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Antibiotic and fever in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096254/factors-predicting-antibiotic-prescription-and-referral-to-hospital-for-children-with-respiratory-symptoms-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-study-at-out-of-hours-services-in-primary-care
#1
Ingrid Keilegavlen Rebnord, Hogne Sandvik, Anders Batman Mjelle, Steinar Hunskaar
OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory infections and fever among children are highly prevalent in primary care. It is challenging to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. Norway has a relatively low prescription rate of antibiotics, but it is still regarded as too high as the antimicrobial resistance is increasing. The aim of the study was to identify predictors for prescribing antibiotics or referral to hospital among children. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077074/single-and-multiple-viral-respiratory-infections-in-children-disease-and-management-cannot-be-related-to-a-specific-pathogen
#2
Jérôme O Wishaupt, Tjeerd van der Ploeg, Ronald de Groot, Florens G A Versteegh, Nico G Hartwig
BACKGROUND: The number of viral pathogens associated with pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) has grown since the introduction of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Multiple viruses are detected during a single ARI episode in approximately a quarter of all cases. The clinical relevance of these multiple detections is unclear, as is the role of the individual virus. We therefore investigated the correlation between clinical data and RT-PCR results in children with single- and multiple viral ARI...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072664/clinical-pathway-effectiveness-febrile-young-infant-clinical-pathway-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#3
Ashlee Lynn Murray, Elizabeth Alpern, Jane Lavelle, Cynthia Mollen
OBJECTIVE: Young infants are often treated in emergency departments (EDs) for febrile illnesses. Any delay in care or ineffective management could lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. A standardized ED clinical pathway may improve care for these patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a febrile young infant clinical pathway implemented in a large, urban children's hospital ED on the timeliness and consistency of care. METHODS: This study used a before-and-after retrospective observational study design comparing 2 separate periods: prepathway from September 2007 through August 2008 and postpathway from September 2009 through August 2010...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057204/acute-respiratory-infection-diarrhoea-and-fever-in-young-children-at-risk-of-intellectual-disability-in-24-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
Eric Emerson, Amber Savage
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms, diarrhoea and fever in the previous two weeks among 3-4 year old children who are/are not at-risk of intellectual disability in 24 low- and middle-income countries and (2) to investigate possible inequities in access to treatment among affected children. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Secondary analysis of Rounds 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 24 low- and middle-income countries (n = 99,934 children)...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044426/children-after-renal-transplantation-hospitalized-for-fever-is-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-always-justified
#5
Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Miriam Davidovits, Efraim Bilavsky, Reem Yassin, Eran Rom, Jacob Amir
Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. However, data focusing on children are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and predictors of bacterial infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients in a specific setting of hospitalization due to fever. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected for all pediatric renal transplant recipients hospitalized for fever in a national renal transplantation center from 2004 to 2012...
January 2, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029092/clinical-risk-factors-bacterial-aetiology-and-outcome-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-children-hospitalized-with-diarrhoea-in-bangladesh
#6
R DAS, T Ahmed, H Saha, L Shahrin, F Afroze, A S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, P K Bardhan, M J Chisti
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea, but little is known about risk factors, aetiology and outcome of such children. We aimed to evaluate these knowledge gaps of UTI in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea. We enrolled all children aged <5 years with diarrhoea admitted to Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between May 2011 and April 2013, who had history of fever (⩾38 °C) and obtained a urine sample for culture...
December 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027279/the-influence-of-the-route-of-antibiotic-administration-methicillin-susceptibility-vancomycin-duration-and-serum-trough-concentration-on-outcomes-of-pediatric-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremic-osteoarticular-infection
#7
J Chase McNeil, Sheldon L Kaplan, Jesus G Vallejo
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is often one factor used in deciding the need for prolonged intravenous antimicrobial therapy in osteoarticular infections (OAI). We examined treatment practices and outcomes of bacteremic S. aureus osteoarticular infections (BOAI) evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). METHODS: Cases of acute hematogenous OAI in children with positive blood cultures for S. aureus at TCH from 2011-2014 were reviewed. Orthopedic complications included chronic osteomyelitis, growth arrest, pathologic fracture, avascular necrosis and chronic dislocation...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012942/a-host-protein-based-assay-to-differentiate-between-bacterial-and-viral-infections-in-preschool-children-opportunity-a-double-blind-multicentre-validation-study
#8
Chantal B van Houten, Joris A H de Groot, Adi Klein, Isaac Srugo, Irena Chistyakov, Wouter de Waal, Clemens B Meijssen, Wim Avis, Tom F W Wolfs, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Michal Stein, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: A physician is frequently unable to distinguish bacterial from viral infections. ImmunoXpert is a novel assay combining three proteins: tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP). We aimed to externally validate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay in differentiating between bacterial and viral infections and to compare this test with commonly used biomarkers. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, international, multicentre study, we recruited children aged 2-60 months with lower respiratory tract infection or clinical presentation of fever without source at four hospitals in the Netherlands and two hospitals in Israel...
