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Breeding value

Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Jole Mariella, Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Caterina Palermo, Lee Morris, Carolina Castagnetti
The umbilical cord (UC), the connection between mother and fetus via the umbilical vessels, carries nutrients and oxygenated blood to the fetus through the umbilical vein and removes deoxygenated blood and waste products via the umbilical arteries. It is designed to protect blood flow to the fetus during pregnancy. In equine medicine, only a few studies have described the UC, and most of these involved Thoroughbreds. The present study describes and compares the macroscopic features of the equine umbilical cord in three different breeds and in relation to the foal's gender...
March 7, 2018: Theriogenology
Ke Xie, Suowei Wu, Ziwen Li, Yan Zhou, Danfeng Zhang, Zhenying Dong, Xueli An, Taotao Zhu, Simiao Zhang, Shuangshuang Liu, Jinping Li, Xiangyuan Wan
Map-based cloning of maize ms33 gene showed that ZmMs33 encodes a sn-2 glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, the ortholog of rice OsGPAT3, and it is essential for male fertility in maize. Genetic male sterility has been widely studied for its biological significance and commercial value in hybrid seed production. Although many male-sterile mutants have been identified in maize (Zea mays L.), it is likely that most genes that cause male sterility are unknown. Here, we report a recessive genetic male-sterile mutant, male sterility33 (ms33), which displays small, pale yellow anthers, and complete male sterility...
March 15, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Nicolas Keck, Maria-Laura Boschiroli, Florence Smyej, Valérie Vogler, Jean-Louis Moyen, Stéphanie Desvaux
In the French Camargue region, where bovine tuberculosis had been enzootic for several years in bullfighting cattle herds, the gamma-interferon (IFN) assay was used since 2003 in parallel with the intradermal test in order to increase overall disease detection sensitivity in infected herds. This study presents the results of a field-evaluation of the assay during a 10-year period (2004-2014) of disease control and surveillance program and explores the particular pattern of IFN assay results in bullfight herds in comparison to cattle from other regions of France...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Lorenzo León, Raúl de la Rosa, Leonardo Velasco, Angjelina Belaj
A wide genetic diversity has been reported for wild olives, which could be particularly interesting for the introgression of some agronomic traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in breeding programs. However, the introgression of some beneficial wild traits may be paralleled by negative effects on some other important agronomic and quality traits. From the quality point of view, virgin olive oil (VOO) from olive cultivars is highly appreciated for its fatty acid composition (high monounsaturated oleic acid content) and the presence of several minor components...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Johannes Vogel, Christine Kenter, Carsten Holst, Bernward Märländer
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) epidemics in sugar beet have been increasing in recent years causing higher use of fungicides. Concomitantly, the availability of effective fungicides is at risk because of resistance development in the fungus, the lack of new active ingredients as well as restrictive approval practices. A key option for an integrated management of CLS is cultivation of resistant varieties. Because of the yield penalty in resistant varieties, acceptance in commercial practice so far has been low. The aim of our study was to characterize recent sugar beet varieties registered in Germany in terms of resistance and tolerance to CLS and their value for integrated pest management...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wilawan Thongda, Honggang Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Lauren N Jescovitch, Ming Liu, Ximing Guo, Meagan Schrandt, Sean P Powers, Eric Peatman
Culture of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is rapidly expanding. Combined with their continuing role as an environmental sentinel species and ecological model, this trend necessitates improved molecular tools for breeding and selection, as well as population assessment and genetic conservation. Here, we describe the development and validation of two panels of 58 single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) for the species. Population analyses revealed three distinct populations, based on FST values and STRUCTURE, among wild oysters sampled from Delaware Bay (1), northwest Florida (2), Alabama (2), Louisiana (2), and the Texas Gulf Coast (3), consistent with previous microsatellite and mtDNA analyses...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yves Cherel, Charline Parenteau, Paco Bustamante, Charles-André Bost
The poorly known winter foraging ecology of the king penguin, a major Southern Ocean consumer, was investigated at the subantarctic Crozet Islands where the largest global population breeds. Blood δ13 C and δ15 N values were used as proxies of the birds' foraging habitat and diet, respectively, and circulating prolactin levels helped in determining the birds' reproductive status. Plasma prolactin concentrations showed that king penguin adults of unknown breeding status ( n  = 52) that were present at the colony in winter were in fact breeders and failed breeders, but were not non -breeders...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xuelian He, Kang Luo, Calum Brown, Luxiang Lin
Integrating multiple facets of biodiversity to describe spatial and temporal distribution patterns is one way of revealing the mechanisms driving community assembly. We assessed the species, functional, and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Donghyun Shin, Sung-Hoon Kim, Joowan Park, Hak-Kyo Lee, Ki-Duk Song
Objective: The genetic diversity of the Landrace population, a representative maternal pig breeds in Korea, is important for genetic improvement. Previously, the effective population size (Ne) has been used to infer the genetic diversity of a population of interest. In this study, we aimed to use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to characterize linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the Ne of the Korean Landrace population. Methods: We genotyped 1,128 Landrace individuals from three representative Korean major grand-grand-parent (GGP) farms using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 version2 BeadChip, which covers >61,565 SNPs located across all autosomes and mitochondrial and sex chromosomes...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
X Zhang, S Tsuruta, S Andonov, D A L Lourenco, R L Sapp, C Wang, I Misztal
Four performance-related traits [growth trait (GROW), feed efficiency trait 1 (FE1) and trait 2 (FE2), and dissection trait (DT)] and 4 categorical traits [mortality (MORT) and 3 disorder traits (DIS1, DIS2, and DIS3)] were analyzed using linear and threshold single- and multi-trait models. Field data included 186,596 records of commercial broilers from Cobb-Vantress, Inc. Average-information restricted maximum likelihood and Gibbs sampling-based methods were used to obtain estimates of the (co)variance components, heritabilities, and genetic correlations in a traditional approach using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP)...
