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Salience network, functional connectivity, fMRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767624/the-maternal-brain-in-women-with-a-history-of-early-life-maltreatment-an-imagination-based-fmri-study-of-conflictual-versus-pleasant-interactions-with-children
#1
Corinne Neukel, Katja Bertsch, Anna Fuchs PhD, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Corinna Reck, Eva Moehler, Romuald Brunner, Felix Bermpohl, Sabine C Herpertz
BACKGROUND: Early-life maltreatment has severe consequences for the affected individual, and it has an impact on the next generation. To improve understanding of the intergenerational effects of abuse, we investigated the consequences of early-life maltreatment on maternal sensitivity and associated brain mechanisms during mother-child interactions. METHODS: In total, 47 mothers (22 with a history of physical and/or sexual childhood abuse and 25 without, all without current mental disorders) took part in a standardized real-life interaction with their 7- to 11-year-old child (not abused) and a subsequent functional imaging script-driven imagery task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744802/the-role-of-the-insula-in-intuitive-expert-bug-detection-in-computer-code-an-fmri-study
#2
Joao Castelhano, Isabel C Duarte, Carlos Ferreira, Joao Duraes, Henrique Madeira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Software programming is a complex and relatively recent human activity, involving the integration of mathematical, recursive thinking and language processing. The neural correlates of this recent human activity are still poorly understood. Error monitoring during this type of task, requiring the integration of language, logical symbol manipulation and other mathematical skills, is particularly challenging. We therefore aimed to investigate the neural correlates of decision-making during source code understanding and mental manipulation in professional participants with high expertise...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713176/aberrant-brain-functional-connectome-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Li-Ting Chen, Xiao-Le Fan, Hai-Jun Li, Cheng-Long Ye, Hong-Hui Yu, Hui-Zhen Xin, Hong-Han Gong, De-Chang Peng, Li-Ping Yan
Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by widespread abnormal spontaneous regional activity related to cognitive deficits. However, little is known about the topological properties of the functional brain connectome of patients with OSA. This study aimed to use the graph theory approaches to investigate the topological properties and functional connectivity (FC) of the functional connectome in patients with OSA, based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709625/dynamic-functional-connectivity-markers-of-objective-trait-mindfulness
#4
Julian Lim, James Teng, Amiya Patanaik, Jesisca Tandi, Stijn A A Massar
While mindfulness is commonly viewed as a skill to be cultivated through practice, untrained individuals can also vary widely in dispositional mindfulness. Prior research has identified static neural connectivity correlates of this trait. Here, we use dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) analysis of resting-state fMRI to study time-varying connectivity patterns associated with naturally varying and objectively measured trait mindfulness. Participants were selected from the top and bottom tertiles of performers on a breath-counting task to form high trait mindfulness (HTM; N = 21) and low trait mindfulness (LTM; N = 18) groups...
April 27, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695961/altered-functional-connectivity-of-insular-subregions-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Xingyun Liu, Xiaodan Chen, Weimin Zheng, Mingrui Xia, Ying Han, Haiqing Song, Kuncheng Li, Yong He, Zhiqun Wang
Recent researches have demonstrated that the insula is the crucial hub of the human brain networks and most vulnerable region of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the changes of functional connectivity of insular subregions in the AD patients. In this study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data including 32 AD patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs). By defining three subregions of insula, we mapped whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and identified several distinct RSFC patterns of the insular subregions: For positive connectivity, three cognitive-related RSFC patterns were identified within insula that suggest anterior-to-posterior functional subdivisions: (1) an dorsal anterior zone of the insula that exhibits RSFC with executive control network (ECN); (2) a ventral anterior zone of insula, exhibits functional connectivity with the salience network (SN); (3) a posterior zone along the insula exhibits functional connectivity with the sensorimotor network (SMN)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691946/the-goal-priority-network-as-a-neural-substrate-of-conscientiousness
#6
