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Circadian misalignment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630378/randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-efficacy-of-a-blue-enriched-light-intervention-to-improve-alertness-and-performance-in-night-shift-workers
#1
Tracey L Sletten, Suzanne Ftouni, Christian L Nicholas, Michelle Magee, Ronald R Grunstein, Sally Ferguson, David J Kennaway, Darren O'Brien, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
OBJECTIVES: Night workers often experience high levels of sleepiness due to misalignment of the sleep-wake cycle from the circadian pacemaker, in addition to acute and chronic sleep loss. Exposure to light, in particular short wavelength light, can improve alertness and neurobehavioural performance. This randomised controlled trial examined the efficacy of blue-enriched polychromatic light to improve alertness and neurobehavioural performance in night workers. DESIGN: Participants were 71 night shift workers (42 males; 32...
June 19, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548389/night-shift-work-is-associated-with-poorer-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Areesa Manodpitipong, Sunee Saetung, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Nantaporn Siwasaranond, Thanawat Wongphan, Chotima Sornsiriwong, Pranee Luckanajantachote, Prasitchai Mangjit, Prasit Keesukphan, Stephanie J Crowley, Megan M Hood, Sirimon Reutrakul
The circadian system plays a role in regulating metabolism. Night-shift work, a form of circadian misalignment, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. This study aimed to determine if night-shift workers with type 2 diabetes experience poorer glycaemic control than non-shift workers. Patients with type 2 diabetes (104 unemployed, 85 day workers and 60 night-shift workers) participated. Sleep duration, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, depressive symptoms and dietary intake were assessed using standardized questionnaires...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539147/sunlight-exposure-work-hours-caffeine-consumption-and-sleep-duration-in-the-naval-environment
#3
Nita L Shattuck, Panagiotis Matsangas
BACKGROUND: Sailors in the U.S. Navy are habitual shiftworkers, often experiencing circadian misalignment due to their irregular work/rest schedules. This study assessed the effect of sunlight exposure, work hours, and caffeinated beverage consumption on the daily sleep duration of crewmembers of a U.S. Navy ship during a 2-wk underway period. METHODS: Working in an artificially lit area with no access to sunlight during work hours, U.S. Navy crew members (N = 91) used daily logs to report their daily activity, caffeinated beverage consumption, and exposure to sunlight while off-duty; sleep was assessed by wrist-worn actigraphy...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487255/disruption-of-adolescents-circadian-clock-the-vicious-circle-of-media-use-exposure-to-light-at-night-sleep-loss-and-risk-behaviors
#4
Yvan Touitou, David Touitou, Alain Reinberg
Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470121/shift-work-and-cognitive-flexibility-decomposing-task-performance
#5
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Thomas John Bender, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Christopher L Drake
Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469414/the-synergistic-role-of-light-feeding-phase-relations-on-entraining-robust-circadian-rhythms-in-the-periphery
#6
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
The feeding and fasting cycles are strong behavioral signals that entrain biological rhythms of the periphery. The feeding rhythms synchronize the activities of the metabolic organs, such as liver, synergistically with the light/dark cycle primarily entraining the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The likely phase misalignment between the feeding rhythms and the light/dark cycles appears to induce circadian disruptions leading to multiple physiological abnormalities motivating the need to investigate the mechanisms behind joint light-feeding circadian entrainment of peripheral tissues...
2017: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460138/the-relative-impact-of-sleep-and-circadian-drive-on-motor-skill-acquisition-and-memory-consolidation
#7
Matthew A Tucker, Christopher J Morris, Alexandra Morgan, Jessica Yang, Samantha Myers, Joanna Garcia Pierce, Robert Stickgold, Frank A J L Scheer
Study Objectives: Sleep during the biological night facilitates memory consolidation. Here we determined the impact of sleep and wake on motor skill learning (acquisition) and subsequent off-line skill improvement (memory consolidation), independent of circadian phase, and compared this to the impact of the endogenous circadian system, independent of whether sleep occurred during the biological night or day. Methods: Participants completed two 8-day sleep laboratory visits, adhering on one visit to a circadian aligned ("normal") sleep schedule for the full duration of the protocol, and on the other to a circadian misaligned (12-hour inverted) schedule, with alignment during the first 3 days, a 12-hour 'slam shift' on Day 4, followed by circadian misalignment during the last 4 days of the protocol...