February 24, 2018: Poultry Science
S A Barwick, A L Henzell, B J Walmsley, D J Johnston, R G Banks
Methods are presented for including feed intake and efficiency in genetic selection for multiple-trait merit when commercial production is from any combination of pasture or concentrates. Consequences for the production system and for individual animals are illustrated with a beef cattle example. Residual feed intake at pasture (RFI-p), residual feed intake in the feedlot (RFI-f), and cow condition score are additional traits of the breeding objective. Feed requirement change is costed in the economic values of other objective traits...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A Just, R Wellmann, J Bennewitz
Breeding traits are usually combined in a total merit index according to their economic weights to maximize genetic gain based on economic merit. However, this maximization may not always be the aim of the selection decisions by farm managers. A discrete choice experiment was used to evaluate the importance of traits in terms of the selection decisions of farm managers operating in different environments. Six trait complexes, the semen price, the interactions between these traits, and significant characteristics of the farms were included in a conditional logit model to estimate relative economic weights and the marginal willingness to pay for all traits...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A M M Tenghe, A C Bouwman, B Berglund, D J de Koning, R F Veerkamp
The main objective of this study was to investigate the benefit of accuracy of genomic prediction when combining records for an intermediate physiological phenotype in a training population with records for a traditional phenotype. Fertility was used as a case study, where commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) was the physiological phenotype, whereas the interval from calving to first service and calving interval were the traditional phenotypes. The potential accuracy of across-country genomic prediction and optimal recording strategies of C-LA were also investigated in terms of the number of farms and number of repeated records for C-LA...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ivona Žura Žaja, Silvijo Vince, Suzana Milinković-Tur, Nina Poljičak Milas, Marko Samardžija, Hrvoje Valpotić, Velimir Berta, Marinko Vilić, Kristina Rakić
The aim of this study was to establish subpopulations of spermatozoa in bucks using the principal component (PC) and cluster analysis according to morphometric head and tail variables, and to determine differences in proportions of subpopulations between exogenous melatonin-treated and control bucks. The bucks (n = 12) were assigned to two groups comprising six bucks each. By the end of March, four melatonin implants were inserted in the bucks in the experimental group. Semen was collected weekly using an artificial vagina from March to May (the non-breeding season)...
March 5, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Abbas Safari, Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Abdol Ahad Shadparvar, Rostam Abdollahi Arpanahi
The aim of current study was to review breeding progress and update information on genetic strategies in Iranian buffaloes. Iranian buffalo is one of the vital domestic animals throughout north, north-west, south and south-west of Iran with measurable characteristics both in milk and meat production. The species plays an important role in rural economy of the country due to its unique characteristics such as resistance to diseases and parasites, having long productive lifespan and showing higher capability of consuming low-quality forage...
March 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sam Browett, Gillian McHugo, Ian W Richardson, David A Magee, Stephen D E Park, Alan G Fahey, John F Kearney, Carolina N Correia, Imtiaz A S Randhawa, David E MacHugh
Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Paulo H Jorge, Vito A Mastrochirico-Filho, Milene E Hata, Natália J Mendes, Raquel B Ariede, Milena Vieira de Freitas, Manuel Vera, Fábio Porto-Foresti, Diogo T Hashimoto
The pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae), is a fish from the Amazon basin and is considered to be one of the main native species used in aquaculture production in South America. The objectives of this study were: (1) to perform liver transcriptome sequencing of pirapitinga through NGS and then validate a set of microsatellite markers for this species; and (2) to use polymorphic microsatellites for analysis of genetic variability in farmed stocks. The transcriptome sequencing was carried out through the Roche/454 technology, which resulted in 3,696 non-redundant contigs...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jeffrey Lane, Andrew G McAdam, Eryn McFarlane, Cory Williams, Murray M Humphries, David Coltman, Jamieson Gorrell, Stan Boutin
Phenological shifts are the most widely reported ecological responses to climate change, but the requirements to distinguish their causes (i.e., phenotypic plasticity versus microevolution) are rarely met. To do so, we analyzed almost two decades of parturition data from a wild population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although an observed advance in parturition date during the first decade provided putative support for climate change-driven microevolution, a closer look revealed a more complex pattern...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jeffrey B Endelman, Cari A Schmitz Carley, Paul C Bethke, Joseph J Coombs, Mark E Clough, Washington L da Silva, Walter S De Jong, David S Douches, Curtis M Frederick, Kathleen G Haynes, David G Holm, J Creighton Miller, Patricio R Muñoz, Felix M Navarro, Richard G Novy, Jiwan P Palta, Gregory A Porter, Kyle T Rak, Vidyasagar R Sathuvalli, Asunta L Thompson, G Craig Yencho
As one of the world's most important food crops, potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) has spurred innovation in autotetraploid genetics, including the use of SNP arrays to determine allele dosage at thousands of markers. By combining genotype and pedigree information with phenotype data for economically important traits, the objectives of this study were to (1) partition the genetic variance into additive vs. non-additive components, and (2) determine the accuracy of genome-wide prediction. Between 2012 and 2017, a training population of 571 clones was evaluated for total yield, specific gravity, and chip fry color...
March 7, 2018: Genetics
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