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Salience network, functional connectivity, fMRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195139/altered-insula-connectivity-under-mdma
#1
Ishan C Walpola, Timothy Nest, Leor Roseman, David Erritzoe, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap...
February 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#2
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162895/the-brain-basis-for-misophonia
#3
Sukhbinder Kumar, Olana Tansley-Hancock, William Sedley, Joel S Winston, Martina F Callaghan, Micah Allen, Thomas E Cope, Phillip E Gander, Doris-Eva Bamiou, Timothy D Griffiths
Misophonia is an affective sound-processing disorder characterized by the experience of strong negative emotions (anger and anxiety) in response to everyday sounds, such as those generated by other people eating, drinking, chewing, and breathing [1-8]. The commonplace nature of these sounds (often referred to as "trigger sounds") makes misophonia a devastating disorder for sufferers and their families, and yet nothing is known about the underlying mechanism. Using functional and structural MRI coupled with physiological measurements, we demonstrate that misophonic subjects show specific trigger-sound-related responses in brain and body...
February 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160660/altered-default-mode-fronto-parietal-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-with-internet-addiction
#4
Lubin Wang, Hui Shen, Yu Lei, Ling-Li Zeng, Fenglin Cao, Linyan Su, Zheng Yang, Shuqiao Yao, Dewen Hu
Internet addiction (IA) is a condition characterized by loss of control over Internet use, leading to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to identify IA-related changes in specific brain regions and connections. However, whether and how the interactions within and between the large-scale brain networks are disrupted in individuals with IA remain largely unexplored. Using group independent component analysis, we extracted five intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from the resting-state fMRI data of 26 adolescents with IA and 43 controls, including the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), left and right fronto-parietal network (FPN), and salience network (SN)...
January 15, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117515/multimodal-investigation-of-triple-network-connectivity-in-patients-with-22q11ds-and-association-with-executive-functions
#5
Maria C Padula, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, Johanna Maeder, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Large-scale brain networks play a prominent role in cognitive abilities and their activity is impaired in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing schizophrenia and present similar cognitive impairments, including executive functions deficits. Thus, 22q11DS represents a model for the study of neural biomarkers associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated structural and functional connectivity within and between the Default Mode (DMN), the Central Executive (CEN), and the Saliency network (SN) in 22q11DS using resting-state fMRI and DTI...
January 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116239/characterization-of-functional-brain-activity-and-connectivity-using-eeg-and-fmri-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
Michelle Case, Huishi Zhang, John Mundahl, Yvonne Datta, Stephen Nelson, Kalpna Gupta, Bin He
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a red blood cell disorder that causes many complications including life-long pain. Treatment of pain remains challenging due to a poor understanding of the mechanisms and limitations to characterize and quantify pain. In the present study, we examined simultaneously recording functional MRI (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) to better understand neural connectivity as a consequence of chronic pain in SCD patients. We performed independent component analysis and seed-based connectivity on fMRI data...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069540/multi-modal-analysis-of-functional-connectivity-and-cerebral-blood-flow-reveals-shared-and-unique-effects-of-propofol-in-large-scale-brain-networks
#7
Maolin Qiu, Dustin Scheinost, Ramachandran Ramani, R Todd Constable
Anesthesia-induced changes in functional connectivity and cerebral blow flow (CBF) in large-scale brain networks have emerged as key markers of reduced consciousness. However, studies of functional connectivity disagree on which large-scale networks are altered or preserved during anesthesia, making it difficult to find a consensus amount studies. Additionally, pharmacological alterations in CBF could amplify or occlude changes in connectivity due to the shared variance between CBF and connectivity. Here, we used data-driven connectivity methods and multi-modal imaging to investigate shared and unique neural correlates of reduced consciousness for connectivity in large-scale brain networks...
January 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044431/abnormal-resting-state-neural-activity-and-connectivity-of-fatigue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Jie-Jin Zhang, Jian Ding, Jun-Yi Li, Min Wang, Yong-Sheng Yuan, Li Zhang, Si-Ming Jiang, Xi-Xi Wang, Lin Zhu, Ke-Zhong Zhang
AIMS: Fatigue is a common burdensome problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed at investigating the neural substrates of fatigue in patients with PD. METHODS: A total of 17 PD patients with fatigue, 32 PD patients without fatigue, and 25 matched healthy controls were recruited. The 9-item fatigue severity scale (FSS) was used for fatigue screening and severity rating. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data were obtained from all subjects...
January 3, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038366/brain-networks-underlying-novel-metaphor-production
#9
Roger E Beaty, Paul J Silvia, Mathias Benedek
Metaphors are widely used to convey abstract concepts and emotions in the arts and everyday life. Neuroimaging research suggests that dynamic interactions among large-scale brain networks, including the default and executive control networks, support the production of such creative ideas. However, the extent to which these networks interact to support other forms of creative language production such as metaphor remains unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored this question by assessing functional interactions between brain regions during novel metaphor production...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966102/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-disrupted-orienting-attention-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Stefanie Russman Block, Anthony P King, Rebecca K Sripada, Daniel H Weissman, Robert Welsh, Israel Liberzon
Prior work has revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered (a) attentional performance and (b) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in brain networks linked to attention. Here, we sought to characterize and link these behavioral and brain-based alterations in the context of Posner and Peterson's tripartite model of attention. Male military veterans with PTSD (N = 49; all deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan) and healthy age-and-gender-matched community controls (N = 26) completed the Attention Network Task...
