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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#1
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429851/impacts-of-taxonomic-inertia-for-the-conservation-of-african-ungulate-diversity-an-overview
#2
Spartaco Gippoliti, Fenton P D Cotterill, Dietmar Zinner, Colin P Groves
We review the state of African ungulate taxonomy over the last 120 years, with an emphasis on the introduction of the polytypic species concept and the discipline's general neglect since the middle of the 20th century. We single out negative consequences of 'orthodox' taxonomy, highlighting numerous cases of neglect of threatened lineages, unsound translocations that led to lineage introgression, and cases of maladaptation to local conditions including parasitic infections. Additionally, several captive breeding programmes have been hampered by chromosome rearrangements caused by involuntary lineage mixing...
April 21, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429327/large-scale-cultivation-of-euglena
#3
Kengo Suzuki
From the middle of the twentieth century, microalgae have been exploited as a candidate biomass source of food and other products. One such candidate source is the fast-proliferating microalga Euglena gracilis. The commercial cultivation of E. gracilis began in 2007, after the success of its outdoor mass cultivation and improvement of the harvesting and drying methods suitable for Euglena cells. The commercialization of Euglena production is based on the strategy of "5Fs of Biomass," which refers to the development and production of commercial products including food, fiber, feed, fertilizer, and fuel from biomass...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429190/study-on-environmental-indices-and-heat-tolerance-tests-in-hair-sheep
#4
L Seixas, C B de Melo, A M Menezes, A F Ramos, G R Paludo, V Peripolli, C B Tanure, J B G Costa Junior, C McManus
The ability to predict the effects of climatic factors on animals and their adaptability is important for livestock production. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether existing indices are suitable for evaluating heat stress in Santa Ines and Morada Nova sheep, which are locally adapted hair sheep breeds from northeastern Brazil, and if the limits used to classify thermal stress are suitable for these breeds. Therefore, climatic, physiological, and physical parameters, as well as thermographic images, were collected in 26 sheep, 1 1/2 years old, from two genetic groups (Santa Ines 12 males and 4 females; Morada Nov...
April 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429079/the-r2r3-myb-tt2b-and-the-bhlh-tt8-genes-are-the-major-regulators-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-the-leaves-of-lotus-species
#5
Francisco José Escaray, Valentina Passeri, Ana Perea-García, Cristian Javier Antonelli, Francesco Damiani, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz, Francesco Paolocci
By exploiting interspecific hybrids and their progeny, we identified key regulatory and transporter genes intimately related to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in leaves of Lotus spp. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), known as condensed tannins, are polymeric flavonoids enriching forage legumes of key nutritional value to prevent bloating in ruminant animals. Unfortunately, major forage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers lack PAs in edible tissues. Therefore, engineering the PA trait in herbage of forage legumes is paramount to improve both ecological and economical sustainability of cattle production system...
April 20, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428855/conditions-on-the-mexican-moulting-grounds-influence-feather-colour-and-carotenoids-in-bullock-s-orioles-icterus-bullockii
#6
Kaitlin L Sparrow, Kingsley K Donkor, Nancy J Flood, Peter P Marra, Andrew G Pillar, Matthew W Reudink
Carotenoid-based plumage coloration plays a critical role for both inter- and intrasexual communication. Habitat and diet during molt can have important consequences for the development of the ornamental signals used in these contexts. When molt occurs away from the breeding grounds (e.g., pre-alternate molt on the wintering grounds, or stopover molt), discerning the influence of habitat and diet can be particularly important, as these effects may result in important carryover effects that influence territory acquisition or mate choice in subsequent seasons...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427341/reactive-oxygen-species-mediate-tapetal-programmed-cell-death-in-tobacco-and-tomato
#7
Shi-Xia Yu, Qiang-Nan Feng, Hong-Tao Xie, Sha Li, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hybrid vigor is highly valued in the agricultural industry. Male sterility is an important trait for crop breeding. Pollen development is under strict control of both gametophytic and sporophytic factors, and defects in this process can result in male sterility. Both in the dicot Arabidopsis and in the moncot rice, proper timing of programmed cell death (PCD) in the tapetum ensures pollen development. Dynamic ROS levels have been reported to control tapetal PCD, and thus pollen development, in Arabidopsis and rice...
