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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031237/novel-methodology-for-determining-the-effect-of-adsorbates-on-human-enamel-acid-dissolution
#1
N Pechlivani, D A Devine, P D Marsh, A Mighell, S J Brookes
OBJECTIVE: The effect of various interventions on enamel demineralisation can be determined by chemically measuring mineral ions dissolved by the attacking acid. Results are usually expressed as mineral loss per surface area of enamel exposed. Acid resistant varnish or adhesive tape are typically used to delineate an area of enamel. However, enamel surface curvature, rugosity and porosity reduce the reliability of simple area measurements made at the macro scale. Our aim was to develop a simple method for investigating the effect of adsorbates on enamel demineralisation that does not rely on knowing the area of enamel exposed...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031233/forensic-and-clinical-significance-of-serum-amylase-lipase-and-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-as-predictors-of-outcome-in-head-injured-patients
#2
Mona Mohamed Abo El-Noor, Naema Mahmoud ElHosary, Hytham Ibrahim Elatrozy, Hussein Mohamed Abou Elgheit, Ahmed Mohamed Elbelkasy, Ahmed Gamal Fath, Ghada Hamed El-Shafy
Head trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Combined head lesions consist of more than one form of lesions. Biochemical markers of brain injury are used in determining the extent of brain injury and predicting its outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the forensic and clinical significance of serum amylase, lipase and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) as predictors of the outcome in head injured patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty head injured patients were enrolled and subjected to personal history taking, general and local physical examination...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031182/translating-the-ham-d-into-the-madrs-and-vice-versa-with-equipercentile-linking
#3
Stefan Leucht, Hein Fennema, Rolf R Engel, Marion Kaspers-Janssen, Armin Szegedi
BACKGROUND: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) are scales used frequently to rate the symptoms of depression. There are many situations in which it is important to know what a given total score or a percent reduction from baseline score of one scale means in relation to the other scale. METHOD: We used the equipercentile linking method to identify corresponding scores of simultaneous HAM-D and MADRS ratings in 4388 patients from 31 mirtazapine trials in major depressive disorder...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031166/can-the-perceived-barriers-to-psychological-treatment-scale-be-used-to-investigate-treatment-barriers-among-females-with-disordered-and-non-disordered-eating-behaviours
#4
Natasha T Innes, Bonnie A Clough, Jamin J Day, Leanne M Casey
There is a lack of psychometrically sound instruments to assess treatment barriers among individuals with disordered eating behaviours. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Perceived Barriers to Psychological Treatment scale (PBPT; Mohr et al., 2010) among a sample of individuals with disordered eating behaviours. Participants were 708 females aged 14 years and older who completed an online survey. The sample was randomly divided in two for the conduct of exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses...
September 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031150/the-construction-of-carbon-coated-fe3o4-yolk-shell-nanocomposites-based-on-volume-shrinkage-from-the-release-of-oxygen-anions-for-wide-band-electromagnetic-wave-absorption
#5
Kan Wang, Gengping Wan, Guilong Wang, Zhengyi He, Shaohua Shi, Lihong Wu, Guizhen Wang
The demand for microwave absorbing materials with strong absorption capability and wide absorption band is increasing due to serious electromagnetic interference issues and defense stealth technology needs. Here the carbon-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@C) yolk-shell composites were successfully synthesized in a large scale for the application of microwave absorption through an in-situ reduction process from carbon-coated γ-Fe2O3 precursor. The results show that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles are uniformly coated with a thin carbon layer about 10nm in thickness and a clear void about 1 nm in width between Fe3O4 core and carbon shell are formed due to the volume shrinkage during the reduction treatment...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031102/identifying-the-loss-of-functional-independence-of-older-people-residing-in-the-community-validation-of-the-prisma-7-instrument-in-brazil
#6
Ana Luiza Flores Saenger, Célia Pereira Caldas, Michel Raîche, Luciana Branco da Motta
The identification of the older people who are functionally dependant is essential for planning interventions with emphasis on secondary and tertiary prevention. Therefore, a simplified tool, able to identify these individuals for a more comprehensive evaluation, is required. However, the use of a measuring tool in a different socio-cultural context requires prior adaptation. This article aims to verify the psychometric properties of the PRISMA-7 in Brazilian context. This instrument was previously shown as able to identify older persons living in the community who have risk of functional loss in a Canadian study...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031080/endovascular-therapy-for-vasospasm-secondary-to-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Zhong Yao, Xin Hu, Chao You
Endovascular therapy has been used as an alternative treatment for vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effectiveness and safety of endovascular therapy are still controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify any advantage of endovascular therapy over traditional medical treatment. We systematically reviewed related English publications by searching PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane library, and Web of Science up to May 2017.The risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were synthesized with fixed effect model...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031049/heart-valve-scaffold-fabrication-bioinspired-control-of-macro-scale-morphology-mechanics-and-micro-structure
#8
Antonio D'Amore, Samuel K Luketich, Giuseppe M Raffa, Salim Olia, Giorgio Menallo, Antonino Mazzola, Flavio D'Accardi, Tamir Grunberg, Xinzhu Gu, Michele Pilato, Marina V Kameneva, Vinay Badhwar, William R Wagner
Valvular heart disease is currently treated with mechanical valves, which benefit from longevity, but are burdened by chronic anticoagulation therapy, or with bioprosthetic valves, which have reduced thromboembolic risk, but limited durability. Tissue engineered heart valves have been proposed to resolve these issues by implanting a scaffold that is replaced by endogenous growth, leaving autologous, functional leaflets that would putatively eliminate the need for anticoagulation and avoid calcification. Despite the diversity in fabrication strategies and encouraging results in large animal models, control over engineered valve structure-function remains at best partial...
