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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938781/differences-in-egg-nutrient-availability-and-embryo-development-in-white-layer-breeder-genotypes
#1
E E Onbasilar, M Kahraman, O Ahlat, Ö F Güngör, A Çalik, S Taban, S Yalçin
Because of consumers' preferences and also due to changes in production systems, the importance of pure breeds has increased again. There are a lot of differences among breeds which have been studied extensively, however, the differences during the incubation period are not yet fully known. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the composition of the egg parts, absorption of nutrients, and development of embryos from different genotypes. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were obtained from one hybrid (Lohman White, LW) and two pure breeds (Denizli and Gerze)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938772/susceptibility-to-keel-bone-fractures-in-laying-hens-and-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#2
Laura Candelotto, Ariane Stratmann, Sabine G Gebhardt-Henrich, Christina Rufener, Teun van de Braak, Michael J Toscano
Keel bone fractures are a well-known welfare problem in modern commercial laying hen systems. The present study sought to identify genetic variation in relation to keel bone fracture susceptibility of 4 distinct crossbred and one pure line, and by extension, possible breeding traits. Susceptibility to fractures were assessed using an ex vivo impact testing protocol in combination with a study design that minimized environmental variation to focus on genetic differences. The 5 crossbred/pure lines differed in their susceptibility to keel bone fractures with the greatest likelihood of fracture in one of the 3 commercial lines and the lowest susceptibility to fractures in one of the experimental lines...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938396/transgenic-expression-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-restricted-to-the-ileum-cecum-and-colon-of-vitamin-d-receptor-knockout-mice-rescues-vitamin-d-receptor-dependent-rickets
#3
Puneet Dhawan, Vaishali Veldurthy, Ghassan Yehia, Connie Hsaio, Angela Porta, Ki-In Kim, Nishant Patel, Liesbet Lieben, Lieve Verlinden, Geert Carmeliet, Sylvia Christakos
Although the intestine plays the major role in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) action on calcium homeostasis, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. The established model of 1,25(OH)2D3 regulated intestinal calcium absorption postulates a critical role for the duodenum. However it is the distal intestine where 70 -80% of the ingested calcium is absorbed. In order to test directly the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the distal intestine, 3 independent knockout (KO) /transgenic (TG) lines expressing VDR exclusively in the ileum, cecum and colon were generated by breeding VDR KO mice with TG mice expressing human (h)VDR under the control of the 9...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938176/genotypic-differences-in-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-to-salinity-stress-in-melon-cucumis-melo-l-plants-prospects-for-selection-of-salt-tolerant-landraces
#4
Behrooz Sarabi, Sahebali Bolandnazar, Nasser Ghaderi, Jaleh Ghashghaie
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran often cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the country with salinity problems. The objective of this work was to better understand the mechanisms of physiological and biochemical responses to salinity stress of five Iranian melon landraces "Samsuri", "Kashan", "Khatouni", "Suski-e-Sabz", and "Ghobadlu" from different geographical origins, and "Galia" F1 cultivar. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and irrigated with half-strength Hoagland solution containing 0, 30, 60, or 90 mM NaCl for 60 days...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938023/exploration-of-genetic-architecture-through-sib-ship-reconstruction-in-advanced-breeding-population-of-eucalyptus-nitens
#5
Jaroslav Klápště, Mari Suontama, Emily Telfer, Natalie Graham, Charlie Low, Toby Stovold, Russel McKinley, Heidi Dungey
Accurate inference of relatedness between individuals in breeding population contributes to the precision of genetic parameter estimates, effectiveness of inbreeding management and the amount of genetic progress delivered from breeding programs. Pedigree reconstruction has been proven to be an efficient tool to correct pedigree errors and recover hidden relatedness in open pollinated progeny tests but the method can be limited by the lack of parental genotypes and the high proportion of alien pollen from outside the breeding population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937820/sex-allocation-patterns-across-cooperatively-breeding-birds-do-not-support-predictions-of-the-repayment-hypothesis
#6
Nyil Khwaja, Ben J Hatchwell, Robert P Freckleton, Jonathan P Green
The repayment hypothesis predicts that reproductive females in cooperative breeding systems overproduce the helping sex. Thanks to well-documented examples of this predicted sex ratio bias, repayment has been considered an important driver of variation in sex allocation patterns. Here we test this hypothesis using data on population brood sex ratios and facultative sex allocation from 28 cooperatively breeding bird species. We find that biased sex ratios of helpers do not correlate with production biases in brood sex ratios, contrary to predictions...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937818/divorce-in-an-island-bird-population-causes-consequences-and-lack-of-inheritance
#7
Nathaniel T Wheelwright, Céline Teplitsky
