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Circadian misalignment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671707/prediction-of-cognitive-performance-and-subjective-sleepiness-using-a-model-of-arousal-dynamics
#1
Svetlana Postnova, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson
A model of arousal dynamics is applied to predict objective performance and subjective sleepiness measures, including lapses and reaction time on a visual Performance Vigilance Test (vPVT), performance on a mathematical addition task (ADD), and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The arousal dynamics model is comprised of a physiologically based flip-flop switch between the wake- and sleep-active neuronal populations and a dynamic circadian oscillator, thus allowing prediction of sleep propensity. Published group-level experimental constant routine (CR) and forced desynchrony (FD) data are used to calibrate the model to predict performance and sleepiness...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642757/associations-between-chronotype-morbidity-and-mortality-in-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#2
Kristen L Knutson, Malcolm von Schantz
Later chronotype (i.e. evening preference) and later timing of sleep have been associated with greater morbidity, including higher rates of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no one has examined whether chronotype is associated with mortality risk to date. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that being an evening type is associated with increased mortality in a large cohort study, the UK Biobank. Our analysis included 433 268 adults aged 38-73 at the time of enrolment and an average 6...
April 11, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614896/modeling-strengthens-molecular-link-between-circadian-polymorphisms-and-major-mood-disorders
#3
Amanda R Liberman, Lumbardh Halitjaha, Ahmet Ay, Krista K Ingram
Anxiety and other mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD), affect nearly one-fifth of the global population and disproportionately affect young adults. Individuals affected by mood disorders are frequently plagued by sleep and circadian problems, and recent genetic studies provide ample support for the association of circadian and sleep syndromes with depression and anxiety. Mathematical modeling has been crucial in understanding some of the essential features of the mammalian circadian clock and is now a vital tool for dissecting how circadian genes regulate the molecular mechanisms that influence mood...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599506/3-4-million-real-world-learning-management-system-logins-reveal-the-majority-of-students-experience-social-jet-lag-correlated-with-decreased-performance
#4
Benjamin L Smarr, Aaron E Schirmer
Misalignments between endogenous circadian rhythms and the built environment (i.e., social jet lag, SJL) result in learning and attention deficits. Currently, there is no way to assess the impact of SJL on learning outcomes of large populations as a response to schedule choices, let alone to assess which individuals are most negatively impacted by these choices. We analyzed two years of learning management system login events for 14,894 Northeastern Illinois University (NEIU) students to investigate the capacity of such systems as tools for mapping the impact of SJL over large populations while maintaining the ability to generate insights about individuals...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549968/cognitive-flexibility-a-distinct-element-of-performance-impairment-due-to-sleep-deprivation
#5
K A Honn, J M Hinson, P Whitney, H P A Van Dongen
In around-the-clock operations, reduced alertness due to circadian misalignment and sleep loss causes performance impairment, which can lead to catastrophic errors and accidents. There is mounting evidence that performance on different tasks is differentially affected, but the general principles underlying this differentiation are not well understood. One factor that may be particularly relevant is the degree to which tasks require executive control, that is, control over the initiation, monitoring, and termination of actions in order to achieve goals...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540423/does-modifying-the-timing-of-meal-intake-improve-cardiovascular-risk-factors-protocol-of-an-australian-pilot-intervention-in-night-shift-workers-with-abdominal-obesity
#6
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520862/circadian-clock-components-control-daily-growth-activities-by-modulating-cytokinin-levels-and-cell-division-associated-gene-expression-in-populus-trees
#7
Kieron D Edwards, Naoki Takata, Mikael Johansson, Manuela Jurca, Ondřej Novák, Eva Hényková, Silvia Liverani, Iwanka Kozarewa, Miroslav Strnad, Andrew J Millar, Karin Ljung, Maria E Eriksson
