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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145143/biodegradation-of-polystyrene-wastes-in-yellow-mealworms-larvae-of-tenebrio-molitor-linnaeus-factors-affecting-biodegradation-rates-and-the-ability-of-polystyrene-fed-larvae-to-complete-their-life-cycle
#1
Shan-Shan Yang, Anja Malawi Brandon, James Christopher Andrew Flanagan, Jun Yang, Daliang Ning, Shen-Yang Cai, Han-Qing Fan, Zhi-Yue Wang, Jie Ren, Eric Benbow, Nan-Qi Ren, Robert M Waymouth, Jizhong Zhou, Craig S Criddle, Wei-Min Wu
Commercial production of polystyrene (PS) -a persistent plastic that is not biodegradable at appreciable rates in most environments-has led to its accumulation as a major contaminant of land, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Recently, however, an environment was identified in which PS is susceptible to rapid biodegradation: the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworms). In this study, we evaluate PS degradation capabilities of a previously untested strain of T. molitor and assess its survival and PS biodegradation rates for a range of conditions (two simulated food wastes, three temperatures, seven PS waste types)...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143712/accuracy-and-bias-of-genomic-prediction-with-different-de-regression-methods
#2
H Song, L Li, Q Zhang, S Zhang, X Ding
Genomic selection has become increasingly important in the breeding of animals and plants. The response variable is an important factor, influencing the accuracy of genomic selection. The de-regressed proof (DRP) based on traditional estimated breeding value (EBV) is commonly used as response variable. In the current study, simulated data from 16th QTL-MAS Workshop and real data from Chinese Holstein cattle were used to compare accuracy and bias of genomic prediction with two methods of calculating DRP. Our results with simulated data showed that the correlation between genomic EBV and true breeding value achieved using the Jairath method (DRP_J) was superior to that achieved using the Garrick method (DRP_G) for simulated trait 1 but the reverse was true for simulated trait 3, and these two methods performed comparably for simulated trait 2...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143711/defining-the-breeding-goal-for-a-sheep-breed-including-production-and-functional-traits-using-market-data
#3
A Theodoridis, A Ragkos, G Rose, D Roustemis, G Arsenos
In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143602/molecular-and-agro-morphological-characterization-of-ancient-wheat-landraces-of-turkey
#4
Kahraman Gurcan, Fatih Demirel, Mehmet Tekin, Serap Demirel, Taner Akar
BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the important gene centers for many crop species. In this research, some ancient wheats such as tetraploid and diploid hulled wheats together with hexaploid tir wheats (Triticum aestivum ssp. leucospermum Korn.) landraces mainly adapted to harsh winter conditions of Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey were characterized at agro-morphological and molecular level. Totally 50 hulled wheat population from Kastamonu, Konya and Kayseri provinces and 15 tir wheats from Kars provinces of Turkey were in-situ collected for characterization in 2013...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143146/screening-transferable-microsatellite-markers-across-genus-phalaenopsis-orchidaceae
#5
Ya-Zhu Ko, Huei-Chuan Shih, Chi-Chu Tsai, Hsing-Hua Ho, Pei-Chun Liao, Yu-Chung Chiang
BACKGROUND: Molecular identification based on microsatellite loci is an important technology to improve the commercial breeding of the moth orchid. There are more than 30,000 cultivars have been enrolled at the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS). In this study, genomic microsatellite primer sets were developed from Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana to further examine the transferability of across 21 Phalaenopsis species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were obtained using the magnetic bead enrichment method, with high transferability of the 21 species of the genus Phalaenopsis, especially in the subgenus Phalaenopsis...