October 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031037/-evaluation-of-anti-cancer-therapies-with-reimbursement-limited-to-comprehensive-cancer-centres-using-the-european-society-for-medical-oncology-magnitude-of-clinical-benefit-scale
#9
T Büchler, B Melichar, D Vrána, R Lemstrová, J Fínek, L Dušek, K Petráková, J Prausová
BACKGROUND: The costs of oncology treatments are increasing, due to the rising prevalence of malignant diseases and the introduction of expensive novel anti-cancer agents. The new European Society for Clinical Oncology (ESMO) has recently developed a new parametric system to evaluate the clinical benefit of drugs. The Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) compares the contribution of a novel drug based on overall and progression-free survival and quality of life with those of current treatment options...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029343/an-evaluation-of-different-partitioning-strategies-for-bayesian-estimation-of-species-divergence-times
#10
Konstantinos Angelis, Sandra Álvarez-Carretero, Mario Dos Reis, Ziheng Yang
The explosive growth of molecular sequence data has made it possible to estimate species divergence times under relaxed-clock models using genome-scale data sets with many gene loci. In order to improve both model realism and to best extract information about relative divergence times in the sequence data, it is important to account for the heterogeneity in the evolutionary process across genes or genomic regions. Partitioning is a commonly used approach to achieve those goals. We group sites that have similar evolutionary characteristics into the same partition and those with different characteristics into different partitions, and then use different models or different values of model parameters for different partitions to account for the among-partition heterogeneity...
July 4, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029342/stride-species-tree-root-inference-from-gene-duplication-events
#11
D M Emms, S Kelly
The correct interpretation of any phylogenetic tree is dependent on that tree being correctly rooted. We present STRIDE, a fast, effective, and outgroup-free method for identification of gene duplication events and species tree root inference in large-scale molecular phylogenetic analyses. STRIDE identifies sets of well-supported in-group gene duplication events from a set of unrooted gene trees, and analyses these events to infer a probability distribution over an unrooted species tree for the location of its root...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029341/an-increased-concentration-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-pre-dates-the-onset-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Linda Johansson, Lisbeth Ärlestig, Heidi Kokkonen, Mikael Brink, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist
Objectives: RANK ligand (RANKL) is involved in destruction and osteoporosis in RA. In this study, the relationships between RANKL and ACPA, anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP), cytokines and chemokines were analysed in individuals before the onset of RA symptoms, and their associations with radiological findings at disease onset were assessed. Methods: This was a case-control study performed within the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden that included 470 pre-symptomatic individuals [334 women and 136 men; mean (s...
September 25, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029339/targeted-enrichment-of-large-gene-families-for-phylogenetic-inference-phylogeny-and-molecular-evolution-of-photosynthesis-genes-in-the-portullugo-clade-caryophyllales
#13
Abigail J Moore, Jurriaan M de Vos, Lillian P Hancock, Eric Goolsby, Erika J Edwards
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny reconstruction and subsequent analyses of molecular evolution, using a new set of bait sequences designed for the "portullugo" (Caryophyllales), a moderately sized lineage of flowering plants (∼2200 species) that includes the cacti and harbors many evolutionary transitions to C4 and CAM photosynthesis...
