamental steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol, we involved relevant stakeholders from the commencement of planning to program end...
January 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118320/characteristics-of-children-with-microbiologically-confirmed-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-the-emergency-department
#9
Iker Gangoiti, Juan R Valle, Mercedes Sota, Lorea Martinez-Indart, Javier Benito, Santiago Mintegi
BACKGROUND: Determination of the characteristics of paediatric invasive bacterial infections (IBI) is essential for early identification of children requiring immediate antibiotic therapy. The main objective is to characterize the emergency presentation of the IBI among children aged younger than 14 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective registry-based cohort study including all patients aged younger than 14 years diagnosed with confirmed IBI (culture or genomic detection using the polymerase chain reaction) was carried out in a paediatric emergency department between 2008 and 2015...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096254/factors-predicting-antibiotic-prescription-and-referral-to-hospital-for-children-with-respiratory-symptoms-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-study-at-out-of-hours-services-in-primary-care
#10
Ingrid Keilegavlen Rebnord, Hogne Sandvik, Anders Batman Mjelle, Steinar Hunskaar
OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory infections and fever among children are highly prevalent in primary care. It is challenging to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. Norway has a relatively low prescription rate of antibiotics, but it is still regarded as too high as the antimicrobial resistance is increasing. The aim of the study was to identify predictors for prescribing antibiotics or referral to hospital among children. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077074/single-and-multiple-viral-respiratory-infections-in-children-disease-and-management-cannot-be-related-to-a-specific-pathogen
#11
Jérôme O Wishaupt, Tjeerd van der Ploeg, Ronald de Groot, Florens G A Versteegh, Nico G Hartwig
BACKGROUND: The number of viral pathogens associated with pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) has grown since the introduction of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Multiple viruses are detected during a single ARI episode in approximately a quarter of all cases. The clinical relevance of these multiple detections is unclear, as is the role of the individual virus. We therefore investigated the correlation between clinical data and RT-PCR results in children with single- and multiple viral ARI...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072664/clinical-pathway-effectiveness-febrile-young-infant-clinical-pathway-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#12
Ashlee Lynn Murray, Elizabeth Alpern, Jane Lavelle, Cynthia Mollen
OBJECTIVE: Young infants are often treated in emergency departments (EDs) for febrile illnesses. Any delay in care or ineffective management could lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. A standardized ED clinical pathway may improve care for these patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a febrile young infant clinical pathway implemented in a large, urban children's hospital ED on the timeliness and consistency of care. METHODS: This study used a before-and-after retrospective observational study design comparing 2 separate periods: prepathway from September 2007 through August 2008 and postpathway from September 2009 through August 2010...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057204/acute-respiratory-infection-diarrhoea-and-fever-in-young-children-at-risk-of-intellectual-disability-in-24-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Eric Emerson, Amber Savage
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms, diarrhoea and fever in the previous two weeks among 3-4 year old children who are/are not at-risk of intellectual disability in 24 low- and middle-income countries and (2) to investigate possible inequities in access to treatment among affected children. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Secondary analysis of Rounds 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 24 low- and middle-income countries (n = 99,934 children)...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044426/children-after-renal-transplantation-hospitalized-for-fever-is-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-always-justified
#14
Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Miriam Davidovits, Efraim Bilavsky, Reem Yassin, Eran Rom, Jacob Amir
Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. However, data focusing on children are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and predictors of bacterial infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients in a specific setting of hospitalization due to fever. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected for all pediatric renal transplant recipients hospitalized for fever in a national renal transplantation center from 2004 to 2012...
January 2, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029092/clinical-risk-factors-bacterial-aetiology-and-outcome-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-children-hospitalized-with-diarrhoea-in-bangladesh
#15
R DAS, T Ahmed, H Saha, L Shahrin, F Afroze, A S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, P K Bardhan, M J Chisti
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea, but little is known about risk factors, aetiology and outcome of such children. We aimed to evaluate these knowledge gaps of UTI in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea. We enrolled all children aged <5 years with diarrhoea admitted to Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between May 2011 and April 2013, who had history of fever (⩾38 °C) and obtained a urine sample for culture...
December 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027279/the-influence-of-the-route-of-antibiotic-administration-methicillin-susceptibility-vancomycin-duration-and-serum-trough-concentration-on-outcomes-of-pediatric-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremic-osteoarticular-infection
#16
J Chase McNeil, Sheldon L Kaplan, Jesus G Vallejo
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is often one factor used in deciding the need for prolonged intravenous antimicrobial therapy in osteoarticular infections (OAI). We examined treatment practices and outcomes of bacteremic S. aureus osteoarticular infections (BOAI) evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). METHODS: Cases of acute hematogenous OAI in children with positive blood cultures for S. aureus at TCH from 2011-2014 were reviewed. Orthopedic complications included chronic osteomyelitis, growth arrest, pathologic fracture, avascular necrosis and chronic dislocation...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012942/a-host-protein-based-assay-to-differentiate-between-bacterial-and-viral-infections-in-preschool-children-opportunity-a-double-blind-multicentre-validation-study
#17
Chantal B van Houten, Joris A H de Groot, Adi Klein, Isaac Srugo, Irena Chistyakov, Wouter de Waal, Clemens B Meijssen, Wim Avis, Tom F W Wolfs, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Michal Stein, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: A physician is frequently unable to distinguish bacterial from viral infections. ImmunoXpert is a novel assay combining three proteins: tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP). We aimed to externally validate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay in differentiating between bacterial and viral infections and to compare this test with commonly used biomarkers. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, international, multicentre study, we recruited children aged 2-60 months with lower respiratory tract infection or clinical presentation of fever without source at four hospitals in the Netherlands and two hospitals in Israel...
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012530/acute-mastoiditis-in-children-middle-ear-cultures-may-help-in-reducing-use-of-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#18
REVIEW
Catarina Garcia, Ana Bárbara Salgueiro, Catarina Luís, Paula Correia, Maria João Brito
BACKGROUND: Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a suppurative infection of the mastoid air cells, representing the most frequent complication of acute otitis media. AM remains an important entity in children due to its potential complications and sequelae. We aim to describe the cases of AM admitted at our department, identify risk factors potentially associated with complications and analyse the changes in clinical approach of AM over time. METHODS: Case review of clinical files of children admitted with acute mastoiditis from June 1996 to May 2013 at a Lisbon metropolitan area hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999063/antibiotic-prescribing-in-patients-with-self-reported-sore-throat
#19
Nishchay Mehta, Anne Schilder, Ellen Fragaszy, Hannah E R Evans, Oliver Dukes, Logan Manikam, Paul Little, Sarah C Smith, Andrew Hayward
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictors of general practitioner (GP) consultation and antibiotic use in those developing sore throat. METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study on 4461 participants in two rounds (2010-11) from 1897 households. RESULTS: Participants reported 2193 sore throat illnesses, giving a community sore throat incidence of 1.57/ person-year. 13% of sore throat illnesses led to a GP consultation and 56% of these consultations led to antibiotic use...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992422/role-of-t3ss-1-sipd-protein-in-protecting-mice-against-non-typhoidal-salmonella-typhimurium
#20
Bakhos Jneid, Karine Moreau, Marc Plaisance, Audrey Rouaix, Julie Dano, Stéphanie Simon
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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