November 15, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142148/seasonal-changes-in-serum-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-dairy-and-beef-cows-in-a-daytime-grazing-system
#6
Ahmad Nawid Mirzad, Takashi Tada, Hitoshi Ano, Ikuo Kobayashi, Takenori Yamauchi, Hiromu Katamoto
This study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress during hot summer season using serum oxidative stress biomarkers and elucidate the effects of serum antioxidant vitamin levels in dairy and beef cows in a daytime grazing system. Blood samples were collected once a month from eight Holstein Friesian (HF) and 10 Japanese Black (JB) cows from November 2013 to October 2014. Serum values of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) tended to be higher in March in both breeds and those in HF cows were kept at higher (P<0...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142024/a-model-of-leaf-coordination-to-scale-up-leaf-expansion-from-the-organ-to-the-canopy
#7
Pierre Martre, Anaelle Dambreville
Process-based crop growth models are popular tools to analyze and understand the impact of crop management, genotype by environment interactions, or climate change. The ability to predict leaf area development is critical to predict crop growth, particularly under conditions of limited resources. Here, we aimed at deciphering growth coordination rules between wheat plant organs, i.e. between leaves within a stem, between laminae and sheaths, and between the mainstem and axillary tillers, to model the dynamics of canopy development...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140467/genomic-prediction-in-a-nuclear-population-of-layers-using-single-step-models
#8
Yiyuan Yan, Guiqin Wu, Aiqiao Liu, Congjiao Sun, Wenpeng Han, Guangqi Li, Ning Yang
Single-step genomic prediction method has been proposed to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction by incorporating information of both genotyped and ungenotyped animals. The objective of this study is to compare the prediction performance of single-step model with a 2-step models and the pedigree-based models in a nuclear population of layers. A total of 1,344 chickens across 4 generations were genotyped by a 600 K SNP chip. Four traits were analyzed, i.e., body weight at 28 wk (BW28), egg weight at 28 wk (EW28), laying rate at 38 wk (LR38), and Haugh unit at 36 wk (HU36)...
November 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138930/identifying-a-breeding-habitat-of-a-critically-endangered-fish-acheilognathus-typus-in-a-natural-river-in-japan
#9
Masayuki K Sakata, Nobutaka Maki, Hideki Sugiyama, Toshifumi Minamoto
Freshwater biodiversity has been severely threatened in recent years, and to conserve endangered species, their distribution and breeding habitats need to be clarified. However, identifying breeding sites in a large area is generally difficult. Here, by combining the emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis with subsequent traditional collection surveys, we successfully identified a breeding habitat for the critically endangered freshwater fish Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is one of the original habitats of this species...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137911/effect-of-supplementing-a-diet-with-monensin-sodium-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-on-reproductive-performance-of-ghezel-ewes
#10
Leila Ahmadzadeh, Ali Hosseinkhani, Hossein Daghighkia
Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2-5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plusSaccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×10(9)CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G)...
November 11, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137491/characterization-of-biochemical-traits-of-dog-rose-rosa-canina-l-ecotypes-in-the-central-part-of-iran
#11
Milad Javanmard, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh, Pejman Nikneshan
Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) is a wild native species in Iran, with a significant genetic diversity. This plant serves as a rich source of vitamin C, anthocyanins, phenolic contents and carotenoids. Rose hips have been used in several food products, as well as perfumery and cosmetics industries. In this research, we investigate biochemical characteristics of five dog rose ecotypes (Kopehjamshid, Zarneh, Miyankish, Aghcheh and Sadeghiyeh), that were collected from the central part of Iran (Isfahan province). Amounts of vitamin C, total carotenoids, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, macro and micro minerals were measured...
November 14, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136656/genetic-diversity-linkage-disequilibrium-and-association-mapping-analyses-of-gossypium-barbadense-l-germplasm
#12
Alisher A Abdullaev, Ilkhom B Salakhutdinov, Sharof S Egamberdiev, Ernest E Khurshut, Sofiya M Rizaeva, Mauricio Ulloa, Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov
Limited polymorphism and narrow genetic base, due to genetic bottleneck through historic domestication, highlight a need for comprehensive characterization and utilization of existing genetic diversity in cotton germplasm collections. In this study, 288 worldwide Gossypium barbadense L. cotton germplasm accessions were evaluated in two diverse environments (Uzbekistan and USA). These accessions were assessed for genetic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and LD-based association mapping (AM) of fiber quality traits using 108 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134689/effectiveness-of-controlled-internal-drug-release-device-treatment-to-alleviate-reproductive-seasonality-in-anestrus-lactating-or-dry-barki-and-rahmani-ewes-during-non-breeding-season
#13
M Y El-Mokadem, Anm Nour El-Din, T A Ramadan, A M Rashad, T A Taha, M A Samak, M H Salem
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season. Forty-eight multiparous ewes, 24 Barki and 24 Rahmani ewes were divided into two groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry ewes for each breed. Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted in all ewes for 14 days in conjunction with intramuscular 500 IU equine chronic gonadotrophin (eCG) at day of CIDR removal. Data were analysed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures...
