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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822349/the-icrc-am-pm-database-challenges-in-forensic-data-management-in-the-humanitarian-sphere
#2
Ute Hofmeister, Shuala S Martin, Carlos Villalobos, Juliana Padilla, Oran Finegan
Large-scale forensic investigations should include a robust data management system with software capable of performing all tasks relevant to achieving the objectives of the investigation. Data management involves the collection, archiving, analysis and reporting of data. A successful data management system requires the development of protocols, procedures and policies, such as on data protection, as well as tools, including software. Adequate training for staff is also required, along with strict quality control and assurance regimens...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822341/mullins-effect-in-polyethylene-and-its-dependency-on-crystal-content-a-network-alteration-model
#3
M Makki, G Ayoub, H Abdul-Hameed, F Zaïri, B Mansoor, M Naït-Abdelaziz, M Ouederni
This contribution is focused on the Mullins effect in polyethylene. An ultra-low-density polyethylene with 0.15 crystal content, a low-density polyethylene with 0.3 crystal content and a high-density polyethylene with 0.72 crystal content are subjected to cyclic stretching over a large strain range. Experimental observations are first reported to examine how the crystal content influences the Mullins effect in polyethylene. It is found that the cyclic stretching is characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amounts depends on the crystal content and the applied strain...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822339/effects-of-simulated-n-deposition-on-foliar-nutrient-status-n-metabolism-and-photosynthetic-capacity-of-three-dominant-understory-plant-species-in-a-mature-tropical-forest
#4
Qinggong Mao, Xiankai Lu, Hui Mo, Per Gundersen, Jiangming Mo
Anthropogenic increase of nitrogen (N) deposition has threatened forest ecosystem health at both regional and global scales. In N-limited ecosystems, atmospheric N input is regarded as an important nutrient source for plant growth. However, it remains an open question on how elevated N deposition affects plant growth in N-rich forest ecosystems. To address this question, we used a simulated N deposition experiment in an N-rich mature tropical forest of southern China, with N addition levels as 0kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Control), 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Low-N), 100kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Middle-N) and 150kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (High-N), respectively...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822322/caffeine-s-influence-on-gambling-behavior-and-other-types-of-impulsivity
#5
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. METHODS: Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
August 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822276/exploiting-algal-mineralization-for-nanotechnology-bringing-coccoliths-to-the-fore
#6
REVIEW
Alastair W Skeffington, André Scheffel
Complex mineral structures are produced by many microalgal species. Pioneering work on diatom silica has demonstrated the potential of such structures in nanotechnology. The calcified scales of coccolithophores (coccoliths) have received less attention, but the large diversity of architectures make coccoliths attractive as parts for nano-devices. Currently coccolith calcite can be modified by the incorporation of metal ions or adsorption of enzymes to the surface, but genetic modification of coccolithophores may permit the production of coccoliths with customized architectures and surface properties...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822275/the-functionality-appreciation-scale-fas-development-and-psychometric-evaluation-in-u-s-community-women-and-men
#7
Jessica M Alleva, Tracy L Tylka, Ashley M Kroon Van Diest
Body functionality has been identified as an important dimension of body image that has the potential to be useful in the prevention and treatment of negative body image and in the enhancement of positive body image. Specifically, cultivating appreciation of body functionality may offset appearance concerns. However, a scale assessing this construct has yet to be developed. Therefore, we developed the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS) and examined its psychometric properties among three online community samples totalling 1042 women and men (ns=490 and 552, respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822270/nano-technology-contributions-towards-the-development-of-high-performance-radioisotope-generators-the-future-promise-to-meet-the-continuing-clinical-demand
#8
REVIEW
Tamer M Sakr, Mohamed F Nawar, T W Fasih, S El-Bayoumy, H A Abd El-Rehim
Nanostructured materials attracted considerable attention because of its high surface area to volume ratio resulting from their nano-scale dimensions. This class of sorbents is expected to have a potential impact on enhancement the efficacy of radioisotope generators for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. This review provides a summary on the importance of nanostructured materials as effective sorbents for the development of clinical-scale radioisotope generators and outlining the assessment of recent developments, key challenges and promising access to the near future...
