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Antibiotic and fever in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713003/reassessing-the-utility-of-routine-urine-culture-with-urodynamics-uti-incidence-and-risk-factors
#1
Devon C Snow-Lisy, Christopher Halline, Emilie K Johnson, Dawn Diaz-Saldano, Theresa Meyer, Elizabeth B Yerkes
INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus regarding use of periprocedural antibiotics or routine urine cultures during urodynamics study (UDS) in children. At our hospital, we historically have obtained urine cultures during UDS. However, even with positive cultures, few patients require treatment. Most are successfully managed with increased hydration and frequent bladder emptying. PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical characteristics, antibiotic treatment, and outcomes in patients undergoing UDS to identify (1) risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) after UDS, and (2) patients who may benefit from routine urine culture...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711429/-appropriateness-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-hospital-emergency-department
#2
Borja Croche Santander, Elena Campos Alonso, Adela Sánchez Carrión, Laura Marcos Fuentes, Isabel Diaz Flores, Juan Carlos Vargas, Bárbara Fernández Domínguez, Cristóbal Toro Ibañez
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics represent one of the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents in children. It has been estimated that 30-50% of antibiotic prescriptions for this population are inappropriate. In this scenario, analysis of prescription data provides an invaluable source of information as a basis for implementing strategies for improvement in this field. OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in a paediatric population at an emergency department...
July 12, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707578/acute-otitis-media-in-children
#3
Alexander Kc Leung, Alex H C Wong
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media is a common childhood infection. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, complications and particularly treatment of acute otitis media in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "acute otitis media". Patents were searched using the key term "acute otitis media" from www...
July 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689671/detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-in-paediatric-patients
#4
Iker Falces-Romero, Paloma Troyano-Hernáez, Silvia García-Bujalance, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, María José Mellado-Peña, Julio García-Rodríguez
INTRODUCTION: Our main objective was a revision of clinical, microbiological and epidemiological results of Clostridium difficile-associated infection in paediatric patients (2010-2015). We compared the diagnoses performed by detection of toxins in feces and those performed by real-time PCR. METHODS: This retrospective study included 82 paediatric patients. Detection of toxigenic C. difficile was performed sequentially, in diarrheal feces and under clinical request...
July 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688554/acute-pediatric-neck-infections-outcomes-in-a-seven-year-series
#5
Filipa Camacho Côrte, João Firmino-Machado, Carla Pinto Moura, Jorge Spratley, Margarida Santos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic clues, as biochemical parameters and imaging studies, of children with acute neck infections (ANI) to identify possible independent prognostic factors leading to complications and prolonged hospitalization. METHODS: Records of children admitted to a tertiary university hospital from January 2008 to December 2014 with a diagnosis of ANIs were reviewed retrospectively...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683722/epidemiology-of-pharyngitis-as-reported-by-zambian-school-children-and-their-families-implications-for-demand-side-interventions-to-prevent-rheumatic-heart-disease
#6
John Musuku, Joyce C Lungu, Elizabeth Machila, Catherine Jones, Laurence Colin, Sherri Schwaninger, Patrick Musonda, Brigitta Tadmor, Jonathan M Spector, Mark E Engel, Liesl J Zühlke
BACKGROUND: Prompt and appropriate treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis decreases the risk of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Understanding public perceptions and behaviors related to sore throat is fundamental to inform health programs aimed at eliminating new cases of RHD in endemic regions. We sought to describe the epidemiology of pediatric pharyngitis and its treatment, as reported by children and their parents or guardians in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional investigation using interviews and written surveys, nested in a school-based RHD prevalence study...
July 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674113/probiotics-and-child-care-absence-due-to-infections-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Ritz, Hanne Hauger, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard
OBJECTIVES: The risk of infections is higher in children attending child care compared with children cared for at home. This study examined the effect of a combination of probiotics on absence from child care because of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in healthy infants aged 8 to 14 months at the time of enrollment in child care. METHODS: The ProbiComp study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 290 infants were randomly allocated to receive a placebo or a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a dose of 10(9) colony-forming units of each daily for a 6-month intervention period...
July 3, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656169/chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-in-a-9-year-old-boy
#8
Abdolreza Malek, Mohammadhassan Aelami, Narges Afzali, Ali Parsa, Havva Jalalinia
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare aseptic, auto-inflammatory bone disorder. CRMO presents with bone pain with or without fever. The diagnosis of CRMO is a diagnosis of exclusion and should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bone lesions in children. Cultures of the bone are typically sterile, antibiotic therapy does not result in clinical improvement whereas anti-inflammatory drugs improve the condition. Furthermore, biopsy should be considered in chronic and relapsing bone pain and swelling unresponsive to treatment...
