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Circadian misalignment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829142/sensory-conflict-disrupts-activity-of-the-drosophila-circadian-network
#1
Ross E F Harper, Peter Dayan, Joerg T Albert, Ralf Stanewsky
Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819313/circadian-rhythms-of-european-and-african-americans-after-a-large-delay-of-sleep-as-in-jet-lag-and-night-work
#2
Charmane I Eastman, Victoria A Tomaka, Stephanie J Crowley
Jet travel and night shift work produce large changes in when people sleep, work and eat; a challenge that was not encountered during most of our evolution. Successful adaptation would require the internal, master, circadian clock to make large phase shifts to reduce the circadian misalignment between circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work and meals. We compared African-Americans and non-Hispanic European-Americans in how much their circadian clocks shifted after a 9 hour phase delay of the light/dark, sleep/wake and meal schedule, which has similarities to flying west or sleeping in the daytime after night shifts...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763782/circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-disruption-causes-metabolic-consequences-and-countermeasures
#3
Gregory D M Potter, Debra J Skene, Josephine Arendt, Janet E Cade, Peter J Grant, Laura J Hardie
Circadian (∼24-hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life and temporally optimize behavior and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behavior and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these, too, are increasingly subject to disruption...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749086/the-functional-and-clinical-significance-of-the-24-h-rhythm-of-circulating-glucocorticoids
#4
Henrik Oster, Etienne Challet, Volker Ott, Emanuela Arvat, E Ronald de Kloet, Derk-Jan Dijk, Stafford Lightman, Alexandros Vgontzas, Eve Van Cauter
Adrenal glucocorticoids are major modulators of multiple functions, including energy metabolism, stress responses, immunity, and cognition. The endogenous secretion of glucocorticoids is normally characterized by a prominent and robust circadian (around 24 hours) oscillation, with a daily peak around the time of the habitual sleep-wake transition and minimal levels in the evening and early part of the night. It has been long recognized that this 24-h rhythm partly reflects the activity of a master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692050/prevalence-of-circadian-misalignment-and-its-association-with-depressive-symptoms-in-delayed-sleep-phase-disorder
#5
Jade M Murray, Tracey L Sletten, Michelle Magee, Christopher Gordon, Nicole Lovato, Delwyn J Bartlett, David J Kennaway, Leon C Lack, Ronald R Grunstein, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed DSPD, and compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. METHODS: 182 DSPD patients aged 16 to 64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Based on the DLMO assessments, patients were classified into two groups: circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring at or after desired bedtime, or non-circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring before desired bedtime...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607152/the-development-of-lighting-countermeasures-for-sleep-disruption-and-circadian-misalignment-during-spaceflight
#6
George C Brainard, Laura K Barger, Robert R Soler, John P Hanifin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review addresses the development of a new solid-state lighting system for the International Space Station (ISS) that is intended to enhance the illumination of the working and living environment of astronauts and to improve sleep, circadian entrainment, and daytime alertness. RECENT FINDINGS: Spaceflight missions often expose astronauts and mission support ground crews to atypical sleep-wake cycles and work schedules. A recent, extensive study describes the sleep characteristics and use of sleep-promoting pharmaceuticals in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589389/perturbation-of-the-molecular-clockwork-in-the-scn-of-non-obese-diabetic-mice-prior-to-diabetes-onset
#7
Marc Ingenwerth, Anna Lena Reinbeck, Anna Stahr, Hans-Joachim Partke, Michael Roden, Volker Burkart, Charlotte von Gall
Circadian disruption is associated with the development of diabetes. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice show abnormal diurnal profiles in energy balance and locomotor activity suggesting circadian misalignment. Therefore, we analyzed cFos and mPER1 as markers for rhythmic neuronal activity within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of wildtype (WT) and non-diabetic (nNOD) as well as acutely diabetic NOD (dNOD) mice. cFos levels show a day/night difference in both WT and nNOD but not in dNOD. mPER1 levels did not show a day/night difference in both nNOD and dNOD...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584008/disturbances-of-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-novel-risk-factors-for-obesity
#8