August 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822258/photochemical-oxidation-of-dimethylsulphide-to-dimethylsulphoxide-in-estuarine-and-coastal-waters
#9
Günther Uher, J Julian Pillans, Angela D Hatton, Robert C Upstill-Goddard
Dimethylsulphide (DMS) photo-oxidation and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) photoproduction were estimated in 26 laboratory irradiations of coastal samples from NE England (Tyne estuary) and W Scotland (Loch Linnhe and River Nant at Taynuilt). Pseudo-first order rate constants of DMS photo-oxidation (0.038 h(-1) to 0.345 h(-1)) and DMSO photo-production (0.017 h(-1) to 0.283 h(-1)) varied by one order of magnitude and were lowest in the coastal North Sea. Estuarine samples (salinity S < 30) had a mean DMSO yield of 96 ± 16% (n = 14), consistent with 1:1 M conversion via photosensitised oxidation by singlet oxygen...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822244/new-insights-into-the-enhanced-performance-of-high-solid-anaerobic-digestion-with-dewatered-sludge-by-thermal-hydrolysis-organic-matter-degradation-and-methanogenic-pathways
#10
Sisi Chen, Ning Li, Bin Dong, Wentao Zhao, Lingling Dai, Xiaohu Dai
Two lab-scale high solid anaerobic digesters fed with untreated sludge (R1) and thermally hydrolyzed sludge (R2) were operated to investigate the influence of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) on the degradation of individual macromolecular organic components (MOCs), as well as the functional and metabolic responses of microbes during anaerobic digestion (AD). The degradation of MOCs was improved by THP at different rates, in which improved degradation of proteins (by 49.0%) and hemicelluloses (by 25.0%) were the main factors contributing to the increase in volatile solids (VS) reduction...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822187/-enzymatic-glycosylation-of-4-demethylepipodophyllotoxin
#11
Ke-Bo Xie, Ri-Dao Chen, Yu-Jiao Zhang, Da-Wei Chen, Jun-Gui Dai
The glycosides of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP) possess various pharmacological activities; however, the chemical synthesis of these glycosides faces challenges in regioselectivity, stereoselectivity, and the protection and de-protection of functional groups. In this work, a novel glycosyltransferase (GT) gene AbGT5 from Aloe barbadensis was successfully cloned, heterogeneously expressed and purified. Recombinant AbGT5 was able to catalyze the glycosylation of DMEP and the glycosylated product, which was separated from the preparative scale reaction, was characterized as DMEP 4'-O-β-D-glucoside via MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC and HMBC...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822171/-analysis-of-historical-origin-and-standardization-system-construction-of-citri-grandis-exocarpium
#12
Yi-Ping Yuan, Hua-Qiang Zhai, Zhao-Juan Guo, Li-Ting Kong, Xiao-Yu Jia, Ning-Ning Wang, Ying Dai, Pin-Hao Yu
To understand the history development and changes of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and initially establish its standard system after exploring the historical origins and modern development of Citri Grandis Exocarpium. In CNKI, Wanfang database and other academic search platforms were searched for literature on Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Chinese medicine standard system; the books related to its modern cultivation techniques and processing technology were also accessed, and after combining with the actual situation analysis, the prospective design of the standard system of Citri Grandis Exocarpium was finally established with research conclusion...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822166/-clinical-observation-of-modified-da-chaihu-decoction-in-treating-essential-hypertension-with-anxiety
#13
Xiang-Dong Zhang, Wang-Qiang Cheng, Yong-Gang Wang, Zheng Zhang
To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Da Chaihu decoction in treating essential hypertension with anxiety, the randomized, controlled, clinical trial was performed in this study. One hundred and twenty-six hypertensive patients with anxiety meeting the inclusive criteria were randomized into the treatment group and the control group. All of the included patients in the above 2 groups were treated by amlodipine besylate tablets. Patients in the treatment group were given Chinese herbal medicine modified Da Chaihu decoction every day...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822141/applicability-of-quantitative-optical-imaging-techniques-for-intraoperative-perfusion-diagnostics-a-comparison-of-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-sidestream-dark-field-microscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#14
Sanne M Jansen, Daniel M de Bruin, Dirk J Faber, Iwan J G G Dobbe, Erik Heeg, Dan M J Milstein, Simon D Strackee, Ton G van Leeuwen
Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400  μm were constructed in a scattering phantom...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822134/genome-scale-modeling-of-photorespiratory-pathway-manipulation
#15
Anika Küken, Zoran Nikoloski
Quantifying the redistribution of metabolic reaction fluxes under experimental scenarios that affect the photorespiratory pathway can provide insights about the coupling of this pathway with other parts of metabolism. However, differential flux profiling on a genome-scale level remains the biggest challenge in modern systems biology. Here we present a protocol for applying a constraint-based approach, termed iReMet-Flux, that integrates data about relative metabolite levels in a stoichiometric metabolic model to predict differential fluxes at a genome-scale level under mild modeling assumptions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822121/investigating-the-origin-of-acoustic-attenuation-in-liquid-foams
#16
Juliette Pierre, Camille Gaulon, Caroline Derec, Florence Elias, Valentin Leroy
Liquid foams are known to be highly efficient to absorb acoustic waves but the origin of the sound dissipation remains unknown. In this paper, we present low frequency (0.5-4kHz) experimental results measured with an impedance tube and we confront the recorded attenuations with a simple model that considers the foam as a concentrate bubbly liquid. In order to identify the influence of the different parameters constituting the foams we probe samples with different gases, and various liquid fractions and bubble size distributions...