April 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427324/genomic-prediction-from-observed-and-imputed-high-density-ovine-genotypes
#8
Nasir Moghaddar, Andrew A Swan, Julius H J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: Genomic prediction using high-density (HD) marker genotypes is expected to lead to higher prediction accuracy, particularly for more heterogeneous multi-breed and crossbred populations such as those in sheep and beef cattle, due to providing stronger linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms and quantitative trait loci controlling a trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible improvement in genomic prediction accuracy of production traits in Australian sheep breeds based on HD genotypes (600k, both observed and imputed) compared to prediction based on 50k marker genotypes...
April 20, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426785/genome-wide-association-studies-identified-multiple-genetic-loci-for-body-size-at-four-growth-stages-in-chinese-holstein-cattle
#9
Xu Zhang, Qin Chu, Gang Guo, Ganghui Dong, Xizhi Li, Qin Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Zhiwu Zhang, Yachun Wang
The growth and maturity of cattle body size affect not only feed efficiency, but also productivity and longevity. Dissecting the genetic architecture of body size is critical for cattle breeding to improve both efficiency and productivity. The volume and weight of body size are indicated by several measurements. Among them, Heart Girth (HG) and Hip Height (HH) are the most important traits. They are widely used as predictors of body weight (BW). Few association studies have been conducted for HG and HH in cattle focusing on single growth stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424724/soluble-starch-synthase-iii-1-in-amylopectin-metabolism-of-banana-fruit-characterization-expression-enzyme-activity-and-functional-analyses
#10
Hongxia Miao, Peiguang Sun, Qing Liu, Caihong Jia, Juhua Liu, Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Jin, Biyu Xu
Soluble starch synthase (SS) is one of the key enzymes involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in the important fruit crop banana. Herein, we characterized the function of MaSSIII-1 in amylopectin metabolism of banana fruit and described the putative role of the other MaSS family members. Firstly, starch granules, starch and amylopectin content were found to increase during banana fruit development, but decline during storage. The SS activity started to increase later than amylopectin and starch content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422394/homozygous-variant-in-c21orf2-in-a-case-of-jeune-syndrome-with-severe-thoracic-involvement-extending-the-phenotypic-spectrum
#11
Aideen M McInerney-Leo, Lawrie Wheeler, Mhairi S Marshall, Lisa K Anderson, Andreas Zankl, Matthew A Brown, Paul J Leo, Carol Wicking, Emma L Duncan
We previously reported exome sequencing in a short-rib thoracic dystrophy (SRTD) cohort, in whom recessive mutations were identified in SRTD-associated genes in 10 of 11 cases. A heterozygous stop mutation in the known SRTD gene WDR60 was identified in the remaining case; no novel candidate gene/s were suggested by homozygous/compound heterozygous analysis. This case was thus considered unsolved. Re-analysis following an analysis pipeline update identified a homozygous mutation in C21orf2 (c.218G > C; p...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422370/leisure-riding-horses-research-topics-versus-the-needs-of-stakeholders
#12
REVIEW
Iwona Janczarek, Izabela Wilk
Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities...