April 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443630/accelerating-recovery-from-jet-lag-prediction-from-a-multi-oscillator-model-and-its-experimental-confirmation-in-model-animals
#8
Hiroshi Kori, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Okamura
The endogenous circadian clock drives oscillations that are completely synchronized with the environmental day-night rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours. Temporal misalignment between one's internal circadian clock and the external solar time often occurs in shift workers and long-distance travelers; such misalignments are accompanied by sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal distress. Repeated exposure to jet lag and rotating shift work increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular complaints and metabolic insufficiencies...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433459/depressive-disorders-processes-leading-to-neurogeneration-and-potential-novel-treatments
#9
REVIEW
Gregory M Brown, Roger S McIntyre, Joshua Rosenblat, Rüdiger Hardeland
Mood disorders are wide spread with estimates that one in seven of the population are affected at some time in their life (Kessler et al., 2012). Many of those affected with severe depressive disorders have cognitive deficits which may progress to frank neurodegeneration. There are several peripheral markers shown by patients who have cognitive deficits that could represent causative factors and could potentially serve as guides to the prevention or even treatment of neurodegeneration. Circadian rhythm misalignment, immune dysfunction and oxidative stress and circadian rhythm misalignment are key pathologic processes implicated in neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction in depressive disorders...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412321/egcg-ameliorates-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-associating-with-the-circadian-clock
#10
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Rong Fan, Xiaohua Ji, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
In response to the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, organisms on Earth have evolved with the approximately 24-h endogenous oscillations to coordinate behavioral and physiological processes, including feeding, sleep, and metabolism homeostasis. Circadian desynchrony triggered by an energy-dense diet rich in fats and fructose is intimately connected with a series of metabolic disorders. Previous studies revealed that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could mitigate metabolic misalignment; however, only a few reports have focused on its potential effect on directly manipulating circadian rhythms to ameliorate metabolic syndrome...
April 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388406/mutation-of-the-human-circadian-clock-gene-cry1-in-familial-delayed-sleep-phase-disorder
#11
Alina Patke, Patricia J Murphy, Onur Emre Onat, Ana C Krieger, Tayfun Özçelik, Scott S Campbell, Michael W Young
Patterns of daily human activity are controlled by an intrinsic circadian clock that promotes ∼24 hr rhythms in many behavioral and physiological processes. This system is altered in delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), a common form of insomnia in which sleep episodes are shifted to later times misaligned with the societal norm. Here, we report a hereditary form of DSPD associated with a dominant coding variation in the core circadian clock gene CRY1, which creates a transcriptional inhibitor with enhanced affinity for circadian activator proteins Clock and Bmal1...
