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Breeding value

D Campobello, J Lindström, R Di Maggio, M Sarà
The effects of climate change on animal populations may be shaped by habitat characteristics at both micro- and macro-habitat level, however, empirical studies integrating these two scales of observation are lacking. As analyses of the effects of climate change commonly rely on data from a much larger scale than the microhabitat level organisms are affected at, this mismatch risks hampering progress in developing understanding of the details of the ecological and evolutionary responses of organisms and, ultimately, effective actions to preserve their populations...
2017: PloS One
Seth Bleakley, Ross H Palmer, Stephen Bresina, Sy Ping Roca, Slobodan Tepic
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of hemicerclage suture on the occurrence of fractures during advancement of an elongated bi-directional hinged osteotomy (EBHO) for tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental ex vivo study. ANIMALS: Canine cadavers (n = 14) METHODS: A uniform EBHO was performed in 28 cadaveric hind limbs (n = 28) from 14 skeletally mature, medium-sized, mixed breed dogs. Paired limbs were randomly assigned with or without hemicerclage suture...
March 17, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Friederike Borges, Michael Glemnitz, Alfred Schultz, Ulrich Stachow
Many of the processes behind the decline of farmland birds can be related to modifications in landscape structure (composition and configuration), which can partly be expressed quantitatively with measurable or computable indices, i.e. landscape metrics. This paper aims to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of birds and the landscape structure. We present a method that combines two comprehensive procedures: the "landscape-centred approach" and "guild classification". Our study is based on more than 20,000 individual bird observations based on a 4-year bird monitoring approach in a typical agricultural area in the north-eastern German lowlands...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jennifer A Wood, Edmund J Knights, Grant M Campbell, Mingan Choct
Milling performance is an important attribute for desi chickpea and other pulses, as varieties that are more difficult-to-mill lead to processing yield loss and damage to the resulting split cotyledons (dhal) such as chipping and abrasion which are unattractive to the consumer. Poor milling performance leads to poor dhal quality and therefore lower prices and profitability along the pulse value chain. The Pulse Breeding Australia Chickpea Program identified near-isogenic desi lines that differed in seed shape and milling yields, however it was unknown whether this was due simply to a difference in physical forces on the seed during milling, mediated by seed shape, or whether there were underlying differences in chemical composition that could explain these differences...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jessica E McDonald, Amy M Knollinger, Darryl D Dees, Nicole E MacLaren
PURPOSE: To determine the normal reference range for Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values in eyes of healthy alpacas (Vicugña pacos). METHODS: Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on forty healthy alpacas (80 eyes). STT-1 values were obtained in both eyes of all alpacas using a commercial STT strip of a single lot number. Data were analyzed, using a doubly repeated measures ANOVA design, Student's paired t-test, and Pearson correlation test, with P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
K Tindano, N Moula, P Leroy, A Traoré, N Antoine-Moussiaux
Farm animal genetic resources are threatened worldwide. Participation in markets, while representing a crucial way out of poverty for many smallholders, affects genetic management choices with associated sustainability concerns. This paper proposes a contextualized study of the interactions between markets and animal genetic resources management, in the case of sheep markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It focusses on the organization of marketing chains and the valuation of genetic characteristics by value chain actors...
March 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Cunmin Qu, Ledong Jia, Fuyou Fu, Huiyan Zhao, Kun Lu, Lijuan Wei, Xinfu Xu, Ying Liang, Shimeng Li, Rui Wang, Jiana Li
BACKGROUND: B. napus (oilseed) is an important source of edible vegetable oil, and its nutritional and economic value is determined by its fatty acid composition and content. RESULTS: Using the Brassica 60 K SNP array, we performed a genome-wide association study of fatty acid composition in a population of 520 genetically diverse oilseed accessions. Using the PCA + K model in TASSEL 5.2.1, we identified 62 genomic regions that were significantly associated with the composition of seven fatty acids, and five consensus regions that mapped to the A2, A8, A9, C1, and C3 chromosomes, respectively, of the Brassica napus Darmor-bzh genome...
March 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
Miroslava Palikova, Ivana Papezikova, Zdenka Markova, Stanislav Navratil, Jan Mares, Lukas Mares, Libor Vojtek, Pavel Hyrsl, Eva Jelinkova, Heike Schmidt-Posthaus
Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an endoparasitic disease of salmonid fish caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea). This study presents a comprehensive view on PKD development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at an intensive fish breeding facility, with focus on mortality, pathology/histopathology, haematological findings and immune functions. Diseased and reference fish were sampled monthly and time course of natural infection was followed up from the onset of clinical signs (September 2014) to full recovery (January 2015)...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Friedrich Laidig, Hans-Peter Piepho, Dirk Rentel, Thomas Drobek, Uwe Meyer, Alexandra Huesken
Grain yield of hybrid varieties and population varieties in official German variety trials increased by 23.3 and 18.1%, respectively, over the last 26 years. On-farm gain in grain yield (18.9%) was comparable to that of population varieties in variety trials, yet at a level considerably lower than in variety trials. Rye quality is subject to large year-to-year fluctuation. Increase in grain yield and decline of protein concentration did not negatively influence quality traits. Performance progress of grain and quality traits of 78 winter rye varieties tested in official German trials to assess the value for cultivation and use (VCU) were evaluated during 1989 and 2014...