April 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419490/european-cowpea-landraces-for-a-more-sustainable-agriculture-system-and-novel-foods
#13
Márcia Carvalho, Penelope J Bebeli, Graça Pereira, Isaura Castro, Catalina Egea-Gilabert, Manuela Matos, Efstathia Lazaridi, Isabel Duarte, Teresa Lino-Neto, Georgia Ntatsi, Miguel Rodrigues, Dimitrios Savvas, Eduardo Rosa, Valdemar Carnide
BACKGROUND: Genetic diversity is fundamental for breeding programs and consequently has an important role to obtain new varieties. To properly use the genetic diversity present in germplasm collections, a good knowledge of the agro-morphological traits of each accession is needed. The aim of this study was to explore the production capacity of 24 cowpea landraces from Southern Europe, through phenotypic characterization and evaluation in three different locations of Greece and Portugal...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419370/distinguishing-industrial-meat-from-that-of-indigenous-chickens-with-molecular-markers
#14
Dominga Soglia, Paola Sacchi, Stefano Sartore, Sandra Maione, Achille Schiavone, Michele De Marco, Maria Teresa Bottero, Alessandra Dalmasso, Daniele Pattono, Roberto Rasero
The aim of investigation was to evaluate a traceability system to detect industrial chicken meat among indigenous products, considering issues that could affect assignment accuracy. The dataset included 2 Italian indigenous meat breeds, namely Bionda Piemontese (2 ecotypes) and Bianca di Saluzzo, one broiler line, and 3 layer lines. Assignment tests were performed using a standard panel of 28 microsatellite loci. To evaluate effects of inbreeding and substructure on assignment accuracy, a simulated dataset was prepared...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419122/lauric-acid-as-feed-additive-an-approach-to-reducing-campylobacter-spp-in-broiler-meat
#15
Katrin Zeiger, Johanna Popp, André Becker, Julia Hankel, Christian Visscher, Guenter Klein, Diana Meemken
The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308) and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA) broilers in three independent trials (n = 3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410429/bayesian-methods-for-jointly-estimating-genomic-breeding-values-of-one-continuous-and-one-threshold-trait
#16
Chonglong Wang, Xiujin Li, Rong Qian, Guosheng Su, Qin Zhang, Xiangdong Ding
Genomic selection has become a useful tool for animal and plant breeding. Currently, genomic evaluation is usually carried out using a single-trait model. However, a multi-trait model has the advantage of using information on the correlated traits, leading to more accurate genomic prediction. To date, joint genomic prediction for a continuous and a threshold trait using a multi-trait model is scarce and needs more attention. Based on the previously proposed methods BayesCπ for single continuous trait and BayesTCπ for single threshold trait, we developed a novel method based on a linear-threshold model, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407865/the-effect-of-dual-hemisphere-breeding-on-stallion-fertility
#17
S R Walbornn, C C Love, T L Blanchard, S P Brinsko, D D Varner
Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B)...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403555/seasonal-fecundity-and-costs-to-%C3%AE-are-more-strongly-affected-by-direct-than-indirect-predation-effects-across-species
#18
Joseph A LaManna, Thomas E Martin
Increased perceived predation risk can cause behavioral and physiological responses to reduce direct predation mortality, but these responses can also cause demographic costs through reduced reproductive output. Such indirect costs of predation risk have received increased attention in recent years, but the relative importance of direct versus indirect predation costs to population growth (λ) across species remains unclear. We measured direct nest predation rates as well as indirect benefits (i.e. reduced predation rates) and costs (i...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402063/reproductive-performance-and-pre-weaning-mortality-preliminary-analysis-of-27-221-purebred-female-dogs-and-204-537-puppies-in-france
#19
S Chastant-Maillard, C Guillemot, A Feugier, C Mariani, A Grellet, H Mila
The objective of this study was to describe efficiency of reproduction of purebred dogs in field breeding conditions, from mating to weaning in France. Data were collected between 2010 and 2014 in 5,667 French breeding kennels via a reproduction management software (Breeding Management System, Royal Canin, Aimargues, France). Effect of breed size (Mini: adult body weight <10 kg; Medium: 10-25 kg; Maxi: 25-40 kg; Giant: >40 kg), age of dam and male on pregnancy rate, abortion rate and litter size were evaluated by multivariable models...
April 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400784/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-sorghum-plant-height-using-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-and-its-application-to-genomic-prediction-modeling
#20
Kakeru Watanabe, Wei Guo, Keigo Arai, Hideki Takanashi, Hiromi Kajiya-Kanegae, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kentaro Yano, Tsuyoshi Tokunaga, Toru Fujiwara, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi, Hiroyoshi Iwata
Genomics-assisted breeding methods have been rapidly developed with novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing, genomic selection and genome-wide association study. However, phenotyping is still time consuming and is a serious bottleneck in genomics-assisted breeding. In this study, we established a high-throughput phenotyping system for sorghum plant height and its response to nitrogen availability; this system relies on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with either an RGB or near-infrared, green and blue (NIR-GB) camera...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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