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Antibiotic and fever in children

Florencia Escarrá, Ana G Fedullo, Natalia Veliz, Julián Rosa, Rodrigo Oribe, Marisa Di Santo, Bqca Vanesa Reijtman, Lic Alejandra Mastroianni, Guadalupe Pérez
INTRODUCTION: the incidence of invasive infections caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) has declined since generalized vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, but it is still a prevalent pathogen in children. Amongst pneumococcal invasive infections, IE (infectious endocarditis) is rare, with an incidence between 1 and 7%. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a previously healthy 4 year old boy, who had received one dose of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine who presents with fever, a new heart murmur and heart failure...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Shraddha Siwakoti, Rinku Sah, Rupa Singh Rajbhandari, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Pantoea agglomerans, primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of P. agglomerans infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream. Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Olugbenga Akinkugbe, Charles Stewart, Caoimhe McKenna
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presenting features of bone and joint infections with a view to identify distinguishing trends that will be useful for pediatric emergency departments. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patient records over a 12-year period in the pediatric emergency department of a large regional pediatric teaching center serving a diverse population. RESULTS: There were 88 cases of osteoarticular infections during the study period...
March 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Maria Daniel, Hania Szajewska, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
INTRODUCTION: The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in children with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) is still a matter of debate. Current guidelines recommend treating children with febrile UTIs with antimicrobials for 7 to 14 days. We aim to compare the efficacy and safety of 7-day versus 10-day course of oral or sequence therapy (intravenous with a switch to oral) with cefuroxime/cefuroxime axetil for febrile UTIs in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A non-inferiority, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial will be conducted...
March 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Nancy L Van Buren, Jed B Gorlin, Robyn C Reed, Jerome L Gottschall, Stephen C Nelson
BACKGROUND: Acute splenic sequestration crisis is a complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring when intrasplenic red blood cell (RBC) sickling prevents blood from leaving the spleen, causing acute splenic enlargement. Although typically seen in young children, it has been reported in older children with hemoglobin (Hb)SC disease, eventually resulting in functional asplenia. Ceftriaxone is a frequently used antibiotic of choice for children with SCD, because of its efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease...
February 22, 2018: Transfusion
Stéphanie Wagner, Eva K Brack, Eveline Stutz-Grunder, Philipp Agyeman, Kurt Leibundgut, Oliver Teuffel, Roland A Ammann
BACKGROUND: There is no evidence-based definition of the temperature limit defining fever (TLDF) in children with neutropenia. Lowering the TLDF is known to increase the number of episodes of fever in neutropenia (FN). This study aimed to investigate the influence of a lower versus standard TLDF on diagnostics and therapy. METHODS: In a single pediatric cancer center using a high standard TLDF (39°C tympanic-temperature) patients were observed prospectively (NCT01683370)...
2018: PloS One
Tali Capua, Amir Klivitsky, Efraim Bilavsky, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Jonathan Roth, Shlomi Constantini, Galia Grisaru-Soen
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of central nervous system infections. We describe 3 new cases of GAS brain abscess in previously healthy children treated by us between 2015-2016 and review the 5 cases reported in the literature since 1988. All 8 children received early empiric antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention, and 5 made a full recovery. GAS brain abscess is a rare infection; however its incidence may be rising. We suggest that if patients show symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and lethargy, with contiguous infection such as otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, or meningitis, GAS brain abscess should be suspected...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Klara Posfay-Barbe, Michaël Hofer
Fever is a common complaint in paediatric care and is mainly due to infectious causes. Depending on the age of the patient, clinical presentation will differ and the origins of the fever vary ; a good awareness of the age-related specificities is essential for early detection of invasive and potentially fatal infections. Fever may also be due to inflammatory diseases. A good knowledge of these aetiologies is essential to avoid unnecessary repeated antibiotic treatments and a lengthy misdiagnosis.
February 14, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Yoshihiro Aoki, Katsuhiko Kitazawa, Hironobu Kobayashi
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is rare in children and is characterised as necrotising vasculitis predominantly affecting small and medium-sized vessels. Propylthiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid drug, has been implicated in drug-induced AAV. In contrast, Kawasaki disease (KD) is a common systemic vasculitis, typically observed in children, which affects the medium-sized vessels, including the coronary arteries. An 11-year-old girl who developed AAV while receiving PTU therapy for Graves' disease is described...
