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Circadian misalignment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215023/a-pilot-characterization-of-the-human-chronobiome
#1
Carsten Skarke, Nicholas F Lahens, Seth D Rhoades, Amy Campbell, Kyle Bittinger, Aubrey Bailey, Christian Hoffmann, Randal S Olson, Lihong Chen, Guangrui Yang, Thomas S Price, Jason H Moore, Frederic D Bushman, Casey S Greene, Gregory R Grant, Aalim M Weljie, Garret A FitzGerald
Physiological function, disease expression and drug effects vary by time-of-day. Clock disruption in mice results in cardio-metabolic, immunological and neurological dysfunction; circadian misalignment using forced desynchrony increases cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Here we integrated data from remote sensors, physiological and multi-omics analyses to assess the feasibility of detecting time dependent signals - the chronobiome - despite the "noise" attributable to the behavioral differences of free-living human volunteers...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195759/circadian-regulation-of-glucose-lipid-and-energy-metabolism-in-humans
#2
Eleonora Poggiogalle, Humaira Jamshed, Courtney M Peterson
The circadian system orchestrates metabolism in daily 24-hour cycles. Such rhythms organize metabolism by temporally separating opposing metabolic processes and by anticipating recurring feeding-fasting cycles to increase metabolic efficiency. Although animal studies demonstrate that the circadian system plays a pervasive role in regulating metabolism, it is unclear how, and to what degree, circadian research in rodents translates into humans. Here, we review evidence that the circadian system regulates glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism in humans...
November 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176713/rapid-resetting-of-human-peripheral-clocks-by-phototherapy-during-simulated-night-shift-work
#3
Marc Cuesta, Philippe Boudreau, Nicolas Cermakian, Diane B Boivin
A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129126/chronic-circadian-misalignment-without-circadian-arrhythmicity-or-sleep-deprivation-does-not-impair-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#4
Phan Q Duy, Samer Hattar
Artificial light in modern society has led to the ubiquity of light exposure at night as individuals work night shifts and use light-emitting electronic devices before bedtime. These aberrant light conditions have detrimental consequences on cognitive and mental health, compelling the need to understand the mechanisms by which light affects brain functions. Although it was believed that aberrant light impairs health by first disrupting circadian rhythms and sleep, we showed that chronic exposure to a light cycle termed T7 (3...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126328/repeated-administration-effects-on-psychomotor-vigilance-test-pvt-performance
#5
Mathias Basner, Emanuel Hermosillo, Jad Nasrini, Sarah McGuire, Salil Saxena, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, David F Dinges
Study Objectives: The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is reported to be free of practice effects that can otherwise confound the effects of sleep loss and circadian misalignment on performance. This differentiates the PVT from more complex cognitive tests. To our knowledge, no study has systematically investigated practice effects on the PVT across multiple outcome domains, depending on administration interval, and in ecologically more valid settings. Methods: We administered a validated 3-minute PVT (PVT-B) 16 times in 45 subjects (23 male, mean±SD age 32...
November 8, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#6
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073187/sleep-and-cognitive-performance-of-african-americans-and-european-americans-before-and-during-circadian-misalignment-produced-by-an-abrupt-9-h-delay-in-the-sleep-wake-schedule
#7
Gemma M Paech, Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
We conducted two studies of circadian misalignment in non-Hispanic African and European-Americans. In the first, the sleep/wake (light/dark) schedule was advanced 9 h, similar to flying east, and in the second these schedules were delayed 9 h, similar to flying west or sleeping during the day after night work. We confirmed that the free-running circadian period is shorter in African-Americans compared to European-Americans, and found differences in the magnitude and direction of circadian rhythm phase shifts which were related to the circadian period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072584/impaired-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-neurogenesis-in-diet-induced-premature-aging
#8
Alexander J Stankiewicz, Erin M McGowan, Lili Yu, Irina V Zhdanova
Chronic high caloric intake (HCI) is a risk factor for multiple major human disorders, from diabetes to neurodegeneration. Mounting evidence suggests a significant contribution of circadian misalignment and sleep alterations to this phenomenon. An inverse temporal relationship between sleep, activity, food intake, and clock mechanisms in nocturnal and diurnal animals suggests that a search for effective therapeutic approaches can benefit from the use of diurnal animal models. Here, we show that, similar to normal aging, HCI leads to the reduction in daily amplitude of expression for core clock genes, a decline in sleep duration, an increase in scoliosis, and anxiety-like behavior...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064723/computing-circadian-misalignment-why-not-combine-sleep-timing-and-duration-to-assess-accumulated-sleep-deficiency
#9
T C Erren, P Morfeld, P Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061320/arginine-vasopressin-signaling-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-on-the-resilience-of-circadian-clock-to-jet-lag
#10
Yoshiaki Yamaguchi
Almost all organisms on Earth have an internal biological clock, known as the circadian clock. This clock system drives robust oscillations in metabolism, physiology, and behavior, such as hormone secretions, blood pressure, and sleep/wake cycles, with a period of approximately 24h. In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated by a timing system comprised of a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus, which orchestrates the clocks in the peripheral tissues. Jet lag, caused by an abrupt change of environmental light-dark cycles, induces a temporal misalignment of the output signal from SCN...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059251/advancing-the-sleep-wake-schedule-impacts-the-sleep-of-african-americans-more-than-european-americans
#11
Gemma M Paech, Stephanie J Crowley, Louis F Fogg, Charmane I Eastman
There are differences in sleep duration between Blacks/African-Americans and Whites/European-Americans. Recently, we found differences between these ancestry groups in the circadian system, such as circadian period and the magnitude of phase shifts. Here we document the role of ancestry on sleep and cognitive performance before and after a 9-h advance in the sleep/wake schedule similar to flying east or having a large advance in sleep times due to shiftwork, both of which produce extreme circadian misalignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057204/shift-work-disrupted-circadian-rhythms-and-sleep-implications-for-health-and-well-being
#12
Stephen M James, Kimberly A Honn, Shobhan Gaddameedhi, Hans P A Van Dongen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our 24/7 society is dependent on shift work, despite mounting evidence for negative health outcomes from sleep displacement due to shift work. This paper reviews short- and long-term health consequences of sleep displacement and circadian misalignment due to shift work. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on four broad health domains: metabolic health; risk of cancer; cardiovascular health; and mental health. Circadian misalignment affects these domains by inducing sleep deficiency, sympathovagal and hormonal imbalance, inflammation, impaired glucose metabolism, and dysregulated cell cycles...
