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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353452/random-regression-analysis-for-body-weights-and-main-morphological-traits-in-genetically-improved-farmed-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#1
Jie He, Yunfeng Zhao, Jingli Zhao, Jin Gao, Pao Xu, Runqing Yang
To genetically analyse growth traits in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT), the body weight (BWE) and main morphological traits, including body length (BL), body depth (BD), body width (BWI), head length (HL) and length of the caudal peduncle (CPL), were measured six times in growth duration on 1451 fish from 45 mixed families of full and half sibs. A random regression model (RRM) was used to model genetic changes of the growth traits with days of age and estimate the heritability for any growth point and genetic correlations between pairwise growth points...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348515/genetic-evidence-for-panmixia-in-a-colony-breeding-crater-lake-cichlid-fish
#2
T K Lehtonen, K R Elmer, M Lappalainen, A Meyer
Fine-scaled genetic structuring, as seen for example in many lacustrine fish, typically relates to the patterns of migration, habitat use, mating system or other ecological factors. Because the same processes can also affect the propensity of population differentiation and divergence, assessments of species from rapidly speciating clades, or with particularly interesting ecological traits, can be especially insightful. For this study, we assessed the spatial genetic relationships, including the genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal, in a colony-breeding cichlid fish, Amphilophus astorquii, endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua, using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci (n = 123 individuals from three colonies)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345073/improving-accuracy-of-genomic-prediction-in-brangus-cattle-by-adding-animals-with-imputed-low-density-snp-genotypes
#3
F B Lopes, X-L Wu, H Li, J Xu, T Perkins, J Genho, R Ferretti, R G Tait, S Bauck, G J M Rosa
Reliable genomic prediction of breeding values for quantitative traits requires the availability of sufficient number of animals with genotypes and phenotypes in the training set. As of 31 October 2016, there were 3,797 Brangus animals with genotypes and phenotypes. These Brangus animals were genotyped using different commercial SNP chips. Of them, the largest group consisted of 1,535 animals genotyped by the GGP-LDV4 SNP chip. The remaining 2,262 genotypes were imputed to the SNP content of the GGP-LDV4 chip, so that the number of animals available for training the genomic prediction models was more than doubled...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343308/invited-review-genomic-selection-for-small-ruminants-in-developed-countries-how-applicable-for-the-rest-of-the-world
#4
R Mrode, G M Tarekegn, J M Mwacharo, A Djikeng
Improved management and use of estimated breeding values in breeding programmes, have resulted in rapid genetic progress for small ruminants (SR) in Europe and other developed countries. The development of single nucleotide polymorphisms chips opened opportunities for genomic selection (GS) in SR in these countries. Initially focused on production traits (growth and milk), GS has been extended to functional traits (reproductive performance, disease resistance and meat quality). The GS systems have been characterized by smaller reference populations compared with those of dairy cattle and consisting mostly of cross- or multi-breed populations...
January 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342277/finding-nemo-hybrid-assembly-with-oxford-nanopore-and-illumina-reads-greatly-improves-the-clownfish-amphiprion-ocellaris-genome-assembly
#5
Mun Hua Tan, Christopher M Austin, Michael P Hammer, Yin Peng Lee, Laurence J Croft, Han Ming Gan
Background: Some of the most widely recognised coral-reef fishes are clownfish or anemonefishes, members of the family Pomacentridae (subfamily: Amphiprioninae). They are popular aquarium species due to their bright colours, adaptability to captivity and fascinating behavior. Their breeding biology (sequential hermaphrodites) and symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones have attracted much scientific interest. Moreover, there are some curious geographic-based phenotypes which warrant investigation...
January 12, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341390/building-a-new-research-framework-for-social-evolution-intralocus-caste-antagonism
#6
Tanya M Pennell, Luke Holman, Edward H Morrow, Jeremy Field
The breeding and non-breeding 'castes' of eusocial insects provide a striking example of role-specific selection, where each caste maximises fitness through different morphological, behavioural and physiological trait values. Typically, queens are long-lived egg-layers, while workers are short-lived, largely sterile foragers. Remarkably, the two castes are nevertheless produced by the same genome. The existence of inter-caste genetic correlations is a neglected consequence of this shared genome, potentially hindering the evolution of caste dimorphism: alleles that increase the productivity of queens may decrease the productivity of workers and vice versa, such that each caste is prevented from reaching optimal trait values...