August 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822068/polyethylene-damage-increases-with-varus-implant-alignment-in-posterior-stabilized-and-constrained-condylar-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Zhichang Li, Christina I Esposito, Chelsea N Koch, Yuo-Yu Lee, Douglas E Padgett, Timothy M Wright
BACKGROUND: Implant malalignment in primary TKA has been reported to increase stresses placed on the bearing surfaces of implant components. We used a longitudinally maintained registry coupled with an implant retrieval program to consider whether preoperative, postoperative, or prerevision malalignment was associated with increased risk of revision surgery after TKA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the relative polyethylene damage on medial and lateral compartments of the tibial plateaus from revised TKAs? (2) Does coronal TKA alignment affect implant performance, such that TKAs aligned in varus are predisposed to experience increased polyethylene damage? (3) Does TKA alignment differ between postoperative and prerevision radiographs, and if so, what does this difference suggest about the mechanical contact load placed on a knee with a TKA? METHODS: Between 2007 and 2012, we performed 18,065 primary TKAs at our institution...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822049/potential-for-diagnosis-versus-therapy-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-new-epigenetic-biomarker-interacting-with-both-genotype-and-auto-immunity
#18
Walter Adriani, Emilia Romano, Mariangela Pucci, Esterina Pascale, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Paolo Curatolo, Oleg Granstrem, Mauro Maccarrone, Giovanni Laviola, Claudio D'Addario
In view of the need for easily accessible biomarkers, we evaluated in ADHD children the epigenetic status of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) in the SLC6A3 gene, coding for human dopamine transporter (DAT). We analysed buccal swabs and sera from 30 children who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, assigned to treatment according to severity. Methylation levels at six-selected CpG sites (among which, a CGGCGGCGG and a CGCG motif), alone or in combination with serum titers in auto-antibodies against dopamine transporter (DAT aAbs), were analysed for correlation with CGAS scores (by clinicians) and Conners' scales (by parents), collected at recruitment and after 6 weeks...
August 18, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822033/clinical-and-polysomnographic-characteristics-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-children
#19
Jiwon Lee, Geonyoub Na, Eun Yeon Joo, Munhyang Lee, Jeehun Lee
PURPOSE: This study aimed to delineate the clinical and polysomnography (PSG) characteristics of sleep disorders in children with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). METHODS: Between February 2002 and June 2015, 622 pediatric patients with EDS were evaluated with overnight PSG and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test at the Samsung Medical Center. The medical records; questionnaire responses about depression, sleepiness, sleep habits; and sleep study data of 133 patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were reviewed retrospectively...
August 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822018/the-prevalence-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-survivors-of-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-results-from-a-large-single-centre-study
#20
Sumithra Giritharan, Joanna Cox, Calvin J Heal, David Hughes, Kanna Gnanalingham, Tara Kearney
OBJECTIVE: The variation in reported prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) post subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is mainly due to methodological heterogeneity. We report on the prevalence of GHD in a large cohort of patients following SAH, when dynamic and confirmatory pituitary hormone testing methods are systematically employed. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, pituitary function was assessed in 100 patients following SAH. Baseline pituitary hormonal profile measurement and glucagon stimulation testing (GST) was carried out in all patients...
August 18, 2017: Pituitary
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