Trees are carbon dioxide sinks and major producers of terrestrial biomass with distinct seasonal growth patterns. Circadian clocks enable the co-ordination of physiological and biochemical temporal activities, optimally regulating multiple traits including growth. To dissect the clock's role in growth, we analysed Populus tremula × P. tremuloides trees with impaired clock function due to down-regulation of central clock components. late elongated hypocotyl (lhy-10) trees, in which expression of LHY1 and LHY2 is reduced by RNAi, have a short free-running period and show disrupted temporal regulation of gene expression and reduced growth, producing 30-40% less biomass than wild-type trees...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510794/daytime-sleep-disturbance-in-night-shift-work-and-the-role-of-period3
#8
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Helen J Burgess, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Thomas Roth, Christopher L Drake
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence indicates that daytime sleep disturbance associated with night shift work may arise from both circadian misalignment and sleep reactivity to stress. This presents an important clinical challenge because there are limited means of predicting and distinguishing between the two mechanisms, and the respective treatments differ categorically; however, there is support that a polymorphism in the PERIOD3 gene ( PER3 ) may indicate differences in vulnerability to daytime sleep disturbance in shift workers...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445188/daily-circadian-misalignment-impairs-human-cognitive-performance-task-dependently
#9
Sarah L Chellappa, Christopher J Morris, Frank A J L Scheer
Shift work increases the risk for human errors, such that drowsiness due to shift work has contributed to major industrial disasters, including Space Shuttle Challenger, Chernobyl and Alaska Oil Spill disasters, with extraordinary socio-economical costs. Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology inhibits cognitive performance at night. Yet how the circadian system modulates cognition over multiple days under realistic shift work conditions remains to be established. Importantly, because task-specific cognitive brain regions show different 24-h circadian dynamics, we hypothesize that circadian misalignment impacts cognition task-dependently...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444258/modeling-the-influence-of-seasonal-differences-in-the-hpa-axis-on-synchronization-of-the-circadian-clock-and-cell-cycle
#10
Kamau Pierre, Rohit T Rao, Clara Hartmanshenn, Ioannis P Androulakis
Synchronization of biological functions to environmental signals enables organisms to anticipate and appropriately respond to daily external fluctuations and is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis. Misalignment of circadian rhythms with environmental cues is associated with adverse health outcomes. Cortisol, the downstream effector of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, facilitates synchronization of peripheral biological processes to the environment. Cortisol levels exhibit substantial seasonal rhythmicity, with peak levels occurring during the short-photoperiod winter months and reduced levels occurring in the long-photoperiod summer season...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437238/a-unified-model-of-melatonin-6-sulfatoxymelatonin-and-sleep-dynamics
#11
Romesh G Abeysuriya, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson, Svetlana Postnova
A biophysical model of the key aspects of melatonin synthesis and excretion has been developed, which is able to predict experimental dynamics of melatonin in plasma and saliva, and of its urinary metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). This new model is coupled to an established model of arousal dynamics, which predicts sleep and circadian dynamics based on light exposure and times of wakefulness. The combined model thus predicts melatonin levels over the sleep-wake/dark-light cycle and enables prediction of melatonin-based circadian phase markers, such as dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) and aMT6s acrophase under conditions of normal sleep and circadian misalignment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373120/impact-of-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-on-addiction-vulnerability-in-adolescents
#12
REVIEW
Ryan W Logan, Brant P Hasler, Erika E Forbes, Peter L Franzen, Mary M Torregrossa, Yanhua H Huang, Daniel J Buysse, Duncan B Clark, Colleen A McClung
Sleep homeostasis and circadian function are important maintaining factors for optimal health and well-being. Conversely, sleep and circadian disruptions are implicated in a variety of adverse health outcomes, including substance use disorders. These risks are particularly salient during adolescence. Adolescents require 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night, although few consistently achieve these durations. A mismatch between developmental changes and social/environmental demands contributes to inadequate sleep...