January 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341282/expression-analyses-of-candidate-genes-related-to-meat-quality-traits-in-squabs-from-two-breeds-of-meat-type-pigeon
#7
M Ye, M Xu, C Chen, Y He, M Ding, X Ding, W Wei, S Yang, B Zhou
In this study, meat quality traits were compared between squabs from two pigeon breeds: one Chinese indigenous breed, the Shiqi (SQ) meat-type pigeon, and an imported breed, the white king (WK) meat-type pigeon. Breed differences were detected in the content of intramuscular fat (IMF) in the breast muscle. SQ squabs had significantly higher IMF content than the WK birds. The shear force value (an objective measure of meat tenderness) of SQ birds was also relatively lower than that of the WK squabs. Further analysis of fatty acids profile revealed that SQ squabs exhibited significant advantage in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while WK squabs were significantly higher in the sum of monounsaturated fatty acids...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341123/do-longer-root-hairs-improve-phosphorus-uptake-testing-the-hypothesis-with-transgenic-brachypodium-distachyon-lines-overexpressing-endogenous-rsl-genes
#8
Chunyan Zhang, Richard J Simpson, Chul Min Kim, Norman Warthmann, Emmanuel Delhaize, Liam Dolan, Mary E Byrne, Yu Wu, Peter R Ryan
Mutants without root hairs show reduced inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) uptake and compromised growth on soils when Pi availability is restricted. What is less clear is whether root hairs that are longer than wild-type provide an additional benefit to phosphorus (P) nutrition. This was tested using transgenic Brachypodium lines with longer root hairs. The lines were transformed with the endogenous BdRSL2 and BdRSL3 genes using either a constitutive promoter or a root hair-specific promoter. Plants were grown for 32 d in soil amended with various Pi concentrations...
January 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340753/can-spelt-wheat-be-used-as-heterotic-group-for-hybrid-wheat-breeding
#9
Wessam Akel, Patrick Thorwarth, Vilson Mirdita, Elmar A Weissman, Guozheng Liu, Tobias Würschum, C Friedrich H Longin
Spelt wheat is a distinct genetic group to elite bread wheat, but heterosis for yield and protein quality is too low for spelt to be recommended as heterotic group for hybrid breeding in wheat. The feasibility to switch from line to hybrid breeding is currently a hot topic in the wheat community. One limitation seems to be the lack of divergent heterotic groups within wheat adapted to a certain region. Spelt wheat is a hexaploid wheat that can easily be crossed with bread wheat and that forms a divergent genetic group when compared to elite bread wheat...
January 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340153/temporal-migration-patterns-between-natal-locations-of-ruby-throated-hummingbirds-archilochus-colubris-and-their-gulf-coast-stopover-site
#10
Theodore J Zenzal, Andrea J Contina, Jeffrey F Kelly, Frank R Moore
Background: Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route. The ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern...
2018: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333609/runs-of-homozygosity-reveal-genome-wide-autozygosity-in-italian-sheep-breeds
#11
S Mastrangelo, E Ciani, M T Sardina, G Sottile, F Pilla, B Portolano
The availability of dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays allows for the determination of autozygous segments based on runs of consecutive homozygous genotypes (ROH). The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of ROH in 21 Italian sheep breeds using medium-density SNP genotypes in order to characterize autozygosity and identify genomic regions that frequently appeared in ROH within individuals, namely ROH islands. After filtering, the final number of animals and SNPs retained for analyses were 502 and 46 277 respectively...
January 15, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331165/investigating-the-population-structure-and-genetic-differentiation-of-livestock-guard-dog-breeds
#12
D Bigi, S P Marelli, L Liotta, S Frattini, A Talenti, G Pagnacco, M Polli, P Crepaldi
Livestock guarding dogs are a valuable adjunct to the pastoral community. Having been traditionally selected for their working ability, they fulfil their function with minimal interaction or command from their human owners. In this study, the population structure and the genetic differentiation of three Italian livestock guardian breeds (Sila's Dog, Maremma and Abruzzese Sheepdog and Mannara's Dog) and three functionally and physically similar breeds (Cane Corso, Central Asian Shepherd Dog and Caucasian Shepherd Dog), totalling 179 dogs unrelated at the second generation, were investigated with 18 autosomal microsatellite markers...
