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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098886/novel-zinc-phthalocyanine-as-a-promising-photosensitizer-for-photodynamic-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#1
Weronika Kuzyniak, Jacob Schmidt, Wojciech Glac, Janine Berkholz, Gustav Steinemann, Björn Hoffmann, Eugeny A Ermilov, Ayşe Gül Gürek, Vefa Ahsen, Bianca Nitzsche, Michael Höpfner
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gathered much attention in the field of cancer treatment and is increasingly used as an alternative solution for esophageal cancer therapy. However, there is a constant need for improving the effectiveness and tolerability of the applied photosensitizers (PS). Here, we propose tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as a promising PS for photodynamic treatment of esophageal cancer. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity was studied in two human esophageal cancer cell lines: OE-33 (adenocarcinoma) and Kyse-140 (squamous cell carcinoma)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098789/implications-of-changing-temperatures-on-the-growth-fecundity-and-survival-of-intermediate-host-snails-of-schistosomiasis-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Chester Kalinda, Moses Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
Climate change has been predicted to increase the global mean temperature and to alter the ecological interactions among organisms. These changes may play critical roles in influencing the life history traits of the intermediate hosts (IHs). This review focused on studies and disease models that evaluate the potential effect of temperature rise on the ecology of IH snails and the development of parasites within them. The main focus was on IH snails of schistosome parasites that cause schistosomiasis in humans...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098558/platelet-derived-growth-factor-pdgf-signaling-directs-cardiomyocyte-movement-toward-the-midline-during-heart-tube-assembly
#3
Joshua Bloomekatz, Reena Singh, Owen Wj Prall, Ariel C Dunn, Megan Vaughan, Chin-San Loo, Richard P Harvey, Deborah Yelon
Communication between neighboring tissues plays a central role in guiding organ morphogenesis. During heart tube assembly, interactions with the adjacent endoderm control the medial movement of cardiomyocytes, a process referred to as cardiac fusion. However, the molecular underpinnings of this endodermal-myocardial relationship remain unclear. Here, we show an essential role for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) in directing cardiac fusion. Mutation of pdgfra disrupts heart tube assembly in both zebrafish and mouse...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098280/single-lithium-ion-conducting-solid-polymer-electrolytes-advances-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Heng Zhang, Chunmei Li, Michal Piszcz, Estibaliz Coya, Teofilo Rojo, Lide M Rodriguez-Martinez, Michel Armand, Zhibin Zhou
Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges to humankind in this century. The performances of classical Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues, and the energy density of the state-of-the-art LIBs cannot satisfy the practical requirement. Therefore, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have been intensively investigated considering the high theoretical capacity of lithium metal and its low negative potential...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098259/wafer-scale-thermodynamically-stable-gan-nanorods-via-two-step-self-limiting-epitaxy-for-optoelectronic-applications
#5
Hyun Kum, Han-Kyu Seong, Wantae Lim, Daemyung Chun, Young-Il Kim, Youngsoo Park, Geonwook Yoo
We present a method of epitaxially growing thermodynamically stable gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by invoking a two-step self-limited growth (TSSLG) mechanism. This allows for growth of nanorods with excellent geometrical uniformity with no visible extended defects over a 100 mm sapphire (Al2O3) wafer. An ex-situ study of the growth morphology as a function of growth time for the two self-limiting steps elucidate the growth dynamics, which show that formation of an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier and preferential growth in the c-plane direction governs the growth process...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098184/infrared-laser-induced-gene-expression-for-tracking-development-and-function-of-single-c-elegans-embryonic-neurons
#6
Anupriya Singhal, Shai Shaham
Visualizing neural-circuit assembly in vivo requires tracking growth of optically resolvable neurites. The Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic nervous system, comprising 222 neurons and 56 glia, is attractive for comprehensive studies of development; however, embryonic reporters are broadly expressed, making single-neurite tracking/manipulation challenging. We present a method, using an infrared laser, for reproducible heat-dependent gene expression in small sublineages (one to four cells) without radiation damage...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097384/stress-response-physiology-of-thermophiles