April 6, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382017/disrupted-ultradian-activity-rhythms-and-differential-expression-of-several-clock-genes-in-interleukin-6-deficient-mice
#12
Francisco J Monje, Ana Cicvaric, Juan Pablo Acevedo Aguilar, Immanuel Elbau, Orsolya Horvath, Weifei Diao, Micaela Glat, Daniela D Pollak
The characteristics of the cycles of activity and rest stand out among the most intensively investigated aspects of circadian rhythmicity in humans and experimental animals. Alterations in the circadian patterns of activity and rest are strongly linked to cognitive and emotional dysfunctions in severe mental illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depression (MDD). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been prominently associated with the pathogenesis of AD and MDD. However, the potential involvement of IL-6 in the modulation of the diurnal rhythms of activity and rest has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364473/prevalence-of-circadian-misalignment-and-its-association-with-depressive-symptoms-in-delayed-sleep-phase-disorder
#13
Jade M Murray, Tracey L Sletten, Michelle Magee, Christopher Gordon, Nicole Lovato, Delwyn J Bartlett, David J Kennaway, Leon C Lack, Ronald R Grunstein, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
Study Objective: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and to compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two DSPD patients aged 16-64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO)...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360884/clock-enhancing-small-molecules-and-potential-applications-in-chronic-diseases-and-aging
#14
REVIEW
Gabrielle F Gloston, Seung-Hee Yoo, Zheng Jake Chen
Normal physiological functions require a robust biological timer called the circadian clock. When clocks are dysregulated, misaligned, or dampened, pathological consequences ensue, leading to chronic diseases and accelerated aging. An emerging research area is the development of clock-targeting compounds that may serve as drug candidates to correct dysregulated rhythms and hence mitigate disease symptoms and age-related decline. In this review, we first present a concise view of the circadian oscillator, physiological networks, and regulatory mechanisms of circadian amplitude...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357513/not-later-but-longer-sleep-chronotype-and-light-exposure-in-adolescents-with-remitted-depression-compared-to-healthy-controls
#15
Lena Katharina Keller, Barbara Grünewald, Céline Vetter, Till Roenneberg, Gerd Schulte-Körne
The relationship between sleep and adolescent depression is much discussed, but still not fully understood. One important sleep variable is self-selected sleep timing, which is also referred to as chronotype. Chronotype is mostly regulated by the circadian clock that synchronises the internal time of the body with the external light dark cycle. A late chronotype as well as a misalignment between internal time and external time such as social jetlag has been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms in adults...
March 29, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347188/circadian-misalignment-increases-c-reactive-protein-and-blood-pressure-in-chronic-shift-workers
#16
Christopher J Morris, Taylor E Purvis, Joseph Mistretta, Kun Hu, Frank A J L Scheer
Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211649/insufficient-sleep-in-adolescents-causes-and-consequences
#17
Judith A Owens, Miriam R Weiss
Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164449/role-of-sleep-and-circadian-disruption-on-energy-expenditure-and-in-metabolic-predisposition-to-human-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#18
REVIEW
A W McHill, K P Wright
Weight gain, obesity and diabetes have reached alarming levels in the developed world. Traditional risk factors such as over-eating, poor nutritional choices and lack of exercise cannot fully account for the high prevalence of metabolic disease. This review paper examines the scientific evidence on two novel risk factors that contribute to dys-regulated metabolic physiology: sleep disruption and circadian misalignment. Specifically, fundamental relationships between energy metabolism and sleep and circadian rhythms and the impact of sleep and circadian disruption on metabolic physiology are examined...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128995/later-chronotype-is-associated-with-higher-hemoglobin-a1c-in-prediabetes-patients
#19
Thunyarat Anothaisintawee, Dumrongrat Lertrattananon, Sangsulee Thamakaison, Kristen L Knutson, Ammarin Thakkinstian, Sirimon Reutrakul
The circadian system is known to play a role in glucose metabolism. Chronotype reflects the interindividual variability in the phase of entrainment. Those with later chronotype typically prefer later times in the day for different activities such as sleep or meals. Later chronotype has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome, increased diabetes risk and poorer glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. In addition, "social jetlag", a form of circadian misalignment due to a mismatch between social rhythms and the circadian clock, has been shown to be associated with insulin resistance...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115724/how-jet-lag-impairs-major-league-baseball-performance
#20
Alex Song, Thomas Severini, Ravi Allada
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that circadian clocks align physiology and behavior to 24-h environmental cycles. Examination of athletic performance has been used to discern the functions of these clocks in humans outside of controlled settings. Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball. Accounting for potential differences in home and away performance, travel direction, and team confounding variables, we observed that jet-lag effects were largely evident after eastward travel with very limited effects after westward travel, consistent with the >24-h period length of the human circadian clock...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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