January 14, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330500/integration-of-gwas-pathway-and-network-analyses-reveals-novel-mechanistic-insights-into-the-synthesis-of-milk-proteins-in-dairy-cows
#13
Sara Pegolo, Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato
The quantities and proportions of protein fractions have notable effects on the nutritional and technological value of milk. Although much is known about the effects of genetic variants on milk proteins, the complex relationships among the set of genes and pathways regulating the different protein fractions synthesis and secretion into milk in dairy cows are still not completely understood. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for milk nitrogen fractions in a cohort of 1,011 Brown Swiss cows, which uncovered 170 significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), mostly located on BTA6 and BTA11...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321906/advancing-breeding-phenology-does-not-affect-incubation-schedules-in-chestnut-crowned-babblers-opposing-effects-of-temperature-and-wind
#14
Elliot Capp, Andrea L Liebl, Alexandra G Cones, Andrew F Russell
Projecting population responses to climate change requires an understanding of climatic impacts on key components of reproduction. Here, we investigate the associations among breeding phenology, climate and incubation schedules in the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a 50 g passerine with female-only, intermittent incubation that typically breeds from late winter (July) to early summer (November). During daylight hours, breeding females spent an average of 33 min on the nest incubating (hereafter on-bouts) followed by 24-min foraging (hereafter off-bouts), leading to an average daytime nest attentiveness of 60%...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321632/genome-wide-association-study-in-asia-adapted-tropical-maize-reveals-novel-and-explored-genomic-regions-for-sorghum-downy-mildew-resistance
#15
Zerka Rashid, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Hindu Vemuri, Pervez Haider Zaidi, Boddupalli Maruthi Prasanna, Sudha Krishnan Nair
Globally, downy mildews are among the important foliar diseases of maize that cause significant yield losses. We conducted a genome-wide association study for sorghum downy mildew (SDM; Peronosclerospora sorghi) resistance in a panel of 368 inbred lines adapted to the Asian tropics. High density SNPs from Genotyping-by-sequencing were used in GWAS after controlling for population structure and kinship in the panel using a single locus mixed model. The study identified a set of 26 SNPs that were significantly associated with SDM resistance, with Bonferroni corrected P values ≤ 0...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321363/dominance-effects-estimation-of-tlr4-and-cacna2d1-genes-for-health-and-production-traits-using-logistic-regression
#16
Masoumeh Bagheri, Azadeh Zahmatkesh
Knowledge of nonadditive variance and genetic effects can be helpful in explaining the total genetic variation formost of the traits. The objective of this study was to estimate dominance effects of several single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes for the production traits and clinical mastitis residual (CMR), in Holstein dairy cattle in a case-control study. Records of 305 days lactation were obtained for production traits and CMR. Animals were selected based on extreme values for CMR from mixed model analyses...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319442/clinical-signs-treatment-and-prognostic-factors-for-dogs-with-histoplasmosis
#17
Allison G Wilson, Kate S KuKanich, Andrew S Hanzlicek, Mark E Payton
OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis in a large sample of dogs, compare outcomes achieved with fluconazole versus itraconazole, and identify variables available at the time of diagnosis with prognostic value. DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study. ANIMALS 79 dogs with confirmed histoplasmosis evaluated at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 1999 through 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding clinical signs at evaluation, physical examination findings, clinical laboratory values, other diagnostic test results, treatments, and outcomes...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319228/mobility-affects-copulation-and-oviposition-dynamics-in-pieris-brassicae-in-semi-natural-cages
#18
Nicolas Larranaga, Michel Baguette, Olivier Calvez, Delphine Legrand
When, how often and for how long organisms mate can have strong consequences for individual fitness and are crucial aspects of evolutionary ecology. Such determinants are likely to be of even greater importance in monandrous species and species with short adult life stages. Previous work suggests that mobility, a key dispersal-related trait, may affect the dynamics of copulations, but few studies have investigated the impact of individual mobility on mating latency, copulation duration and oviposition latency simultaneously...
January 10, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316314/an-integrated-tool-for-microsatellite-isolation-and-validation-from-the-reference-genome-and-their-application-in-the-study-of-breeding-turnover-in-an-endangered-avian-population
#19
Xian Hou, Pengwei Xu, Zhenzhen Lin, Josephine d'URBAN-Jackson, Andrew Dixon, Batbayar Bold, Jiliang Xu, Xiangjiang Zhan
Accurate individual identification is required to estimate survival rates in avian populations. For endangered species, non-invasive methods of obtaining individual identification, such as using molted feathers as a source of DNA for microsatellite markers, are preferred because of less disturbance, easy sample preparation and high efficiency. With the availability of many avian genomes, a few pipelines isolating genome-wide microsatellites have been published, but it is still a challenge to isolate microsatellites from the reference genome efficiently...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305724/tools-for-monitoring-aquatic-environments-to-identify-anthropic-effects
#20
Monyque Palagano da Rocha, Priscila Leocadia Rosa Dourado, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Liliam Silva Cândido, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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