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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458198/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-adult-inflammation-findings-from-the-1958-british-birth-cohort
#1
Mingyi Chen, Rebecca E Lacey
BACKGROUND: The relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and poorer health across the life course is well established. Increased chronic inflammation might be one mechanism through which these associations operate. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ACE and adult inflammation using a prospective longitudinal study. We also investigated whether associations were explained by life course socioeconomic, psychological and health behavioural factors, and whether associations differed by gender...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457562/quality-of-life-outcomes-in-cochlear-implantation-of-children-with-profound-and-multiple-learning-disability
#2
Richard Benjamin Speaker, Jennifer Roberston, Cristina Simoes-Franklin, Fergal Glynn, Peter Walshe, Laura Viani
This study was performed to investigate the effect of cochlear implantation on the Quality of Life (QoL) of children with profound and multiple learning disability (PMLD). This cohort of children has been viewed historically as poor candidates for cochlear implantation as they generally have poor speech and hearing outcomes. The Irish National Cochlear Implant Program's prospectively maintained database was examined for all children implanted from July 1996 to July 2015. All charts of the 381 children implanted during this time were reviewed retrospectively; 16 children met criteria for being PMLD...
May 2018: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457204/prevention-and-management-of-childhood-obesity
#3
Aashima Dabas, Anju Seth
Childhood obesity has been recognized as a global pandemic. Preventive strategies have proven to be the most effective public health intervention in curbing this pandemic. A multi-component approach involving dietary modification and advocacy for a healthy lifestyle comprising of regular physical activity, minimizing screen time and behavioral interventions have been found beneficial in preventing obesity. A life-cycle approach has been recommended where preventive interventions go as far back as affecting maternal, fetal and early childhood nutrition and lifestyle...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#4
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456992/national-immunization-campaigns-with-oral-polio-vaccine-reduce-all-cause-mortality-a-natural-experiment-within-seven-randomized-trials
#5
Andreas Andersen, Ane Baerent Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Cesario Martins, Henrik Ravn, Najaaraq Lund, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Peter Aaby
Background: A recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV) were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs. Setting: Between 2002 and 2014, Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS), VAS-only, MV, and H1N1 vaccine...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456984/the-efficacy-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-the-anxiety-disorders-among-adolescent-girls
#6
Afsaneh Karbasi, Azadeh Haratian
Background: The prevalence of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents are found to be approximately between 8-12 and 5-10, respectively, and the long-lasting effects of such disorders can expose the sufferers to impairment and dysfunction in several areas of life the examples of which are poor educational performance, low self-esteem, and depression. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based, cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) in treating the anxiety disorders among adolescent females...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456039/exposure-to-dogs-but-not-cats-is-associated-to-a-decrease-in-the-prevalence-in-atopic-dermatitis-amongst-school-children
#7
M Bedolla-Barajas, J Morales-Romero, T I Bedolla-Pulido, T R Bedolla-Pulido, C Meza-López, N A Pulido-Guillén
INTRODUCTION: The association regarding the exposure to pets, especially cats and dogs, and the prevalence of allergic diseases is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the role played by early exposure to dogs or cats in the prevalence of allergic diseases amongst school-aged children. METHOD: Through a cross-sectional study, we examined 756 children, aged 6-7; these candidates were selected through cluster sampling. We inquired about the exposure that these children had had to dogs and cats, and whether these pets spent most of their time indoors or outdoors during the first year of the child's life...
