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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728406/early-weaning-of-calves-after-different-dietary-regimens-affects-later-rumen-development-growth-and-carcass-traits-in-hanwoo-cattle
#1
Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, JinYoung Jeong, Youl-Chang Baek, Young Kyun Oh, Minseok Kim, Kyung Min So, Min Ji Kim, Dong Woon Kim, Sung Kwon Park, Hyun-Jeong Lee
Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different diets for early-weaned (EW) calves on rumen development, and how this affects fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi of adult Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Methods: Three EW groups were established (each n = 12) in which two- week-old Hanwoo calves were fed for ten weeks with milk replacer + concentrate (T1), milk replacer + concentrate + roughage (T2), or milk replacer + concentrate + 30% starch (T3); a control group (n = 12) was weaned as normal...
July 6, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#2
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728376/effect-of-condensed-tannins-containing-ficus-infectoria-and-psidium-guajava-leaf-meal-mixture-supplementation-on-nutrient-metabolism-methane-emission-and-performance-of-lambs
#3
A K Pathak, Narayan Dutta, A K Pattanaik, V B Chaturvedi, K Sharma
Objective: The study was conducted to examine the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) supplementation on nutrient metabolism, methane emission and performance of lambs. Methods: Twenty four lambs of ~ 6 months age (average body weight 10.1±0.60 kg) were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2 containing 0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 percent CT through LMM, respectively) consisting of 6 lambs each in a completely randomized design...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728121/effect-of-residual-h2o2-from-advanced-oxidation-processes-on-subsequent-biological-water-treatment-a-laboratory-batch-study
#4
Feifei Wang, Doris van Halem, Gang Liu, Karin Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Jan Peter van der Hoek
H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H2O2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H2O2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%...
July 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727121/supplementing-newborn-intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets-with-a-bolus-of-porcine-colostrum-raises-rectal-temperatures-one-degree-celsius
#5
C Amdi, L L Jensen, N Oksbjerg, C F Hansen
Hyperprolific sows have increased litter sizes but also result in more piglets that have been exposed to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). These IUGR piglets are likely to have a low rectal temperature and lower blood glucose levels compared with normal piglets at birth. Therefore, we hypothesized that a colostrum bolus at birth and/or heat from an external source would have a positive effect on blood glucose levels, rectal temperatures, and growth up to 8 h postpartum. In addition, liver glycogen and blood values at 8 h were investigated...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#6
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727106/increasing-dietary-inclusions-of-camelina-cake-fed-to-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-safety-growth-performance-carcass-traits-and-n-3-enrichment-of-pork
#7
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil content not only provides additional dietary energy but may also enrich pork with -3 fatty acids. Limited information is available on feeding camelina cake to pigs relating to feeding safety (toxicity), growth performance, and efficacy of -3 enrichment of pork. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of feeding increasing camelina cake (12.2% crude fat) inclusions in diets for nursery and grower-finisher pigs. In total, 128 pigs (9.2 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 32 nursery pens for 4 wk and were then moved and combined into 16 mixed-sex grower-finisher pens...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727065/effects-of-feeding-camelina-cake-to-weaned-pigs-on-safety-growth-performance-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-pork
#8
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil contributes dietary energy (fat) in addition to protein (AA) and may provide an opportunity to enrich the n-3 fatty acid content of pork. Information regarding safety, growth performance, and efficacy of feeding camelina cake to pigs is limited. We therefore evaluated the effects of camelina cake inclusion in pig nursery diets. In total, 192 pigs (9.4 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 48 pens, 2 heavy and 2 light pigs per pen. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat-based diets including camelina cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18%; variety Celine) replacing soybean meal for 4 wk...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726984/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-alterations-in-uteroplacental-hemodynamics-during-melatonin-supplementation-in-sheep-and-cattle
#9
C O Lemley, K A Vonnahme
Compromised placental function can result in fetal growth restriction which is associated with greater risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Large increases in transplacental nutrient and waste exchange, which support the exponential increase in fetal growth during the last half of gestation, are dependent primarily on the rapid growth and vascularization of the uteroplacenta. The amplitude of melatonin secretion has been associated with improved oxidative status and altered cardiovascular function in several mammalian species; however, melatonin mediated alterations of uteroplacental capacity in sheep and cattle are lacking...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726589/proteomic-study-of-sumoylation-during-solanum-tuberosum-phytophthora-infestans-in-compatible-interactions
#10
Bertrand Colignon, Marc Dieu, Catherine Demazy, Edouard Delaive, Yordan Muhovski, Martine Raes, Sergio Mauro
Invasive plant pathogens have developed the ability to modify the metabolism of their host, promoting metabolic processes which facilitate the growth of the pathogen; at the general expense of the host. The particular enzymatic process SUMOylation which performs post-translational modification of target proteins, leading to changes in many aspects of protein activity and hence metabolism has been demonstrated to be active in many eukaryotic organisms, both animals and plants. Here we provide experimental evidence which indicates that in leaves of Solanum tuberosum which have been infected by Phytophthora infestans, the SUMO pathway enzymes of the host are partially under transcriptional control exerted by the oomycete...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726548/wnt-yap-interactions-during-neural-tissue-patterning-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Julie Bejoy, Liqing Song, Yi Zhou, Yan Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726545/the-t-6-a-modification-acts-as-a-positive-determinant-for-the-anticodon-nuclease-prrc-and-is-distinctively-nonessential-in-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Jo Marie Bacusmo, Silvia S Orsini, Jennifer Hu, Michael DeMott, Patrick C Thiaville, Ameer Elfarash, Mellie June Paulines, Diego Rojas-Benítez, Birthe Meineke, Chris Deutsch, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Patrick A Limbach, Peter C Dedon, Kelly C Rice, Stewart Shuman, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
Endoribonuclease toxins (ribotoxins) are produced by bacteria and fungi to respond to stress, eliminate non-self competitor species, or interdict virus infection. PrrC is a bacterial ribotoxin that targets and cleaves tRNA(Lys)UUU in the anticodon loop. In vitro studies suggested that the post-transcriptional modification threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t(6)A) is required for PrrC activity but this prediction had never been validated in vivo. Here, by using t(6)A-deficient yeast derivatives, it is shown that t(6)A is a positive determinant for PrrC proteins from various bacterial species...