#7
REVIEW
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096404/torc1-dependent-sumoylation-of-rpc82-promotes-rna-polymerase-iii-assembly-and-activity
#8
Pierre Chymkowitch, Aurélie Nguéa P, Håvard Aanes, Joseph Robertson, Arne Klungland, Jorrit M Enserink
Maintaining cellular homeostasis under changing nutrient conditions is essential for the growth and development of all organisms. The mechanisms that maintain homeostasis upon loss of nutrient supply are not well understood. By mapping the SUMO proteome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a specific set of differentially sumoylated proteins mainly involved in transcription. RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) components, including Rpc53, Rpc82, and Ret1, are particularly prominent nutrient-dependent SUMO targets...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096354/loss-of-get-pathway-orthologs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-causes-root-hair-growth-defects-and-affects-snare-abundance
#9
Shuping Xing, Dietmar Gerald Mehlhorn, Niklas Wallmeroth, Lisa Yasmin Asseck, Ritwika Kar, Alessa Voss, Philipp Denninger, Vanessa Aphaia Fiona Schmidt, Markus Schwarzländer, York-Dieter Stierhof, Guido Grossmann, Christopher Grefen
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins are key players in cellular trafficking and coordinate vital cellular processes, such as cytokinesis, pathogen defense, and ion transport regulation. With few exceptions, SNAREs are tail-anchored (TA) proteins, bearing a C-terminal hydrophobic domain that is essential for their membrane integration. Recently, the Guided Entry of Tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway was described in mammalian and yeast cells that serve as a blueprint of TA protein insertion [Schuldiner M, et al...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096268/the-tgf-%C3%AE-family-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Cathy Savage-Dunn, Richard W Padgett
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and related ligands have potent effects on an enormous diversity of biological functions in all animals examined. Because of the strong conservation of TGF-β family ligand functions and signaling mechanisms, studies from multiple animal systems have yielded complementary and synergistic insights. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, early studies were instrumental in the elucidation of TGF-β family signaling mechanisms. Current studies in C. elegans continue to identify new functions for the TGF-β family in this organism as well as new conserved mechanisms of regulation...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096190/gain-of-function-mutants-of-the-cytokinin-receptors-ahk2-and-ahk3-regulate-plant-organ-size-flowering-time-and-plant-longevity
#11
Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondrej Novak, Miroslav Strnad, Tomas Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3 and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion and only very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#12
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096043/a-simplified-protocol-for-culture-of-murine-neonatal-cardiomyocytes-on-nanoscale-keratin-coated-surfaces
#13
Aditi Jain, Venkatraman Ravi, Jaseer Muhamed, Kaushik Chatterjee, Nagalingam R Sundaresan
OBJECTIVE: We aim to develop a simple, efficient and cost-effective protocol for culturing the neonatal cardiomyocytes using keratin derived from human hair, which can be used for studying cardiac hypertrophy in vitro. METHODS: Keratin was extracted from human hair and applied as nanoscale coating onto the culture dishes. Physical parameters such as surface morphology and roughness of the coating were studied by SEM and AFM. Cardiomyocyte specific markers were assessed by immunofluorescence...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095992/changes-in-ecosystem-carbon-pool-and-soil-co2-flux-following-post-mine-reclamation-in-dry-tropical-environment-india
#14
Jitendra Ahirwal, Subodh Kumar Maiti, Ashok Kumar Singh
Open strip mining of coal results in loss of natural carbon (C) sink and increased emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. A field study was carried out at five revegetated coal mine lands (7, 8, 9, 10 and 11years) to assess the impact of the reclamation on soil properties, accretion of soil organic C (SOC) and nitrogen (N) stock, changes in ecosystem C pool and soil CO2 flux. We estimated the presence of C in the tree biomass, soils, litter and microbial biomass to determine the total C sequestration potential of the post mining reclaimed land...
