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Breeding value

Rita Payan-Carreira, Luis Martins, Sónia Miranda, Pedro Olivério, Severiano R Silva
BACKGROUND: Systems for estimating body condition score (BCS) are currently used in canine practice to monitor fatness levels. These tools are cheap and easy to use but lack the necessary precision to monitor small changes in body fat, particularly during weight control treatments or in research. The present work aims to study the application of real-time ultrasonography (RTU) together with image analysis in the assessment of subcutaneous fat depots in dogs. Ultrasound images were collected from five anatomical locations (chest, flank, abdomen, thigh and lumbar) from 28 healthy dogs of different breeds and with a body weight (BW) ranging from 5...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Razia S Shaik, Xiaocheng Zhu, David R Clements, Leslie A Weston
Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range...
2016: Conservation Physiology
D S Fleming, J E Koltes, E R Fritz-Waters, M F Rothschild, C J Schmidt, C M Ashwell, M E Persia, J M Reecy, S J Lamont
BACKGROUND: Analyses of sequence variants of two distinct and highly inbred chicken lines allowed characterization of genomic variation that may be associated with phenotypic differences between breeds. These lines were the Leghorn, the major contributing breed to commercial white-egg production lines, and the Fayoumi, representative of an outbred indigenous and robust breed. Unique within- and between-line genetic diversity was used to define the genetic differences of the two breeds through the use of variant discovery and functional annotation...
October 19, 2016: BMC Genomics
P Sławuta, G Sapikowski, B Sobieraj
: Buffer systems of blood and tissues, which have the ability to bind with and give up hydrogen ions, participate in maintaining the acid-base balance (ABB) of the organism. According to the classic model, the system of carbonic acid and bicarbonates, where the first component serves the role of an acid and the second a base, determines plasma pH. The so-called Stewart model, which assumes that ions in blood serum can be separated into completely dissociated - nonbuffer and not dissociated - buffer ions which may give up or accept H+ions, also describes the ABB of the organism...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Helen R Sofaer, Susan K Skagen, Joseph J Barsugli, Benjamin S Rashford, Gordon C Reese, Jennifer A Hoeting, Andrew W Wood, Barry R Noon
Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species' vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yemin Wang, Zhengsheng Tao, Hualiang Zheng, Fei Zhang, Qingshan Long, Zixin Deng, Meifeng Tao
Many high-value secondary metabolites are assembled by very large multifunctional polyketide synthases or non-ribosomal peptide synthetases encoded by giant genes, for instance, natamycin production in an industrial strain of Streptomyces gilvosporeus. In this study, a large operon reporter-based selection system has been developed using the selectable marker gene neo to report the expression both of the large polyketide synthase genes and of the entire gene cluster, thereby facilitating the selection of natamycin-overproducing mutants by iterative random mutagenesis breeding...
October 13, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
W Chumngoen, C F Chen, H Y Chen, F J Tan
1. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native (TNC) chicken pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. 2. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. 3. Meat from broilers and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics...
October 17, 2016: British Poultry Science
Helmut Kovac, Helmut Käfer, Iacopo Petrocelli, Anton Stabentheiner
The two paper wasps, Polistes dominula and Polistes gallicus, are related species with strongly differing distribution ranges. We investigated thermal tolerance traits (critical thermal limits and metabolic response to temperature) to gain knowledge about physiological adaptations to their local climate conditions and to get evidence for the reasons of P. dominula's successful dispersion. Body and ambient temperature measurements at the nests revealed behavioural adaptations to microclimate. The species differed clearly in critical thermal minimum (P...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Namrata Dhaka, Kadambini Rout, Satish K Yadava, Yaspal Singh Sodhi, Vibha Gupta, Deepak Pental, Akshay K Pradhan
Seed weight QTL identified in different populations were synthesized into consensus QTL which were shown to harbor candidate genes by in silico mapping. Allelic variation inferred would be useful in breeding B. juncea lines with high seed weight. Seed weight is an important yield influencing trait in oilseed Brassicas and is a multigenic trait. Among the oilseed Brassicas, Brassica juncea harbors the maximum phenotypic variation wherein thousand seed weight varies from around 2.0 g to more than 7.0 g. In this study, we have undertaken quantitative trait locus/quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seed weight in B...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
W A Knauer, S M Godden, N McDonald
Indwelling rumen temperature bolus (RTB) systems have the potential to offer a convenient and timely method of detecting pyrexia, indicative of active infectious disease. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of using RTB systems in preweaned dairy calves. First, an in vitro study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the RTB in its immediate environment. Thirteen RTB were immersed in a hot water bath (WB). Variably collected RTB temperatures were then matched to WB temperatures, which varied from 36 to 41°C, with 1 h spent at each temperature...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
J Luo, L Y Shen, H G Lei, K P Zhu, Y Z Jiang, L Bai, M Z Li, G Q Tang, X W Li, S H Zhang, L Zhu
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations among muscle concentration of three glycometabolic-related hormones (insulin, epinephrine and glucagon), muscle glycolysis and meat quality in representative muscles of either glycolytic or oxidative types. Moreover, the relative glycometabolic-related gene expression was measured. One Western crossbreed DLY (Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), one crossbreed with half-Chinese native-pig origin DL (Duroc × LiangShan) and one pure Chinese native pig TP (Tibetan pig) were used in this study...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
E Zonabend König, J M K Ojango, J Audho, T Mirkena, E Strandberg, A M Okeyo, J Philipsson
Meat production is the most important trait in the breeding objectives of sheep production in East Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate breed differences in live weight, conformation, carcass traits and economic values for meat production among Red Maasai and Dorper sheep and their crosses. In total, 88 ram lambs, which were reared at the ILRI experimental station, Kapiti plains Estate in Central Kenya, were used for the study. The lambs were slaughtered at Kenya Meat Commission (KMC) at about 1 year of age...