September 25, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029317/the-critical-role-of-supply-chains-in-preventing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#14
Thomas Minior, Meaghan Douglas, Dianna Edgil, Meena Srivastava, John Crowley, Jacqueline Firth, Ilana Lapidos-Salaiz, Jason Williams, Lana Lee
The functioning of the supply chain may be a driving factor behind the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (HIVDR) in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Additionally, the effectiveness of supply chains will likely impact the scale-up of both viral-load monitoring and HIVDR testing. This article describes the complexities of global supply chains relevant for LMICs and presents early data on stock-outs and drug substitutions in several countries supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029305/large-scale-automated-sleep-staging
#15
Haoqi Sun, Jian Jia, Balaji Goparaju, Guang-Bin Huang, Olga Sourina, Matt Travis Bianchi, M Brandon Westover
Study Objectives: Automated sleep staging has been previously limited by a combination of clinical and physiological heterogeneity. Both factors are in principle addressable with large data sets that enable robust calibration. However, the impact of sample size remains uncertain. The objectives are to investigate the extent to which machine learning methods can approximate the performance of human scorers when supplied with sufficient training cases and to investigate how staging performance depends on the number of training patients, contextual information, model complexity, and imbalance between sleep stage proportions...
September 26, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029295/probabilistic-distances-between-trees
#16
Maryam Garba, Tom M W Nye, Richard J Boys
Most existing measures of distance between phylogenetic trees are based on the geometry or topology of the trees. Instead, we consider distance measures which are based on the underlying probability distributions on genetic sequence data induced by trees. Monte Carlo schemes are necessary to calculate these distances approximately, and we describe efficient sampling procedures. Key features of the distances are the ability to include substitution model parameters and to handle trees with different taxon sets in a principled way...
October 4, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029253/breathing-disturbances-without-hypoxia-are-associated-with-objective-sleepiness-in-sleep-apnea
#17
Henriette Koch, Logan Douglas Schneider, Laurel A Finn, Eileen B Leary, Paul E Peppard, Erika Hagen, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sorensen, Poul Jennum, Emmanuel Mignot
Study Objectives: Determine if defining two subtypes of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) events - with or without hypoxia - results in measures that are more strongly associated with hypertension and sleepiness. Methods: A total of 1,022 subjects with 2,112 nocturnal polysomnograms (PSGs) from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort were analyzed with our automated algorithm, developed to detect breathing disturbances and desaturations. Breathing events were time-locked to desaturations, resulting in 2 indices - desaturating (H-BDI) and non-desaturating (NH-BDI) events - regardless of arousals...
September 26, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029237/cpap-does-not-reduce-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-nonsleepy-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Erik Thunström, Helena Glantz, Tülay Yucel-Lindberg, Kristin Lindberg, Mustafa Saygin, Yüksel Peker
Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and enhanced vascular inflammation coexist in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is first-line treatment for OSA with daytime sleepiness. This analysis of data from the RICCADSA trial investigated the effects of CPAP on inflammatory markers in patients with CAD and nonsleepy OSA. Methods: This single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label trial enrolled consecutive revascularized patients with nonsleepy OSA (apnea-hypopnea index >15/h; Epworth Sleepiness Scale score <10)...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029231/analysis-of-phylogenomic-tree-space-resolves-relationships-among-marsupial-families
#19
David A Duchêne, Jason G Bragg, Sebastián Duchêne, Linda E Neaves, Sally Potter, Craig Moritz, Rebecca N Johnson, Simon Y W Ho, Mark D B Eldridge
A fundamental challenge in resolving evolutionary relationships across the Tree of Life is to account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary signal across loci. Studies of marsupial mammals have demonstrated that this heterogeneity can be substantial, leaving considerable uncertainty in the evolutionary timescale and relationships within the group. Using simulations and a new phylogenomic data set comprising nucleotide sequences of 1550 loci from 18 of the 22 extant marsupial families, we demonstrate the power of a method for identifying clusters of loci that support different phylogenetic trees...
September 22, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029214/sleepless-night-and-day-the-plight-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#20
Christine M Walsh, Leslie Ruoff, Kathleen Walker, Alaisa Emery, Jonathan Varbel, Elissaios Karageorgiou, Phi N Luong, Irida Mance, Hilary W Heuer, Adam L Boxer, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Thomas C Neylan
Objectives: To elucidate the unique sleep and waking characteristics in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a neurodegenerative disease associated with motor deficits and dementia that largely affects the brainstem and thalamic regions. Methods: 20 PSP and 16 healthy older adult controls participated in this study. Participants underwent an overnight polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) the following day. Prior to the MSLT last trial, participants were asked to complete the Stanford Sleepiness Scale...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
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