November 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131830/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-sweet-potato-for-the-identification-of-putative-genes-involved-in-the-defense-response-against-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-batatas
#14
Yuli Lin, Weikun Zou, Shiqiang Lin, Dennis Onofua, Zhijian Yang, Haizhou Chen, Songliang Wang, Xuanyang Chen
Sweet potato production is constrained by Fusarium wilt, which is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. batatas (Fob). The identification of genes related to disease resistance and the underlying mechanisms will contribute to improving disease resistance via sweet potato breeding programs. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling of sweet potato challenged with Fob using Illumina HiSeq technology. In total, 89,944,188 clean reads were generated from 12 samples and assembled into 101,988 unigenes with an average length of 666 bp; of these unigenes, 62,605 (61...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129877/evaluation-of-the-chemiluminescent-enzyme-immunoassay-system-for-the-measurement-of-testosterone-in-the-serum-and-whole-blood-of-stallions
#15
Yuko Toishi, Nobuo Tsunoda, Shun-Ichi Nagata, Rikio Kirisawa, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Kazuyoshi Taya
Testosterone (T) concentration is a useful indicator of reproductive function in male animals. However, T concentration is not usually measured in veterinary clinics, partly due to the unavailability of reliable and rapid assays for animal samples. In this study, a rapid chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system (CLEIA system) that was developed for the measurement of T concentration in humans use was validated for stallion blood samples. First, serum T concentrations were measured using the CLEIA system and compared with those measured by a fluoroimmunoassay that has been validated for use in stallions...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129139/effect-of-using-an-internal-teat-sealant-at-drying-off-in-cows-wintered-on-forage-crops-in-new-zealand-on-culling-in-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation
#16
A J Bates, B Saldias
AIMS: To determine the impact of treatment with internal teat sealant (ITS) compared to no treatment at drying-off on culling during the dry period and 90 days after calving, for cows wintered on forage crops. METHODS: In four dairy herds in the South Island of New Zealand, cows with no history of clinical mastitis or somatic cell counts >100,000 cells/mL during the 2015-16 season were randomly assigned to treatment with ITS in each quarter (ITS group) or no treatment (Control group)...
November 12, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128221/short-communication-genetic-association-of-variations-in-the-osteopontin-gene-spp1-with-lactation-persistency-in-dairy-cattle
#17
Nathalie Bissonnette
Improving lactation persistency (LP) in dairy cattle has a beneficial effect on animal health and fertility and herd productivity. A complex trait, LP not only reflects the cow's ability to maintain milk secretion activity after the lactation peak but is also a function of the postcalving development of the mammary gland and, later on, of tissue remodeling as lactation declines. This decline is a consequence of an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell removal. In a previous study, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the osteopontin (OPN) gene, SPP1...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128211/genome-wide-association-studies-to-identify-quantitative-trait-loci-affecting-milk-production-traits-in-water-buffalo
#18
J J Liu, A X Liang, G Campanile, G Plastow, C Zhang, Z Wang, A Salzano, B Gasparrini, M Cassandro, L G Yang
Water buffalo is the second largest resource of milk supply around the world, and it is well known for its distinctive milk quality in terms of fat, protein, lactose, vitamin, and mineral contents. Understanding the genetic architecture of milk production traits is important for future improvement by the buffalo breeding industry. The advance of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provides an opportunity to identify potential genetic variants affecting important economical traits. In the present study, GWAS was performed for 489 buffaloes with 1,424 lactation records using the 90K Affymetrix Buffalo SNP Array (Affymetrix/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Santa Clara, CA)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126831/characterization-of-the-ovarian-preantral-follicle-populations-and-its-correlation-with-age-and-nutritional-status-in-brazilian-northeastern-donkeys-equus-assinus
#19
K R F Lopes, G L Lima, L G P Bezerra, R A Barreto-Junior, M F Oliveira, A R Silva
This study aimed to characterize the ovarian follicular population and to determine its correlations with the age and nutritional status of donkeys of the Northeastern Brazilian breed. A total of 10 females with a mean age of 5.1±3.2years were submitted to ovariectomy by videolaparoscopy to obtain the ovaries. In the laboratory, the ovaries were sectioned into 6-12 fragments of approximately 7mm in diameter, which were fixed in Carnoy, dehydrated in increasing concentrations of alcohol (85%, 95% and absolute), clarified using xylol and embedded in blocks of histological paraffin...
November 7, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125871/does-ownership-of-improved-dairy-cow-breeds-improve-child-nutrition-a-pathway-analysis-for-uganda
#20
Nassul S Kabunga, Shibani Ghosh, Patrick Webb
The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption...
2017: PloS One
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