May 2017: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640809/development-of-elisas-for-diagnosis-of-acute-typhoid-fever-in-nigerian-children
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jiin Felgner, Aarti Jain, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Algis Jasinskas, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Joseph M Vinetz, Fabio Miyajima, Munir Pirmohamed, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Dominic Umoru, Binta Wudil Jibir, Safiya Gambo, Kudirat Olateju, Philip L Felgner, Stephen Obaro, D Huw Davies
Improved serodiagnostic tests for typhoid fever (TF) are needed for surveillance, to facilitate patient management, curb antibiotic resistance, and inform public health programs. To address this need, IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hemolysin E (t1477) protein were conducted on 86 Nigerian pediatric TF and 29 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cases, 178 culture-negative febrile cases, 28 "other" (i.e., non-Salmonella) pediatric infections, and 48 healthy Nigerian children...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632826/-pyogenic-liver-abscess-in-children-clinical-experience-in-a-pediatric-reference-center
#10
Carolina Carballo, Claudia Cazes, Mariana Matsuda, M Laura Praino, Noemí Rivas, Eduardo López
INTRODUCTION: Liver abscess is a serious and an uncommon pediatric disease. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Description of 20 pediatric patients with liver abscess admitted in "Ricardo Gutierrez" Children's Hospital, a Tertiary Reference Center of Buenos Aires, between 2009 and 2015. RESULTS: The hospitalization rate was 35/100.000 admissions. Median age was 5 years old, male/female ratio 4/1. Five patients (25%) had predisposing factors. Median days at diagnosis were 12...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#11
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617790/clinical-management-and-patient-persistence-with-antibiotic-course-in-suspected-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-for-primary-prevention-of-rheumatic-fever-the-perspective-from-a-new-zealand-emergency-department
#12
Jeremy J Mathan, Jozsef Ekart, Anthony Houlding, Gary Payinda, Clair Mills
AIM: Rates of acute rheumatic fever in the Northland region are historically among the highest in New Zealand, impacting disproportionately on Māori children and youth. The primary aim of this study was to determine patient persistence to antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in patients presenting with sore throat to the Whangarei Hospital Emergency Department. Secondarily, this study sought to determine prescriber adherence to the national antibiotic guideline for sore throat management...
June 16, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603204/a-6-year-old-girl-diagnosed-with-mevalonate-kinase-deficiency-who-had-hydrops-fetalis-and-neonatal-onset-cholestasis
#13
Yuriko Yamashita, Shinsuke Matsumoto, Ryugo Hiramoto, Isao Komori, Takayuki Tanaka, Ryuta Nishikomori, Toshio Heike, Shuichiro Umetsu, Ayano Inui
  We experienced a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) who had cholestasis, anemia, and elevated inflammatory markers in neonatal period. She was admitted to our hospital because of fever and elevated inflammatory markers at 5 years 11months of age. Without using antibiotics, the fever and the inflammatory markers were spontaneously resolved. MKD was suspected from elevated serum IgD level and the recurrent febrile attacks. The genetic test revealed heterozygous mutation of p...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601683/prenatal-intrapartum-and-postnatal-factors-are-associated-with-pediatric-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#14
Elizabeth T Jensen, Jonathan T Kuhl, Lisa J Martin, Marc E Rothenberg, Evan S Dellon
BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence point to the potential importance of early-life environmental factors in the rapid rise in incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but potential exposures have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal factors and the development of pediatric EoE using a case-control study. METHODS: Cases of EoE were recruited from an existing registry at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599007/clinical-features-of-children-with-nontyphoidal-salmonella-bacteremia-a-single-institution-survey-in-rural-japan
#15
Yoshihiro Aoki, Katsuhiko Kitazawa, Hironobu Kobayashi, Masayoshi Senda, Yukie Arahata, Riu Homma, Yudai Watanabe, Akihito Honda
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) can cause bacterial enterocolitis. Although some children with NTS infection develop bacteremia, its clinical manifestations have not been discussed adequately. Therefore, we examined children with NTS bacteremia. We retrospectively examined the medical records of 15 patients aged less than 15 years. Salmonella spp. were detected in the blood cultures of these patients between 1991 and 2014. We divided an additional sample group of 34 patients diagnosed with an NTS infection between 2005 and 2014, into 2 groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#16
C Schuster Bruce, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588003/pituitary-adenoma-apoplexy-in-an-adolescent-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Hero Zijlker, Sebastian Schagen, Jan Maarten Wit, Biermasz Nienke, Wouter van Furth, Wilma Oostdijk
We present a 13-year-old boy who became progressively sleepy and experienced a sudden headache with vomiting and fever. Laboratory testing showed hypoglycemia, multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies and elevated C-Reactive Protein (CRP). A cranial MRI showed an opaque sphenoid sinus and an intrasellar mass suspect for hemorrhage, so that we suspected a pituitary apoplexy (PA) originating from a non-functioning adenoma, although a pituitary abscess could not completely be excluded. The boy was treated with antibiotics, hydrocortisone and levothyroxine and a close follow-up to monitor the clinical course...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574735/fatal-course-of-saprochaete-capitata-fungemia-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#18
Zeynep Canan Özdemir, Ayşe Bozkurt Turhan, Yeter Düzenli Kar, Çağrı Ener Dinleyici, Özcan Bör
Saprochaete capitata (S. capitata) is a very rare fungal pathogen that causes disseminated opportunistic infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. Fever resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotic and antifungal treatment is common in the presence of fungemia during the period of profound neutropenia. We describe three cases of leukemic children who died from S. capitata fungemia following a first febrile neutropenic episode after the induction of chemotherapy. S. capitata fungemia is an emergent infection associated with high mortality and low susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins...
June 2, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554816/a-pre-operative-clinical-scoring-system-to-distinguish-perforation-risk-with-pediatric-appendicitis
#19
William Bonadio, Syeda Shahid, Lior Vardi, Carly Buckingham, Allison Kornblatt, Chloe Free, Peter Homel
IMPORTANCE: Appendicitis is a common, potentially serious pediatric disease. An important factor in determining management strategy [whether/when to perform appendectomy, duration of antibiotic therapy/hospitalization, etc.] and predicting outcome is distinguishing whether perforation is present. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine efficacy of commonly assessed pre-operative variables in stratifying perforation risk in children with appendicitis. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of consecutive cases was performed...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#20
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
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