February 15, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455855/impact-of-degree-of-obesity-on-sleep-quality-of-life-and-depression-in-youth
#8
Brandi N Whitaker, Paige L Fisher, Supriya Jambhekar, Gulnur Com, Samiya Razzaq, Julia E Thompson, Todd G Nick, Wendy L Ward
OBJECTIVE: Obese youth are more likely to report difficulties with sleep, depression, and quality of life (QOL). This study aims to characterize sleep problems, QOL, and symptoms of depression by degree of obesity. METHOD: The cross-sectional study was conducted in a specialized obesity clinic. Obese youth and their caregivers (N = 150) were evaluated with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Pediatric Quality of Life. Youth completed the Children's Depression Inventory...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455701/estimating-the-pathways-through-which-maternal-education-affects-stunting-evidence-from-an-urban-cohort-in-south-africa
#9
Daniela Casale, Gabriel Espi, Shane A Norris
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the determinants of stunting using rich data from a birth cohort study from urban South Africa and to examine the various mechanisms, both proximate and distal, through which maternal education affects stunting. DESIGN: Multivariate regression analysis using birth cohort data, where the outcome variable was stunting at age 2 years, and multiple mediator analysis to identify pathways from maternal education to stunting. SETTING: South Africa's largest metropolitan area, Soweto-Johannesburg...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455698/stop-the-bleed-the-effect-of-hemorrhage-control-education-on-laypersons-willingness-to-respond-during-a-traumatic-medical-emergency
#10
Elliot M Ross, Theodore T Redman, Julian G Mapp, Derek J Brown, Kaori Tanaka, Craig W Cooley, Chetan U Kharod, David A Wampler
BACKGROUND: The "Stop the Bleed" campaign advocates for non-medical personnel to be trained in basic hemorrhage control. However, it is not clear what type of education or the duration of instruction needed to meet that requirement. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a brief hemorrhage control educational curriculum on the willingness of laypersons to respond during a traumatic emergency. METHODS: This "Stop the Bleed" education initiative was conducted by the University of Texas Health San Antonio Office of the Medical Director (San Antonio, Texas USA) between September 2016 and March 2017...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455566/-he-supported-me-100-mexican-immigrant-fathers-daughters-and-adolescent-sexual-health
#11
Kate Coleman-Minahan, Goleen Samari
OBJECTIVE: First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. METHODS: Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women...
February 19, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455392/the-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-quality-of-life-in-short-stature-youth-qolissy-instrument-for-german-children-born-small-for-gestational-age
#12
R Sommer, J Blömeke, M Bullinger, J Quitmann
PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the disease-specific "quality of life in short stature youth (QoLISSY)-instrument" that assessesQuery the health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in German children and adolescents diagnosed as small for gestational age (SGA) in a patient and parent report. METHODS: The psychometric performance of the German version of the QoLISSY questionnaire was examined in terms of reliability and validity in 65 SGA families (17 child reports/64 parent reports) and compared to the psychometric performance of the original European QoLISSY dataset of over 200 children with growth hormone deficiency and idiopathic short stature (ISS)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454756/outcomes-after-acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-neonates
#13
REVIEW
Hannah C Glass, Zachary M Grinspan, Renée A Shellhaas
Acute symptomatic seizures are a common sign of neurological dysfunction and brain injury in neonates and occur in approximately one to three per 1000 live births. Seizures in neonates are usually a sign of underlying brain injury and, as such, are commonly associated with adverse outcomes. Neurological morbidities in survivors often co-occur; epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disability often occur together in the most severely affected children. Risk factors for adverse outcome include prematurity, low Apgar scores, low pH on the first day of life, seizure onset <24 or >72 h after birth, abnormal neonatal neurological examination, abnormal neonatal electroencephalographic background, status epilepticus, and presence and pattern of brain injury (particularly deep gray or brainstem injury)...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454506/becoming-a-team-the-nature-of-the-parent-healthcare-provider-relationship-when-a-child-is-dying-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#14
Ashleigh E Butler, Helen Hall, Beverley Copnell
PURPOSE: To explore bereaved parents' perspectives of parent and staff roles in the pediatric intensive care unit when their child was dying, and their relationships with healthcare staff during this time. DESIGN AND METHODS: Constructivist grounded theory was used to undertake this study. Semi-structured interviewers were conducted with 26 bereaved parents recruited from four Australian pediatric intensive care units. The constant comparative method, coupled with open, focused, and theoretical coding were used for data analysis...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454258/the-role-of-dissociation-in-revictimization-across-the-lifespan-a-32-year-prospective-study
#15
Osnat Zamir, Ohad Szepsenwol, Michelle M Englund, Jeffry A Simpson
Exposure to childhood abuse puts women at risk for revictimization in adult intimate relationships, but knowledge about the mechanism by which it occurs is limited. The present study investigated whether dissociation mediates the effect of exposure to physical or sexual child abuse on intimate partner violence in adulthood. We tested this using prospective data collected from birth to age 32 from 80 female participants in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation. We found that women who experienced sexual or physical abuse during the first 17...