March 13, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Luiz F Brito, John C McEwan, Stephen P Miller, Natalie K Pickering, Wendy E Bain, Ken G Dodds, Flávio S Schenkel, Shannon M Clarke
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the genetic diversity of a population is a crucial parameter for the implementation of successful genomic selection and conservation of genetic resources. The aim of this research was to establish the scientific basis for the implementation of genomic selection in a composite Terminal sheep breeding scheme by providing consolidated linkage disequilibrium (LD) measures across SNP markers, estimating consistency of gametic phase between breed-groups, and assessing genetic diversity measures, such as effective population size (Ne), and population structure parameters, using a large number of animals (n = 14,845) genotyped with a high density SNP chip (606,006 markers)...
March 14, 2017: BMC Genetics
M Besson, I J M de Boer, M Vandeputte, J A M van Arendonk, E Quillet, H Komen, J Aubin
In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed)...
2017: PloS One
E Keith Bowers, Charles F Thompson, Scott K Sakaluk
Females in a variety of taxa adjust offspring sex ratios to prevailing ecological conditions. However, little is known about whether conditions experienced during a female's early ontogeny influence the sex ratio of her offspring. We tested for past and present ecological predictors of offspring sex ratios among known-age females that were produced as offspring and bred as adults in a population of house wrens. The body condition of offspring that a female produced and the proportion of her offspring that were male were negatively correlated with the size of the brood in which she herself was reared...
March 2017: Evolutionary Biology
M Haile-Mariam, J E Pryce
Lactose is a major component of milk (typically around 5% of composition) that is not usually directly considered in national genetic improvement programs of dairy cattle. Daily test-day lactose yields and percentage data from pasture-based seasonal calving herds in Australia were analyzed to assess if lactose content can be used for predicting fitness traits and if an additional benefit is achieved by including lactose yield in selecting for milk yield traits. Data on lactose percentage collected from 2007 to 2014, from about 600 herds, were used to estimated genetic parameters for lactose percentage and lactose yield and correlations with other milk yield traits, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval (CIV), and survival...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
J Jamrozik, J Johnston, P G Sullivan, F Miglior
A novel method for analysis of ratio traits (Y2/Y1) is proposed. Utilizing a recursive modeling approach, a proxy for Y2/Y1 can be postulated as Y2 - λ × Y1 (i.e., Y2 adjusted for the effect of Y1), where λ is a structural parameter describing an effect of change in phenotype of Y2 caused by the phenotype of Y1. Estimates of parameters (direct effect parameters) for the recursive model Y1 → Y2 can be derived from parameters of an equivalent 2-trait mixed effects model for Y1 and Y2, using linear (location) and quadratic (dispersion) transformations...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Gema Alvarez Garcia, Andrea Maggioni, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Emanuela Olivieri, Riccardo Compiani, Giuseppe Sironi, Luis Miguel Ortega Mora, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Bovine besnoitiosis has been deemed a re-emerging disease in Western Europe and considered endemic in Spain, Portugal, France and in some areas of Northern Italy. This report refers to an infection outbreak in a purebred beef herd from Northern Italy involving a large number of bulls. In October 2013, 544 animals were serologically tested with an in-house ELISA followed by a confirmatory Western blot to evaluate Besnoitia besnoiti seroprevalence. A year later, 461 animals were then serologically re-tested together with imported animals (n = 268)...
March 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
Yuliang Zhou, Yuehua Xie, Jinling Cai, Chunbao Liu, Haitao Zhu, Ru Jiang, Yueying Zhong, Guoliang Zhang, Bin Tan, Guifu Liu, Xuelin Fu, Ziqiang Liu, Shaokui Wang, Guiquan Zhang, Ruizhen Zeng
A permanent advanced population containing 388 SSSLs was used for genetic analysis of seed dormancy; 25 QTLs including eight stable, six major and five new were identified. Seed dormancy (SD) is not only a complex biological phenomenon, but also a key practical problem in agricultural production closely related with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). However, the genetic mechanisms of SD remain elusive. Here, we report the genetic dissection of SD in rice using 388 single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) derived from 16 donor parents...
March 10, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Carolina A Garcia-Baccino, Andres Legarra, Ole F Christensen, Ignacy Misztal, Ivan Pocrnic, Zulma G Vitezica, Rodolfo J C Cantet
BACKGROUND: Metafounders are pseudo-individuals that encapsulate genetic heterozygosity and relationships within and across base pedigree populations, i.e. ancestral populations. This work addresses the estimation and usefulness of metafounder relationships in single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP). RESULTS: We show that ancestral relationship parameters are proportional to standardized covariances of base allelic frequencies across populations, such as [Formula: see text] fixation indexes...
March 10, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Tianfei Liu, Chenglong Luo, Jie Wang, Jie Ma, Dingming Shu, Mogens Sandø Lund, Guosheng Su, Hao Qu
Feed represents the major cost of chicken production. Selection for improving feed utilization is a feasible way to reduce feed cost and greenhouse gas emissions. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of genomic prediction for feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) and to assess the impact of selection for feed efficiency traits FCR and RFI on eviscerating percentage (EP), breast muscle percentage (BMP) and leg muscle percentage (LMP) in meat-type chickens...
2017: PloS One
Benedict Purschke, Rafaela Scheibelberger, Sonja Axmann, Andreas Adler, Henry Jäger
Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, Hermetia illucens L...
February 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Teodoro Cardi, Nunzio D'Agostino, Pasquale Tripodi
In the frame of modern agriculture facing the predicted increase of population and general environmental changes, the securement of high quality food remains a major challenge to deal with. Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. Due to their nutritional value, they have an important place in human diet. In recent years, many crop genomes have been sequenced permitting the identification of genes and superior alleles associated with desirable traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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