Josiane L Broussard, Eve Van Cauter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent developments linking disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms to an increased risk for obesity, and to review novel research on potential countermeasures. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective treatments for obesity are limited, with long-term adherence to lifestyle changes proving difficult to maintain. Identifying new preventive strategies based on modifiable risk factors is therefore imperative in the fight against obesity...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572002/association-between-morningness-and-resilience-in-korean-college-students
#9
So-Jin Lee, Chul-Soo Park, Bong-Jo Kim, Cheol-Soon Lee, Boseok Cha, Yu Jin Lee, Minah Soh, Jin Ah Park, Park So Young, Eun Hye Song
Circadian typology and sleep quality may be essential factors associated with the promotion of resilience. However, previous studies investigating the association between circadian typology and resilience did not analyze the effects of sleep quality on resilience. Thus, the present study evaluated the association between circadian typology and resilience in Korean college students after controlling for sleep quality. Additionally, this study investigated several sleep-related variables, including sleep duration, social jetlag and sunlight exposure during the daytime, to examine the modifiable behavioral features of morningness and also investigated whether the findings regarding morningness-related modifiable habits were associated with resilience...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568341/the-shift-work-and-health-research-agenda-considering-changes-in-gut-microbiota-as-a-pathway-linking-shift-work-sleep-loss-and-circadian-misalignment-and-metabolic-disease
#10
Amy C Reynolds, Jessica L Paterson, Sally A Ferguson, Dragana Stanley, Kenneth P Wright, Drew Dawson
Prevalence and impact of metabolic disease is rising. In particular, overweight and obesity are at epidemic levels and are a leading health concern in the Western world. Shift work increases the risk of overweight and obesity, along with a number of additional metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). How shift work contributes to metabolic disease has not been fully elucidated. Short sleep duration is associated with metabolic disease and shift workers typically have shorter sleep durations...
July 11, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558731/costs-of-clock-environment-misalignment-in-individual-cyanobacterial-cells
#11
Guillaume Lambert, Justin Chew, Michael J Rust
Circadian rhythms are endogenously generated daily oscillations in physiology that are found in all kingdoms of life. Experimental studies have shown that the fitness of Synechococcus elongatus, a photosynthetic microorganism, is severely affected in non-24-h environments. However, it has been difficult to study the effects of clock-environment mismatch on cellular physiology because such measurements require a precise determination of both clock state and growth rate in the same cell. Here, we designed a microscopy platform that allows us to expose cyanobacterial cells to pulses of light and dark while quantitatively measuring their growth, division rate, and circadian clock state over many days...
August 23, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543154/advanced-circadian-phase-in-mania-and-delayed-circadian-phase-in-mixed-mania-and-depression-returned-to-normal-after-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder
#12
Joung-Ho Moon, Chul-Hyun Cho, Gi Hoon Son, Dongho Geum, Sooyoung Chung, Hyun Kim, Seung-Gul Kang, Young-Min Park, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Leen Kim, Hee-Jung Jee, Hyonggin An, Daniel F Kripke, Heon-Jeong Lee
Disturbances in circadian rhythms have been suggested as a possible cause of bipolar disorder (BD). Included in this study were 31 mood episodes of 26 BD patients, and 18 controls. Circadian rhythms of BD were evaluated at admission, at 2-week intervals during hospitalization, and at discharge. All participants wore wrist actigraphs during the studies. Saliva and buccal cells were obtained at 8:00, 11:00, 15:00, 19:00, and 23:00 for two consecutive days. Collected saliva and buccal cells were used for analysis of the cortisol and gene circadian rhythm, respectively...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542884/diagnosis-cause-and-treatment-approaches-for-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Michelle Magee, Emily M Marbas, Kenneth P Wright, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Josiane L Broussard
Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) is commonly defined as an inability to fall asleep and wake at societal times resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness. Although the cause is multifaceted, delays in sleep time are largely driven by misalignment between the circadian pacemaker and the desired sleep-wake timing schedule. Current treatment approaches focus on correcting the circadian delay; however, there is a lack of data investigating combined therapies for treatment of DSWPD.