February 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454255/effects-of-adjunctive-eslicarbazepine-acetate-on-neurocognitive-functioning-in-children-with-refractory-focal-onset-seizures
#16
Sergiusz Jóźwiak, P Veggiotti, J Moreira, H Gama, F Rocha, P Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: This was a phase-II, randomized, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate neurocognitive effects of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients with refractory focal-onset seizures (FOS). METHODS: Children (6-16years old) with FOS were randomized (2:1) to ESL or placebo. Treatment started at 10mg/kg/day, was up-titrated up to 30mg/kg/day (target dose), and maintained for 8weeks, followed by one-year open-label follow-up...
February 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453581/health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-born-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#17
Elin Öst, Björn Frenckner, Margret Nisell, Carmen Mesas Burgos, Maria Öjmyr-Joelsson
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Between 1993 and 2003, a total of 102 children born with CDH were treated at Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital in Stockholm. In 2012, long-term survivors (n = 77) were asked to participate in the present study, which resulted in a 46% (n = 35) response rate. The KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire was used for measuring HRQoL and a detailed review of medical records was performed...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453505/does-hope-matter-associations-among-self-reported-hope-anxiety-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cancer
#18
Ana Rita Martins, Carla Crespo, Ágata Salvador, Susana Santos, Carlos Carona, Maria Cristina Canavarro
This study aimed to examine the direct and indirect effects of hope on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) via anxiety of children/adolescents with cancer. We proposed to test if the mediation model was moderated by the child/adolescent's treatment status. The participants were 211 children/adolescents diagnosed with cancer, divided into two clinical groups according to treatment status: 97 patients on-treatment and 114 off-treatment. Self-reported questionnaires measured the youths' hope, anxiety, and HRQoL perceptions...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452463/autosomal-dominant-mannose-binding-lectin-deficiency-is-associated-with-worse-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-after-cardiac-surgery-in-infants
#19
Daniel Seung Kim, Yatong K Li, Jerry H Kim, Curtis S Bergquist, Marsha Gerdes, Judy C Bernbaum, Nancy Burnham, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Susan C Nicolson, Thomas L Spray, Deborah A Nickerson, Hakon Hakonarson, Gail P Jarvik, J William Gaynor
OBJECTIVES: The MBL2 gene is the major genetic determinant of mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-an acute phase reactant. Low MBL levels have been associated with adverse outcomes in preterm infants. The MBL2 Gly54Asp missense variant causes autosomal dominant MBL deficiency. We tested the hypothesis that MBL2 Gly54Asp is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes after cardiac surgery in neonates. METHODS: This is an analysis of a previously described cohort of patients with nonsyndromic congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass before age 6 months (n = 295)...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452377/discordance-in-the-dependence-on-kisspeptin-signaling-in-mini-puberty-vs-adolescent-puberty-human-genetic-evidence
#20
Muhammad Shahab, Margaret Lippincott, Yee-Ming Chan, Addie Davies, Paulina M Merino, Lacey Plummer, Veronica Mericq, Stephanie Seminara
Context: Hypothalamic kisspeptin signaling plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of reproductive function. Biallelic mutations in the coding sequence of KISS1R (GPR54) have been identified in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), but it is unknown whether biallelic variants can also be associated with related reproductive disorders. Case description: A missense homozygous variant (c.890G>T p.R297L) in KISS1R was identified in a child who presented with microphallus and bilateral cryptorchidism...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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