December 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362450/gut-microbiota-derived-short-chain-fatty-acids-induce-circadian-clock-entrainment-in-mouse-peripheral-tissue
#13
Yu Tahara, Mayu Yamazaki, Haruna Sukigara, Hiroaki Motohashi, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsushi Haraguchi, Yuko Ikeda, Shinji Fukuda, Shigenobu Shibata
Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and organic acids produced by the fermentation of non-digestible fibre can communicate from the microbiome to host tissues and modulate homeostasis in mammals. The microbiome has circadian rhythmicity and helps the host circadian clock function. We investigated the effect of SCFA or fibre-containing diets on circadian clock phase adjustment in mouse peripheral tissues (liver, kidney, and submandibular gland). Initially, caecal SCFA concentrations, particularly acetate and butyrate, induced significant day-night differences at high concentrations during the active period, which were correlated with lower caecal pH...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318587/new-perspectives-on-the-role-of-melatonin-in-human-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-their-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Nava Zisapel
In mammals, a central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, tunes the innate circadian physiological rhythms to the ambient 24 h light-dark cycle to invigorate and optimize the internal temporal order. The SCN-activated, light-inhibited production of melatonin conveys the message of darkness to the clock and induces night-state physiological functions, for example, sleep/wake blood pressure and metabolism. Clinically meaningful effects of melatonin treatment have been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials in humans, particularly in disorders associated with diminished or misaligned melatonin rhythms, for example, circadian rhythm-related sleep disorders, jet lag and shift work, insomnia in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, poor (non-restorative) sleep quality, non-dipping nocturnal blood pressure (nocturnal hypertension) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277444/entrainment-of-the-mouse-circadian-clock-effects-of-stress-exercise-and-nutrition
#15
REVIEW
Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system in mammals plays a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Entrainment is an important characteristic of the internal clock, by which appropriate timing is maintained according to external daily stimuli, such as light, stress, exercise, and/or food. Disorganized entrainment or a misaligned clock time, such as jet lag, increases health disturbances. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, located in the hypothalamus, receives information about arousal stimuli, such as physical stress or exercise, and changes the clock time by modifying neural activity or the expression of circadian clock genes...
December 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261550/misaligned-feeding-may-aggravate-pain-by-disruption-of-sleep-awake-rhythm
#16
Fangxia Xu, Xin Zhao, Huan Liu, Xueming Shao, Shuaishuai Chu, Xiangdan Gong, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that patients with eating disorders are more likely to develop chronic pain. A misaligned diet has been reported to disrupt the sleep-awake rhythms. Combined with our previous investigation on circadian pain, we aimed to investigate the role of misaligned diet in the pain sensitivity and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Two-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were administered chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery to establish neuropathic pain models...
December 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248294/phenotyping-of-per3-variants-reveals-widespread-effects-on-circadian-preference-sleep-regulation-and-health
#17
REVIEW
Simon N Archer, Christina Schmidt, Gilles Vandewalle, Derk-Jan Dijk
Period3 (Per3) is one of the most robustly rhythmic genes in humans and animals. It plays a significant role in temporal organisation in peripheral tissues. The effects of PER3 variants on many phenotypes have been investigated in targeted and genome-wide studies. PER3 variants, especially the human variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), associate with diurnal preference, mental disorders, non-visual responses to light, brain and cognitive responses to sleep loss/circadian misalignment. Introducing the VNTR into mice alters responses to sleep loss and expression of sleep homeostasis-related genes...
November 6, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215023/a-pilot-characterization-of-the-human-chronobiome
#18
Carsten Skarke, Nicholas F Lahens, Seth D Rhoades, Amy Campbell, Kyle Bittinger, Aubrey Bailey, Christian Hoffmann, Randal S Olson, Lihong Chen, Guangrui Yang, Thomas S Price, Jason H Moore, Frederic D Bushman, Casey S Greene, Gregory R Grant, Aalim M Weljie, Garret A FitzGerald
Physiological function, disease expression and drug effects vary by time-of-day. Clock disruption in mice results in cardio-metabolic, immunological and neurological dysfunction; circadian misalignment using forced desynchrony increases cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Here we integrated data from remote sensors, physiological and multi-omics analyses to assess the feasibility of detecting time dependent signals - the chronobiome - despite the "noise" attributable to the behavioral differences of free-living human volunteers...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195759/circadian-regulation-of-glucose-lipid-and-energy-metabolism-in-humans
#19
Eleonora Poggiogalle, Humaira Jamshed, Courtney M Peterson
The circadian system orchestrates metabolism in daily 24-hour cycles. Such rhythms organize metabolism by temporally separating opposing metabolic processes and by anticipating recurring feeding-fasting cycles to increase metabolic efficiency. Although animal studies demonstrate that the circadian system plays a pervasive role in regulating metabolism, it is unclear how, and to what degree, circadian research in rodents translates into humans. Here, we review evidence that the circadian system regulates glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism in humans...
January 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176713/rapid-resetting-of-human-peripheral-clocks-by-phototherapy-during-simulated-night-shift-work
#20
Marc Cuesta, Philippe Boudreau, Nicolas Cermakian, Diane B Boivin
A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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