February 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Akinori Maeda, Isaku Saku, Shotaro Kanda, Kazuo Saita, Toru Akiyama
INTRODUCTION: Obturator internus muscle (OIM) abscess is a rare condition, usually affecting children after trauma or muscular effort. Blood cultures always yield positive findings, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common culprit. There are few reports in adults. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of OIM abscess in an adult. A 24-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of right hip pain and fever. He was diagnosed with OIM abscess, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected on bacterial examination...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Xiaoquan Li, Shujuan Fan, Xiaojie Lin, Li Liu, Jie Zheng, Xihui Zhou, Axel Heep
RATIONALE: Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis (EGM) is rarely found in normal adults and even rarer in children. To our knowledge, EGM in neonate has not been reported previously. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Here we reported the first case of EGM in neonate. Prolonged fever was the only manifestation for the case after admission. DIAGNOSES: Cerebrospinal fluid cultures showed that the isolate was Enterococcus gallinarum and sensitive to linezolid. INTERVENTIONS: Ceftriaxone, beta lactam type, and vancomycin were used respectively, but not effective...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sabrina Huq, Sherry Pejka, Dilip R Patel
Renal abscesses are uncommon in otherwise healthy children and adolescents who have no underlying renal structural anomalies. A previously healthy, immunocompetent, 14-year-old male without a history of abdominal trauma or urinary tract infection (UTI) was found to have a renal hematoma that became infected and developed into a renal abscess. He presented with a 2-day history of nausea, vomiting, fever and 1-day history of abdominal pain that radiated to the right flank. Clinical examination, blood work, and initial imaging indicated likely infection; however, findings were normal on urinalysis and urine culture had no growth...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
Alice Bonanni, Marta Calatroni, Matteo D'Alessandro, Sara Signa, Enrica Bertelli, Michela Cioni, Eddi Di Marco, Roberto Biassoni, Gianluca Caridi, Giulia Ingrasciotta, Roberta Bertelli, Armando Di Donato, Maurizio Bruschi, Alberto Canepa, Giorgio Piaggio, Pietro Ravani, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
AIMS: Anti-CD20 antibodies are increasingly being used to treat idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children. While they may allow steroid and calcineurin-inhibitor withdrawal, repeated infusions of anti-CD20 antibodies are often required to maintain remission. Data on their potential toxicity in INS are needed to consider repeated infusions. METHODS: We reported data on side effects related to the use of rituximab (a chimeric anti-body; 130 pts) and ofatumumab (a humanized anti-body; 37 pts) in children with INS (steroid-dependent and steroid/calcineurin-inhibitor dependent disease) treated in a national referral center during a 9-year period (400 treatments; follow-up 1-9 years)...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Halima Khatun, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Syed Aminul Islam, Baitun Nahar, Md Nur Haque Alam, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January 2010 and December 2014...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Yasmin Jahan, Sm Atiqur Rahman, Abu Sayeed Chowdhury, Md Moshiur Rahman
Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of child mortality among children under 5 years, worldwide. Pneumonia infection may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by the World Health Organization(WHO) in September (2013), pneumonia can be classified into severe pneumonia, pneumonia and no pneumonia. Most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia. Methods: Disease management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification,prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality care...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Volker Strenger, Gerald Merth, Herwig Lackner, Stephan W Aberle, Harald H Kessler, Markus G Seidel, Wolfgang Schwinger, Daniela Sperl, Petra Sovinz, Anna Karastaneva, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a possibly life-threatening syndrome of immune dysregulation and can be divided into primary (hereditary) and secondary forms (including malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH)). We retrospectively analysed epidemiological, clinical, virological and laboratory data from patients with M-HLH treated at our department between 1995 and 2014. Out of 1.706 haemato-/oncologic patients treated at our department between 1995 and 2014, we identified 22 (1.29%) patients with secondary HLH (1...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Andrea Streng, Christiane Prifert, Benedikt Weissbrich, Andreas Sauerbrei, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Johannes G Liese
BACKGROUND: Limited data on the influenza burden in pediatric outpatients are available, especially regarding direct comparison of the co-circulating (sub)types A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B. METHODS: Children 1-5 years of age, unvaccinated against influenza and presenting with febrile acute respiratory infections (ARI), were enrolled in 33 paediatric practices in Germany from 2013-2015 (January-May). Influenza was confirmed by multiplex PCR from pharyngeal swabs and (sub)typed...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sophie Turnbull, Patricia J Lucas, Niamh M Redmond, Hannah Christensen, Hannah Thornton, Christie Cabral, Peter S Blair, Brendan C Delaney, Matthew Thompson, Paul Little, Tim J Peters, Alastair D Hay
BACKGROUND: The objectives were to identify 1) the clinician and child characteristics associated with; 2) clinical management decisions following from, and; 3) the prognostic value of; a clinician's 'gut feeling something is wrong' for children presenting to primary care with acute cough and respiratory tract infection (RTI). METHODS: Multicentre prospective cohort study where 518 primary care clinicians across 244 general practices in England assessed 8394 children aged ≥3 months and < 16 years for acute cough and RTI...
February 5, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Shota Myojin, Naohiro Kamiyoshi, Masaaki Kugo
BACKGROUND: Salmonella spondylitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection in immunocompetent children. To prevent treatment failure and neurological deficits, it needs prompt diagnosis and sufficient effort to identify the causative organism. There are some options to identify the causative organism such as Computed Tomography (CT) guided biopsy or surgical debridement, however when to perform these invasive interventions remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old boy presented with occasional high fever and lower back pain...
February 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Xia Wu, Ying-Zi Ye, Chuan-Qing Wang, Ai-Min Wang, Lei-Yan He, Hui Yu
RATIONALE: Pyogenic hepatic abscess in children is a rare clinical condition. Hepatic abscesses caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 6-year-old boy was referred to a tertiary children's hospital for a 6-day history of right lower abdominal pain and fever. Radiographic findings showed hepatic abscesses and soft tissue abscesses around the left femur. DIAGNOSES: Bacteriology of blood, hepatic abscesses, and soft tissue abscesses showed methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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