Divorce (mate switching) is widely considered an adaptive strategy that female birds use to improve their reproductive success. However, in few species are the causes and consequences of divorce well understood, and the genetic basis and inheritance of divorce have never been explored. In Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, 47.0% of pairs in which both partners survived to the following breeding season ended in divorce. Secondary females, which received less parental assistance than primary females, tended to divorce when breeding success was low or when paired with small males...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936672/transgenic-reproductive-cell-ablation
#8
Shai J Lawit, Mark A Chamberlin
Numerous cell ablation technologies are available and have been used in reproductive tissues, particularly for male tissues and cells. The importance of ablation of reproductive tissues is toward a fundamental understanding reproductive tissue development and fertilization, as well as, in developing sterility lines important to breeding strategies. Here, we describe techniques for developing ablation lines for both male and female reproductive cells. Also discussed are techniques for analysis, quality control, maintenance, and the lessening of pleiotropism in such lines...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936669/impedance-flow-cytometry-as-a-tool-to-analyze-microspore-and-pollen-quality
#9
Iris Heidmann, Marco Di Berardino
Analyzing pollen quality in an efficient and reliable manner is of great importance to the industries involved in seed and fruit production, plant breeding, and plant research. Pollen quality parameters, viability and germination capacity, are analyzed by various staining methods or by in vitro germination assays, respectively. These methods are time-consuming, species-dependent, and require a lab environment. Furthermore, the obtained viability data are often poorly related to in vivo pollen germination and seed set...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936221/metabolite-profiling-of-barley-grains-subjected-to-water-stress-to-explain-the-genotypic-difference-in-drought-induced-impacts-on-malting-quality
#10
Xiaojian Wu, Kangfeng Cai, Guoping Zhang, Fanrong Zeng
Grain weight and protein content will be reduced and increased, respectively, when barley is subjected to water stress after anthesis, consequently deteriorating the malt quality. However, such adverse impact of water stress differs greatly among barley genotypes. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions and two cultivated varieties differing in water stress tolerance were used to investigate the genotypic difference in metabolic profiles during grain-filling stage under drought condition. Totally, 71 differently accumulated metabolites were identified, including organic acids, amino acids/amines, and sugars/sugar alcohols...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936220/de-novo-assembly-of-the-camellia-nitidissima-transcriptome-reveals-key-genes-of-flower-pigment-biosynthesis
#11
Xingwen Zhou, Jiyuan Li, Yulin Zhu, Sui Ni, Jinling Chen, Xiaojuan Feng, Yunfeng Zhang, Shuangquan Li, Hongguang Zhu, Yuanguang Wen
The golden camellia, Camellia nitidissima Chi., is a well-known ornamental plant that is known as "the queen of camellias" because of its golden yellow flowers. The principal pigments in the flowers are carotenoids and flavonol glycosides. Understanding the biosynthesis of the golden color and its regulation is important in camellia breeding. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of flower development in C. nitidissima, a number of cDNA libraries were independently constructed during flower development. Using the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform, approximately 71...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936216/genetic-tracing-of-jatropha-curcas-l-from-its-mesoamerican-origin-to-the-world
#12
Haiyan Li, Suguru Tsuchimoto, Kyuya Harada, Masanori Yamasaki, Hiroe Sakai, Naoki Wada, Atefeh Alipour, Tomohiro Sasai, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Takayuki Ando, Hisashi Tomemori, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Victor P Quintero, Alfredo Zamarripa, Primitivo Santos, Adel Hegazy, Abdalla M Ali, Kiichi Fukui
Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a shrub species of the family Euphorbiaceae, has been recognized as a promising biofuel plant for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, recent attempts at commercial cultivation in Africa and Asia have failed because of low productivity. It is important to elucidate genetic diversity and relationship in worldwide Jatropha genetic resources for breeding of better commercial cultivars. Here, genetic diversity was analyzed by using 246 accessions from Mesoamerica, Africa and Asia, based on 59 simple sequence repeat markers and eight retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism markers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936190/oxytocin-and-opioid-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-greeting-behavior-in-dogs
#13
Enikő Kubinyi, Melinda Bence, Dora Koller, Michele Wan, Eniko Pergel, Zsolt Ronai, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Ádám Miklósi
Meeting humans is an everyday experience for most companion dogs, and their behavior in these situations and its genetic background is of major interest. Previous research in our laboratory reported that in German shepherd dogs the lack of G allele, and in Border collies the lack of A allele, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) 19208A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was linked to increased friendliness, which suggests that although broad traits are affected by genetic variability, the specific links between alleles and behavioral variables might be breed-specific...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936114/practical-application-of-genomic-selection-in-a-doubled-haploid-winter-wheat-breeding-program
#14
Jiayin Song, Brett F Carver, Carol Powers, Liuling Yan, Jaroslav Klápště, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Charles Chen