Amanda R Rueter, Samantha V Abram, Angus W MacDonald, Aldo Rustichini, Colin G DeYoung
Conscientiousness is a personality trait associated with many important life outcomes, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie it. We investigated its neural correlates using functional connectivity analysis in fMRI, which identifies brain regions that act in synchrony. We tested the hypothesis that a broad network resembling a combination of the salience and ventral attention networks, which we provisionally label the goal priority network (GPN), is a neural correlate of Conscientiousness. Self- and peer-ratings of Conscientiousness were collected in a community sample of adults who underwent a resting-state fMRI scan (N = 218)...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593582/acute-effects-of-glucose-and-fructose-administration-on-the-neural-correlates-of-cognitive-functioning-in-healthy-subjects-a-pilot-study
#7
Davide Zanchi, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, André Schmidt, Claudia Suenderhauf, Antoinette Depoorter, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Karin Wölnerhanssen, Stefan Borgwardt
The present randomized double-blinded cross-over study aims to extensively study the neural correlates underpinning cognitive functions in healthy subjects after acute glucose and fructose administration, using an integrative multimodal neuroimaging approach. Five minutes after glucose, fructose, or placebo administration through a nasogastric tube, 12 participants underwent 3 complementary neuroimaging techniques: 2 task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences to assess working memory (N-back) and response inhibition (Go/No-Go) and one resting state fMRI sequence to address the cognition-related fronto-parietal network (FPN) and salience network (SN)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581420/aberrant-salience-network-functional-connectivity-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-a-first-episode-psychosis-sample
#8
Pavan Kumar Mallikarjun, Paris Alexandros Lalousis, Thomas Frederick Dunne, Kareen Heinze, Renate Lep Reniers, Matthew R Broome, Baldeep Farmah, Femi Oyebode, Stephen J Wood, Rachel Upthegrove
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) often lead to distress and functional disability, and are frequently associated with psychotic illness. Previously both state and trait magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of AVH have identified activity in brain regions involving auditory processing, language, memory and areas of default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). Current evidence is clouded by research mainly in participants on long-term medication, with chronic illness and by choice of seed regions made 'a priori'...
March 27, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572771/brain-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-coping-styles
#9
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Elisa Tatti, Lucia Mencarelli, Francesco Neri, Davide Momi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Simone Rossi, Alessandro Rossi
Coping abilities represent the individual set of mental and behavioral strategies adopted when facing stress or traumatic experiences. Coping styles related to avoidance have been linked to a disposition to develop psychiatric disorders such as PTSD, anxiety, and major depression, whereas problem-oriented coping skills have been positively correlated with well-being and high quality of life. Even though coping styles constitute an important determinant of resilience and can impact many aspects of everyday living, no study has investigated their brain functional connectivity underpinnings in humans...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571753/disrupted-network-cross-talk-hippocampal-dysfunction-and-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#10
Stephanie M Hare, Alicia S Law, Judith M Ford, Daniel H Mathalon, Aral Ahmadi, Eswar Damaraju, Juan Bustillo, Aysenil Belger, Hyo Jong Lee, Bryon A Mueller, Kelvin O Lim, Gregory G Brown, Adrian Preda, Theo G M van Erp, Steven G Potkin, Vince D Calhoun, Jessica A Turner
Hallucinations characterize schizophrenia, with approximately 59% of patients reporting auditory hallucinations and 27% reporting visual hallucinations. Prior neuroimaging studies suggest that hallucinations are linked to disrupted communication across distributed (sensory, salience-monitoring and subcortical) networks. Yet, our understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie auditory and visual hallucinations in schizophrenia remains limited. This study integrates two resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis methods - amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and functional network connectivity (FNC) - to explore the hypotheses that (1) abnormal FNC between salience and sensory (visual/auditory) networks underlies hallucinations in schizophrenia, and (2) disrupted hippocampal oscillations (as measured by hippocampal ALFF) beget changes in FNC linked to hallucinations...