December 13, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916664/experience-dependent-modulation-of-right-anterior-insula-and-sensorimotor-regions-as-a-function-of-noise-masked-auditory-feedback-in-singers-and-nonsingers
#11
Boris Kleber, Anders Friberg, Anthony Zeitouni, Robert Zatorre
Previous studies on vocal motor production in singing suggest that the right anterior insula (AI) plays a role in experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration. Specifically, when somatosensory input was reduced via anesthesia of the vocal fold mucosa, right AI activity was down regulated in trained singers. In the current fMRI study, we examined how masking of auditory feedback affects pitch-matching accuracy and corresponding brain activity in the same participants. We found that pitch-matching accuracy was unaffected by masking in trained singers yet declined in nonsingers...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908591/an-fmri-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-future-imagination-and-cognitive-flexibility
#12
R P Roberts, K Wiebels, R L Sumner, V van Mulukom, C L Grady, D L Schacter, D R Addis
While future imagination is largely considered to be a cognitive process grounded in default mode network activity, studies have shown that future imagination recruits regions in both default mode and frontoparietal control networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that the ability to imagine the future is associated with cognitive flexibility, and that tasks requiring cognitive flexibility result in increased coupling of the default mode network with frontoparietal control and salience networks. In the current study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the association between cognitive flexibility and future imagination in two ways...
January 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870505/distinguishing-medication-free-subjects-with-unipolar-disorder-from-subjects-with-bipolar-disorder-state-matters
#13
Maria M Rive, Ronny Redlich, Lianne Schmaal, André F Marquand, Udo Dannlowski, Dominik Grotegerd, Dick J Veltman, Aart H Schene, Henricus G Ruhé
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have affected previous classification results as subjects with MDD and BD use different classes of medication. Furthermore, almost all studies have investigated only depressed subjects. Therefore, we focused on medication-free subjects...
November 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832449/abnormal-structure-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-insula-at-pain-free-periovulation-is-associated-with-perceived-pain-during-menstruation
#14
Wang-Huan Dun, Jing Yang, Ling Yang, Dun Ding, Xue-Ying Ma, Feng-Li Liang, Karen M von Deneen, Shao-Hui Ma, Xiao-Ling Xu, Jixin Liu, Ming Zhang
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the insula in pain pathways and its close relation with the perceived intensity of nociceptive stimuli. We aimed to identify the structural and functional characteristics of the insula during periovulatory phase in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), and further investigate its association with the intensity of perceived pain during menstruation. Optimized voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were applied by using 3-dimensional T1-weighted and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 36 patients at the peri-ovulation phase and 29 age-, education-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC)...
November 10, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825906/aberrant-intra-salience-network-dynamic-functional-connectivity-impairs-large-scale-network-interactions-in-schizophrenia
#15
Xiangpeng Wang, Wenwen Zhang, Yujing Sun, Min Hu, Antao Chen
Aberrant functional interactions between several large-scale networks, especially the central executive network (CEN), the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), have been postulated as core pathophysiologic features of schizophrenia; however, the attributing factors of which remain unclear. The study employed resting-state fMRI with 77 participants (42 patients and 35 controls). We performed dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses to explore the connectivity patterns of these networks...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818941/functional-connectivity-in-cortico-subcortical-brain-networks-underlying-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Many patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display aberrant reward-related behavior. Task-based fMRI studies have related atypical reward processing in ADHD to altered BOLD activity in regions underlying reward processing such as ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects are region-specific or related to changes in functional connectivity of networks supporting reward processing. Here we use resting-state fMRI to comprehensively delineate the functional connectivity architecture underlying aberrant reward processing in ADHD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813194/functional-brain-networks-involved-in-gaze-and-emotional-processing
#17
Maryam Ziaei, Natalie C Ebner, Hana Burianová
Eye-gaze direction plays a fundamental role in the perception of facial features and particularly the processing of emotional facial expressions. Yet, the neural underpinnings of the integration of eye gaze and emotional facial cues are not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to delineate the functional networks that subserve the recognition of emotional expressions as a function of eye gaze. Participants were asked to identify happy, angry, or neutral faces, displayed with direct or averted gaze, while their neural responses were measured with fMRI...
January 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803653/probing-intrinsic-resting-state-networks-in-the-infant-rat-brain
#18
Dusica Bajic, Michael M Craig, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788143/brain-connectivity-changes-in-autosomal-recessive-parkinson-disease-a-model-for-the-sporadic-form
#19
Elena Makovac, Mara Cercignani, Laura Serra, Mario Torso, Barbara Spanò, Simona Petrucci, Lucia Ricciardi, Monia Ginevrino, Carlo Caltagirone, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Enza Maria Valente, Marco Bozzali
Biallelic genetic mutations in the Park2 and PINK1 genes are frequent causes of autosomal recessive PD. Carriers of single heterozygous mutations may manifest subtle signs of disease, thus providing a unique model of preclinical PD. One emerging hypothesis suggests that non-motor symptom of PD, such as cognitive impairment may be due to a distributed functional disruption of various neuronal circuits. Using resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI), we tested the hypothesis that abnormal connectivity within and between brain networks may account for the patients' cognitive status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760995/differential-effects-of-l-tryptophan-and-l-leucine-administration-on-brain-resting-state-functional-networks-and-plasma-hormone-levels
#20
Davide Zanchi, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Claudia Suenderhauf, Katharina Janach, Carel W le Roux, Sven Haller, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina K Wölnerhanssen, Stefan Borgwardt
Depending on their protein content, single meals can rapidly influence the uptake of amino acids into the brain and thereby modify brain functions. The current study investigates the effects of two different amino acids on the human gut-brain system, using a multimodal approach, integrating physiological and neuroimaging data. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, L-tryptophan, L-leucine, glucose and water were administered directly into the gut of 20 healthy subjects. Functional MRI (fMRI) in a resting state paradigm (RS), combined with the assessment of insulin and glucose blood concentration, was performed before and after treatment...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
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