Crop improvement is a long-term, expensive institutional endeavor. Genomic selection (GS), which uses single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information to estimate genomic breeding values, has proven efficient to increasing genetic gain by accelerating the breeding process in animal breeding programs. As for crop improvement, with few exceptions, GS applicability remains in the evaluation of algorithm performance. In this study, we examined factors related to GS applicability in line development stage for grain yield using a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935986/consumption-of-crustaceans-by-megaherbivorous-dinosaurs-dietary-flexibility-and-dinosaur-life-history-strategies
#15
Karen Chin, Rodney M Feldmann, Jessica N Tashman
Large plant-eating dinosaurs are usually presumed to have been strictly herbivorous, because their derived teeth and jaws were capable of processing fibrous plant foods. This inferred feeding behavior offers a generalized view of dinosaur food habits, but rare direct fossil evidence of diet provides more nuanced insights into feeding behavior. Here we describe fossilized feces (coprolites) that demonstrate recurring consumption of crustaceans and rotted wood by large Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. These multi-liter coprolites from the Kaiparowits Formation are primarily composed of comminuted conifer wood tissues that were fungally degraded before ingestion...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935875/differential-gene-expression-and-snp-association-between-fast-and-slow-growing-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#16
Diego Robledo, Juan A Rubiolo, Santiago Cabaleiro, Paulino Martínez, Carmen Bouza
Growth is among the most important traits for animal breeding. Understanding the mechanisms underlying growth differences between individuals can contribute to improving growth rates through more efficient breeding schemes. Here, we report a transcriptomic study in muscle and brain of fast- and slow-growing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a relevant flatfish in European and Asian aquaculture. Gene expression and allelic association between the two groups were explored. Up-regulation of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in the muscle of fast-growing fish was observed, indicating a higher metabolic rate of white muscle...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935582/3%C3%AE-hsd-expression-in-the-cns-of-a-manakin-and-finch
#17
Joy Eaton, Devaleena S Pradhan, Julia Barske, Leonida Fusani, Virginie Canoine, Barney A Schlinger
The prohormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) circulates in vertebrate blood with the potential for actions on target tissues including the central nervous system (CNS). Many actions of DHEA require its conversion into more active products, some of which are catalyzed by the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD). Studies of birds show both expression and activity of 3β-HSD in brain and its importance in regulating social behavior. In oscine songbirds, 3β-HSD is expressed at reasonably high levels in brain, possibly linked to their complex neural circuitry controlling song...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935581/crosstalks-between-kisspeptin-neurons-and-somatostatin-neurons-are-not-photoperiod-dependent-in-the-ewe-hypothalamus
#18
Laurence Dufourny, Didier Lomet
Seasonal reproduction is under the control of gonadal steroid feedback, itself synchronized by day-length or photoperiod. As steroid action on GnRH neurons is mostly indirect and therefore exerted through interneurons, we looked for neuroanatomical interactions between kisspeptin (KP) neurons and somatostatin (SOM) neurons, two populations targeted by sex steroids, in three diencephalic areas involved in the central control of ovulation and/or sexual behavior: the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the preoptic area (POA) and the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl)...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935553/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-bovine-cross-breed-mastitic-milk-in-and-around-asella-town-oromia-regional-state-southern-ethiopia
#19
Befikadu Seyoum, Hailemariam Kefyalew, Birhanu Abera, Nejash Abdela
A cross sectional study was undertaken from November 2016 to March 2017 in and around Asella town, Oromia regional state, southern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, in Bovine cross breed mastitis milk. A total of 384 lactating dairy cows were screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and California mastitis test (CMT). Out of 230 lactating crossbred cows with either clinical or subclinical mastitis examined for the involvement of Staphylococcus aureus...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935260/insights-of-lr28-mediated-wheat-leaf-rust-resistance-transcriptomic-approach
#20
Dharmendra Singh, Dhananjay Kumar, Lopamudra Satapathy, Jyoti Pathak, Saket Chandra, Adnan Riaz, Govindraj Bhaganagre, Raman Dhariwal, Manish Kumar, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Harindra Singh Balyan, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Leaf rust is a fungal disease that causes severe yield losses in wheat. Resistant varieties with major and quantitative resistance genes are the most effective method to control the disease. However, the main problem is inadequate information for understanding resistance mechanism and its usefulness. This paper presents Lr28 mediated genome-wide response of known and unknown genes during wheat-Puccinia triticina interaction. In this study, we prepared Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) libraries using seedling wheat mRNA for infected and mock conditions...
September 18, 2017: Gene
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