June 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049076/fatigue-risk-management-the-impact-of-anesthesiology-residents-work-schedules-on-job-performance-and-a-review-of-potential-countermeasures
#13
Lily R Wong, Erin Flynn-Evans, Keith J Ruskin
Long duty periods and overnight call shifts impair physicians' performance on measures of vigilance, psychomotor functioning, alertness, and mood. Anesthesiology residents typically work between 64 and 70 hours per week and are often required to work 24 hours or overnight shifts, sometimes taking call every third night. Mitigating the effects of sleep loss, circadian misalignment, and sleep inertia requires an understanding of the relationship among work schedules, fatigue, and job performance. This article reviews the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines for resident duty hours, examines how anesthesiologists' work schedules can affect job performance, and discusses the ramifications of overnight and prolonged duty hours on patient safety and resident well-being...
October 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971499/restoration-of-resident-sleep-and-wellness-with-block-scheduling
#14
James Bordley, Algene G Agustin, Mohamed A Ahmed, Raeesa Khalid, Anthony M Paluso, Bethany S Kobza, Aaron W Spaugy, Jonathan Emens, Sima S Desai, Akram Khan
CONTEXT: Block scheduling during residency is an innovative model in which in-patient and ambulatory rotations are separated. We hypothesised that this format may have a positive impact on resident sleep and wellness in comparison with a traditional format. METHODS: We performed a single-centre, cross-sectional, observational study of residents rotating in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). Residents were observed for 4 weeks at a time: internal medicine (IM) residents were observed for 3 weeks in the MICU followed by 1 week in an ambulatory context, and non-IM residents were observed for 4 weeks in the MICU...
December 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#15
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900189/misalignment-with-the-external-light-environment-drives-metabolic-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#16
Alexander C West, Laura Smith, David W Ray, Andrew S I Loudon, Timothy M Brown, David A Bechtold
Most organisms use internal biological clocks to match behavioural and physiological processes to specific phases of the day-night cycle. Central to this is the synchronisation of internal processes across multiple organ systems. Environmental desynchrony (e.g. shift work) profoundly impacts human health, increasing cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterise the impact of desynchrony between the internal clock and the external light-dark (LD) cycle on mammalian physiology...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899534/gene-by-environment-interactions-of-the-clock-pemt-and-ghrelin%C3%A2-loci-with-average-sleep-duration-in-relation-to-obesity-traits%C3%A2-using-a-cohort-of-643-new-zealand-european-children
#17
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884885/effect-of-different-light-dark-schedules-on-estrous-cycle-in-mice-and-implications-for-mitigating-the-adverse-impact-of-night-work
#18
Kiichi Yoshinaka, Ai Yamaguchi, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Isao Tokuda, Makoto Akashi
Approximately 20% of workers in developed countries are involved in night work. Nevertheless, many studies have strongly suggested that night-work-induced chronic circadian misalignment increases the risk of a diverse range of health problems. Although a relation between night work and irregular menstrual cycles has been indicated epidemiologically, a direct causal link remains elusive. Here, we report that repetitive reversal of light-dark (LD) cycles triggers irregular estrous cycles in mice. The findings showed that the estrous cycle remained irregular for more than four weeks after the mice were returned to regular LD cycles...
September 8, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880049/sleep-and-glycemic-control-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Julia von Schnurbein, Claudia Boettcher, Stephanie Brandt, Beate Karges, Desiree Dunstheimer, Angela Galler, Christian Denzer, Friederike Denzer, Heike Vollbach, Martin Wabitsch, Till Roenneberg, Celine Vetter
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence link sleep curtailment and circadian misalignment with adverse metabolic outcome. Adolescents might be most affected, given their late sleep timing and early school and work start times. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the impact of poor sleeping habits on glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a non-interventional multicenter study across Germany recruiting pubertally mature adolescents with type 1 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860773/can-melatonin-prevent-or-improve-metabolic-side-effects-during-antipsychotic-treatments
#20
Maria-Cristina Porfirio, Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida, Maddalena Stornelli, Silvia Giovinazzo, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Gabriele Masi
In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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