September 2016: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530460/impact-of-sleep-behavior-on-glycemic-control-in-type-1-diabetes-the-role-of-social-jetlag
#14
Sandra Larcher, Anne-Sophie Gauchez, Sandrine Lablanche, Jean-Louis Pépin, Pierre-Yves Benhamou, Anne-Laure Borel
BACKGROUND: Sleep behavior is changing toward shorter sleep duration and a later chronotype. It results in a sleep debt that is acquitted on work-free days, inducing a small but recurrent sleep misalignment each week, referred to as "social jetlag". These sleep habits could affect health through misalignment with circadian rhythms. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to address the impact of sleep behavior on glycemic control, assessed by HbA1c, in patients with type 1 diabetes, independently of other lifestyle or sleep-related factors...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516598/local-modulation-of-human-brain-responses-by-circadian-rhythmicity-and-sleep-debt
#15
Vincenzo Muto, Mathieu Jaspar, Christelle Meyer, Caroline Kussé, Sarah L Chellappa, Christian Degueldre, Evelyne Balteau, Anahita Shaffii-Le Bourdiec, André Luxen, Benita Middleton, Simon N Archer, Christophe Phillips, Fabienne Collette, Gilles Vandewalle, Derk-Jan Dijk, Pierre Maquet
Human performance is modulated by circadian rhythmicity and homeostatic sleep pressure. Whether and how this interaction is represented at the regional brain level has not been established. We quantified changes in brain responses to a sustained-attention task during 13 functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions scheduled across the circadian cycle, during 42 hours of wakefulness and after recovery sleep, in 33 healthy participants. Cortical responses showed significant circadian rhythmicity, the phase of which varied across brain regions...
August 12, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500861/comparative-review-of-approved-melatonin-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Wilbur P Trey Williams, Dewey E McLin, Marlene A Dressman, David N Neubauer
Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) are characterized by persistent or recurrent patterns of sleep disturbance related primarily to alterations of the circadian rhythm system or the misalignment between the endogenous circadian rhythm and exogenous factors that affect the timing or duration of sleep. These disorders collectively represent a significant unmet medical need, with a total prevalence in the millions, a substantial negative impact on quality of life, and a lack of studied treatments for most of these disorders...
September 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465735/peripheral-circadian-misalignment-contributor-to-systemic-insulin-resistance-and-potential-intervention-to-improve-bariatric-surgical-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Kyle N Kunze, Erin C Hanlon, Vivek N Prachand, Matthew J Brady
Thirteen percent of the world's population suffers from obesity and 39% from being overweight, which correlates with an increase in numerous secondary metabolic complications, such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity and results in significant weight loss and the amelioration of obesity-related comorbidities through changes in enteroendocrine activity, caloric intake, and alterations in gut microbiota composition. The circadian system has recently been found to be a critical regulatory component in the control of metabolism and, thus, may potentially play an important role in inappropriate weight gain...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432116/sleep-propensity-under-forced-desynchrony-in-a-model-of-arousal-state-dynamics
#18
Svetlana Postnova, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson
An improvement to our current quantitative model of arousal state dynamics is presented that more accurately predicts sleep propensity as measured with sleep dynamics depending on circadian phase and prior wakefulness. A nonlinear relationship between the circadian variables within the dynamic circadian oscillator model is introduced to account for the skewed shape of the circadian rhythm of alertness that peaks just prior to the onset of the biological night (the "wake maintenance zone") and has a minimum toward the end of the biological night...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384816/the-effect-of-cataract-surgery-on-salivary-melatonin-and-sleep-quality-in-aging-people
#19
Yan Shenshen, Wang Minshu, Yuan Qing, Liu Yang, Zhai Suodi, Wang Wei
Blue light plays an important role in circadian photoentrainment by stimulating the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Age-related cataract causes progressive loss of blue light transmission, which may lead to changes in circadian rhythm and sleep quality. In theory, increased light transmission by cataract surgery may improve circadian misalignment and sleep quality, while the effect of cataract surgery on circadian rhythm is not well understood. In this study, we assessed 30 binocular age-related nuclear cataract patients (aged 72...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340272/circadian-influence-on-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Cameron S McAlpine, Filip K Swirski
Many aspects of human health and disease display daily rhythmicity. The brain's suprachiasmic nucleus, which interprets recurring external stimuli, and autonomous molecular networks in peripheral cells together, set our biological circadian clock. Disrupted or misaligned circadian rhythms promote multiple pathologies including chronic inflammatory and metabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis. Here, we discuss studies suggesting that circadian fluctuations in the vessel wall and in the circulation contribute to atherogenesis...
June 24, 2016: Circulation Research
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