October 14, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
X Cui, R Liu, H Cui, G Zhao, M Zheng, Q Li, J Liu, Z Liu, J Wen
Capons and ovariectomized chickens are birds that have been gonadectomized to improve the meat quality. This study investigated the effects of caponization and ovariectomy on physical, chemical, and fatty acid and amino acid profiles of meat from Beijing-You chickens (a Chinese local breed) at market age (17 wk). All birds (20 capons, 20 ovariectomized, and 40 controls) were reared under the same conditions. Breast muscle fiber diameter and area were significantly smaller and the fiber density was higher in capons and ovariectomized chickens than in controls (P < 0...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Matthew E Wolak, Jane M Reid
1.Quantifying and predicting microevolutionary responses to environmental change requires unbiased estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in wild populations. 'Animal models', which utilise pedigree data to separate genetic and environmental effects on phenotypes, provide powerful means to estimate key parameters and have revolutionised quantitative genetic analyses of wild populations. 2.However, pedigrees collected in wild populations commonly contain many individuals with unknown parents. When unknown parents are non-randomly associated with genetic values for focal traits, animal model parameter estimates can be severely biased...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Veronika Braunisch, Patrick Patthey, Raphaël Arlettaz
In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L.) in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1) identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2) modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3) simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2) and (3) to 4) locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration...
2016: PloS One
Yuqing Jin, Yongpeng Ma, Shun Wang, Xian-Ge Hu, Li-Sha Huang, Yue Li, Xiao-Ru Wang, Jian-Feng Mao
Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhi Wang, Guoxia Su, Min Li, Qingbo Ke, Soo Young Kim, Hongbing Li, Jin Huang, Bingcheng Xu, Xi-Ping Deng, Sang-Soo Kwak
Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR 3 (ABF3), a bZIP transcription factor, plays an important role in regulating multiple stress responses in plants. Overexpressing AtABF3 increases tolerance to various stresses in several plant species. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), one of the most important perennial forage crops worldwide, has high yields, high nutritional value, and good palatability and is widely distributed in irrigated and semi-arid regions throughout the world. However, drought and salt stress pose major constraints to alfalfa production...
October 1, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Weifeng Shen, Wei Han, Yunong Li, Zhiqi Meng, Leiming Cai, Liang Li
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a very useful target insect for evaluation of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) due to mature breeding techniques, complete endocrine system and broad basic knowledge on developmental biology. Comparative metabolomics of silkworms with and without EDC exposure offers another dimension of studying EDCs. In this work, we report a workflow on metabolomic profiling of silkworm hemolymph based on high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and demonstrate its application in studying the metabolic changes associated with the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure in silkworm...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Marjorie C Sorensen, Graham D Fairhurst, Susanne Jenni-Eiermann, Jason Newton, Elizabeth Yohannes, Claire N Spottiswoode
BACKGROUND: An understanding of year-round habitat use is essential for determining how carry-over effects shape population dynamics in long-distance migratory songbirds. The recent discovery of long-term migratory staging sites in many species, prior to arrival at final wintering sites, adds complexity to efforts to decipher non-breeding habitat use and connections between sites. We investigated whether habitat conditions during migratory staging carry over to influence great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) body condition at final wintering sites in Zambia...
October 4, 2016: BMC Ecology
Minhui Chen, Dunfei Pan, Hongyan Ren, Jinluan Fu, Junya Li, Guosheng Su, Aiguo Wang, Li Jiang, Qin Zhang, Jian-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: The identification of signals left by recent positive selection provides a feasible approach for targeting genomic variants that underlie complex traits and fitness. A better understanding of the selection mechanisms that occurred during the evolution of species can also be gained. In this study, we simultaneously detected the genome-wide footprints of recent positive selection that occurred within and between Chinese Holstein and Simmental populations, which have been subjected to artificial selection for distinct purposes...
October 6, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
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