January 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095989/prolonged-k-deficiency-increases-intracellular-atp-cell-cycle-arrest-and-cell-death-in-renal-tubular-cells
#15
Kedsarin Fong-Ngern, Nardtaya Ausakunpipat, Nilubon Singhto, Kanyarat Sueksakit, Visith Thongboonkerd
BACKGROUND: Chronic potassium (K(+)) deficiency can cause renal damage namely hypokalemic nephropathy with unclear pathogenic mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated expression and functional alterations in renal tubular cells induced by prolonged K(+) deficiency. METHODS: MDCK cells were maintained in normal-K(+) (CNK) (K(+)=5.3mmol/L), low-K(+) (CLK) (K(+)=2.5mmol/L), or K(+)-depleted (CKD) (K(+)=0mmol/L) medium for 10days (n=5 independent cultures/condition)...
January 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095739/expression-and-localization-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-fgf-23-and-klotho-in-the-spleen-its-physiological-and-functional-implications
#16
Yuri Nakashima, Toru Mima, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Masaki Ohya, Asuka Masumoto, Shintaro Yamanaka, Daisuke Koreeda, Koichi Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki Hanba, Mari Moribata, Shigeo Negi, Takashi Shigematsu
The FGF23-Klotho signaling axis is known to exert anti-aging effects via calcium-phosphorus metabolism. In mice deficient in FGF23-Klotho signaling, however, the number of splenocytes is reduced. FGF23 is expressed in both bone and spleen, with regulation of its production differing in these organs. As FGF23-Klotho signaling may play an immunological role in the spleen, splenocytes in male C57BL/6J mice were assayed for expression of Klotho or FGF23 by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cells that expressed Klotho included CD45R/B220(+) CD21/CD35(+) CD1d(+) CD43(-) marginal zone B cells...
January 18, 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095623/xenopus-as-a-model-for-studies-in-mechanical-stress-and-cell-division
#17
REVIEW
G A Stooke-Vaughan, L A Davidson, S Woolner
We exist in a physical world, and cells within biological tissues must respond appropriately to both environmental forces and forces generated within the tissue to ensure normal development and homeostasis. Cell division is required for normal tissue growth and maintenance, but both the direction and rate of cell division must be tightly controlled to avoid diseases of over-proliferation such as cancer. Recent studies have shown that mechanical cues can cause mitotic entry and orient the mitotic spindle, suggesting that physical force could play a role in patterning tissue growth...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095612/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-system-to-study-cytoskeletal-dynamics-during-axon-pathfinding
#18
REVIEW
Paula G Slater, Laurie Hayrapetian, Laura Anne Lowery
The model system, Xenopus laevis, has been used in innumerable research studies and has contributed to the understanding of multiple cytoskeletal components, including actin, microtubules, and neurofilaments, during axon pathfinding. Xenopus developmental stages have been widely characterized, and the Xenopus genome has been sequenced, allowing gene expression modifications through exogenous molecules. Xenopus cell cultures are ideal for long periods of live imaging because they are easily obtained and maintained, and they do not require special culture conditions...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095502/drosophila-genotype-influences-commensal-bacterial-levels
#19
Angela M Early, Niroshan Shanmugarajah, Nicolas Buchon, Andrew G Clark
Host genotype can influence the composition of the commensal bacterial community in some organisms. Composition, however, is only one parameter describing a microbial community. Here, we test whether a second parameter-abundance of bacteria-is a heritable trait by quantifying the presence of four commensal bacterial strains within 36 gnotobiotic inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that D. melanogaster genotype exerts a significant effect on microbial levels within the fly. When introduced as monocultures into axenic flies, three of the four bacterial strains were reliably detected within the fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094904/hormetic-effects-of-glyphosate-on-plants
#20
REVIEW
Ivana Pfs Brito, Leandro Tropaldi, Caio A Carbonari, Edivaldo D Velini
As all herbicides act on pathways or processes crucial to plants, in an inhibitory or stimulatory way, low rates of any herbicide might be used to modulate plant growth, development, or plant composition. Glyphosate is the most used pesticide in the world, and very low rates of this herbicide can stimulate plant growth, an effect called hormesis. Several studies have shown that glyphosate applications at low rates can increase plant growth, induce shikimic acid accumulation, increase photosynthesis and stomatal opening, increase seed production, and shorten the plant life cycle...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
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