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012530/acute-mastoiditis-in-children-middle-ear-cultures-may-help-in-reducing-use-of-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#9
REVIEW
Catarina Garcia, Ana Bárbara Salgueiro, Catarina Luís, Paula Correia, Maria João Brito
BACKGROUND: Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a suppurative infection of the mastoid air cells, representing the most frequent complication of acute otitis media. AM remains an important entity in children due to its potential complications and sequelae. We aim to describe the cases of AM admitted at our department, identify risk factors potentially associated with complications and analyse the changes in clinical approach of AM over time. METHODS: Case review of clinical files of children admitted with acute mastoiditis from June 1996 to May 2013 at a Lisbon metropolitan area hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999063/antibiotic-prescribing-in-patients-with-self-reported-sore-throat
#10
Nishchay Mehta, Anne Schilder, Ellen Fragaszy, Hannah E R Evans, Oliver Dukes, Logan Manikam, Paul Little, Sarah C Smith, Andrew Hayward
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictors of general practitioner (GP) consultation and antibiotic use in those developing sore throat. METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study on 4461 participants in two rounds (2010-11) from 1897 households. RESULTS: Participants reported 2193 sore throat illnesses, giving a community sore throat incidence of 1.57/ person-year. 13% of sore throat illnesses led to a GP consultation and 56% of these consultations led to antibiotic use...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992422/role-of-t3ss-1-sipd-protein-in-protecting-mice-against-non-typhoidal-salmonella-typhimurium
#11
Bakhos Jneid, Karine Moreau, Marc Plaisance, Audrey Rouaix, Julie Dano, Stéphanie Simon
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977844/paracetamol-acetaminophen-or-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-alone-or-combined-for-pain-relief-in-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Alies Sjoukes, Roderick P Venekamp, Alma C van de Pol, Alastair D Hay, Paul Little, Anne Gm Schilder, Roger Amj Damoiseaux
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases and a significant reason for antibiotic prescriptions in children worldwide. Pain from middle ear infection and pressure behind the eardrum is the key symptom of AOM. Ear pain is central to children's and parents' experience of the illness. Because antibiotics provide only marginal benefits, analgesic treatment including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is regarded as the cornerstone of AOM management in children...
15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975208/-renal-decapsulation-for-the-treatment-of-anuria-a-forgotten-treatment-from-the-early-20th-century
#13
D L Dräger, C Protzel, O W Hakenberg
In the early 20th century, Harrison first performed renal decapsulation in anuric children with scarlet fever and observed improvement in renal function postoperatively. The pathophysiological explanation was seen in intraparenchymal renal pressure due to edema which was improved by surgical decapsulation. The technique of decapsulation was simple excision after incision and blunt dissection of the renal parenchyma. Renal decapsulation then became a procedure commonly used for many indications in inflammatory renal conditions; indications were renal angioneurosis, hydronephrosis, toxic, bacterial and chronic nephritis, renal abscess and even eclampsia...
January 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966403/-a-9-year-old-boy-with-pinpoint-pain-caused-by-pyomyositis
#14
M Schots, R Verlaak, P H Haarbrink, B A Semmekrot
BACKGROUND: Pyomyositis is a rare bacterial infection of striated muscle, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A healthy 9-year-old boy was referred to us because of pain in the hip and fever. We noticed he could point to the pain with one finger; this is referred to as 'pinpoint pain'. An MRI indicated a diagnosis of pyomyositis of the iliacus muscle and piriformis. The infection was caused by S. aureus. The boy recovered completely and swiftly with antibiotic therapy...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933250/clinical-analysis-on-430-cases-of-infantile-purulent-meningitis
#15
Zhihui He, Xiujuan Li, Li Jiang
BACKGROUND: Purulent meningitis (PM) usually caused by a variety of pyogenic infection, is a kind of central nervous system infectious disease mostly common in children. It is easily misdiagnosed and its symptoms are varied. Excessive application of broad-spectrum antibiotics results in increased sickness and death of infants and young children. In this study, clinical data of 430 cases of PM in infants were analyzed to summarize the clinical experiences so as to achieve early diagnosis and early treatment of PM...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929264/unexplained-lymphadenopathy-evaluation-and-differential-diagnosis
#16
Heidi L Gaddey, Angela M Riegel
Lymphadenopathy is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as medications and iatrogenic causes. The history and physical examination alone usually identify the cause of lymphadenopathy. When the cause is unknown, lymphadenopathy should be classified as localized or generalized. Patients with localized lymphadenopathy should be evaluated for etiologies typically associated with the region involved according to lymphatic drainage patterns...
December 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899697/sudden-death-of-a-child-due-to-pyogenic-bacterial-myocarditis
#17
Asit K Sikary, Asit R Mridha, Chittaranjan Behera
Bacterial myocarditis is an uncommon condition and only a few fatal cases in adults are reported in the scientific literature. Death from acute bacterial myocarditis in children is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of fatal bacterial myocarditis in a seven-year-old girl, who had a history of cough for a month and fever for two days. She was given symptomatic treatment by a local physician without suspecting her clinical condition. Her condition rapidly deteriorated and she was brought in dead to the hospital...
November 28, 2016: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891414/paediatric-urinary-tract-infection-a-hospital-based-experience
#18
Khursheed Ahmed Wani, Mohd Ashraf, Javaid Ahmed Bhat, Nazir Ahmed Parry, Lubna Shaheen, Sartaj Ali Bhat
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the commonly encountered entities by paediatricians. Studies have shown easy vulnerability of paediatric urinary tract in any acute febrile illness and a miss in diagnosis could have long term consequences like renal scaring with its adverse effects. Bearing these evidence based preludes in view we designed our study to know the prevalence of UTI in Kashmir province. AIM: Aim of the present study was to know the prevalence of UTI in febrile children and to know the sensitivity of different imaging modalities like Renal and Urinary Bladder Ultrasonography (RUS), Voiding Cystourethrography (VCUG) and Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) scan in diagnosing UTI...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#19
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880753/notes-from-the-field-community-based-prevention-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-sonora-mexico-2016
#20
Anne Straily, Naomi Drexler, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, Christopher D Paddock, Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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