March 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568689/both-activated-and-less-activated-regions-identified-by-functional-mri-reconfigure-to-support-task-executions
#11
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Introduction: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become very important for noninvasively characterizing BOLD signal fluctuations, which reflect the changes in neuronal firings in the brain. Unlike the activation detection strategy utilized with fMRI, which only emphasizes the synchronicity between the functional nodes (activated regions) and the task design, brain connectivity and network theory are able to decipher the interactive structure across the entire brain. However, little is known about whether and how the activated/less-activated interactions are associated with the functional changes that occur when the brain changes from the resting state to a task state...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556171/focusing-on-the-differences-of-resting-state-brain-networks-using-a-data-driven-approach-to-explore-the-functional-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-extraversion-trait
#12
Feng Tian, Junjie Wang, Cheng Xu, Hong Li, Xin Ma
In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studies that explored the personality-brain association. Researches on personality neuroscience have the potential to provide personality psychology with explanatory models-that is, why people differ from each other rather than how they differ from each other (DeYoung and Gray, 2009). As one of the most important dimensions of personality traits, extraversion is the most stable core and a universal component in personality theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541538/transcranial-dc-stimulation-modifies-functional-connectivity-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-abstinent-methamphetamine-users
#13
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527476/connectome-wide-investigation-of-altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-war-veterans-with-and-without-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Masaya Misaki, Raquel Phillips, Vadim Zotev, Chung-Ki Wong, Brent E Wurfel, Frank Krueger, Matthew Feldner, Jerzy Bodurka
Altered resting-state functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests neuropathology of the disorder. While seed-based fMRI connectivity analysis is often used for the studies, such analysis requires defining a seed location a priori , which restricts search scope and could bias findings toward presupposed areas. Recently, a comprehensive exploratory voxel-wise connectivity analysis, the connectome-wide association approach, has been introduced using multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) for resting-state functional connectivity analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520911/functional-segregation-loss-over-time-is-moderated-by-apoe-genotype-in-healthy-elderly
#15
Kwun Kei Ng, Yingwei Qiu, June Chi-Yan Lo, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay, Woon-Puay Koh, Michael Wei-Liang Chee, Juan Zhou
We investigated the influence of the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) on longitudinal age-related changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) and cognition, in view of mixed cross-sectional findings. One hundred and twenty-two healthy older adults (aged 58-79; 25 APOE-ɛ4 carriers) underwent task-free fMRI scans at baseline. Seventy-eight (16 carriers) had at least one follow-up (every 2 years). Changes in intra- and internetwork FCs among the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN), and salience (SN) networks, as well as cognition, were quantified using linear mixed models...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498761/aberrant-functional-network-connectivity-in-psychopathy-from-a-large-n-985-forensic-sample
#16
Flor A Espinoza, Victor M Vergara, Daisy Reyes, Nathaniel E Anderson, Carla L Harenski, Jean Decety, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Barnaly Rashid, Robyn L Miller, Michael Koenigs, David S Kosson, Keith Harenski, Kent A Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest...
June 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484255/brain-resting-state-networks-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-analysis-of-spatial-connectivity-and-temporal-neurodynamics
#17
Antoine Bernas, Evelien M Barendse, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Frans M J Willems, Peter H N de With, Svitlana Zinger, Jacobus F A Jansen
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475059/ventrolateral-motor-thalamus-abnormal-connectivity-in-essential-tremor-before-and-after-thalamotomy-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#18
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventrolateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy and compared against healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: In total, 17 consecutive patients with ET and 10 HCs were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using the ventrolateral ventral (VLV) thalamic nucleus as the region of interest, extracted with automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474008/an-inverse-u-shaped-curve-of-resting-state-networks-in-individuals-at-high-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Qing Ye, Haifeng Chen, Fan Su, Hao Shu, Liang Gong, Chunming Xie, Hong Zhou, Feng Bai
OBJECTIVE: Higher functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state networks has been shown in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by many studies. However, the longitudinal trajectories of the FC remain unknown. The present 35-month follow-up study aimed to explore longitudinal changes in higher FC in multiple resting-state networks in subjects with the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) and/or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: Fifty-one subjects with aMCI and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans twice from April 2011 to June 2015...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439328/impact-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-general-anesthesia-on-brain-networks-cognitive-efficiency-and-ventricular-volume-predict-functional-connectivity-decline-in-older-adults
#20
Haiqing Huang, Jared Tanner, Hari Parvataneni, Mark Rice, Ann Horgas, Mingzhou Ding, Catherine Price
 Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), we explored: 1) pre- to post-operative changes in functional connectivity in default mode, salience, and central executive networks after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with general anesthesia, and 2) the contribution of cognitive/brain reserve metrics these resting state functional declines. Individuals age 60 and older electing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n = 48) and non-surgery peers with osteoarthritis (n = 45) completed baseline cognitive testing and baseline and post-surgery (post-baseline, 48-h post-surgery) brain MRI...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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