July 20, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726392/characterization-of-naphthenic-acids-and-other-dissolved-organics-in-natural-water-from-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-canada
#13
Chenxing Sun, William Shotyk, Chad W Cuss, Mark W Donner, Jon Fennell, Muhammad Javed, Tommy Noernberg, Mark Poesch, Rick Pelletier, Nilo Sinnatamby, Tariq Siddique, Jonathan W Martin
With growth of the Canadian oil sands industry, concerns have been raised about possible seepage of toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) into the Athabasca River (AR). A sampling campaign in fall 2015 was undertaken to monitor for anthropogenic seepage while also considering natural sources. Naphthenic acids (NAs) and thousands of bitumen-derived organics were characterized in surface water, groundwater, and OSPW using a highly sensitive online solid phase extraction-HPLC-Orbitrap method. Elevated NA concentrations and bitumen-derived organics were detected in McLean Creek (30...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726381/impact-of-the-metallic-crystalline-structure-on-the-properties-of-nanocrystals-and-their-mesoscopic-assemblies
#14
Marie-Paule Pileni
The spontaneous assembly of uniform-sized globular entities into ordered arrays is a universal phenomenon observed for objects with diameters spanning a broad range of length scales. These extend from the atomic scale (10(-8) cm), through molecular and macromolecular scales with proteins, synthetic low polymers, and colloidal crystals (∼10(-6) cm), to the wavelength of visible light (∼10(-5) cm). The associated concepts of sphere packing have had an influence in diverse fields ranging from pure geometrical analysis to architectural models or ideals...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726213/how-mechanisms-explain-interfield-cooperation-biological-chemical-study-of-plant-growth-hormones-in-utrecht-and-pasadena-1930-1938
#15
Caterina Schürch
This article examines to what extent a particular case of cross-disciplinary research in the 1930s was structured by mechanistic reasoning. For this purpose, it identifies the interfield theories that allowed biologists and chemists to use each other's techniques and findings, and that provided the basis for the experiments performed to identify plant growth hormones and to learn more about their role in the mechanism of plant growth. In 1930, chemists and biologists in Utrecht and Pasadena began to cooperatively study plant growth...
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726125/nitrogen-assimilation-in-denitrifier-bacillus-azotoformans-lmg-9581-t
#16
Yihua Sun, Paul De Vos, Anne Willems
Until recently, it has not been generally known that some bacteria can contain the gene inventory for both denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate (NO3(-))/nitrite (NO2(-)) reduction to ammonium (NH4(+)) (DNRA). Detailed studies of these microorganisms could shed light on the differentiating environmental drivers of both processes without interference of organism-specific variation. Genome analysis of Bacillus azotoformans LMG 9581(T) shows a remarkable redundancy of dissimilatory nitrogen reduction, with multiple copies of each denitrification gene as well as DNRA genes nrfAH, but a reduced capacity for nitrogen assimilation, with no nas operon nor amtB gene...
July 19, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725894/quantifying-spontaneous-metastasis-in-a-syngeneic-mouse-melanoma-model-using-real-time-pcr
#17
Wentao Deng, Sarah L McLaughlin, David J Klinke
Modeling metastasis in vivo with animals is a priority for both revealing mechanisms of tumor dissemination and developing therapeutic methods. While conventional intravenous injection of tumor cells provides an efficient and consistent system for studying tumor cell extravasation and colonization, studying spontaneous metastasis derived from orthotopic tumor sites has the advantage of modeling more aspects of the metastatic cascade, but is challenging as it is difficult to detect small numbers of metastatic cells...
July 20, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725880/role-of-intrinsic-factors-in-the-growth-of-transplanted-organs-following-transplantation
#18
Jigesh A Shah, Tatsu Tanabe, Kazuhiko Yamada
Shortages in the availability of transplantable organs have forced the transplant community to seek alternative methods to increase the supply of available organs. In our recent study following α-1,3-galactocyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pig-to-baboon kidney xenotransplantation, we found that certain recipients developed increased serum creatinine, possibly due to the rapid growth of orthotopic pig grafts in smaller baboon recipients. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the growth of outbred (Yorkshire) organ transplants (kidney and lung) in miniature swine was regulated by intrinsic (graft) factors...
June 2017: Journal of Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725525/microbial-degradation-of-petrochemical-waste-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#19
M H Fulekar
BACKGROUND: Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazardous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil-water environment resulting into the persistent organic-inorganic pollutant into the environment...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725413/prothonotary-warbler-nestling-growth-and-condition-in-response-to-variation-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-prey-availability
#20
Jenna C Dodson, Nicholas J Moy, Lesley P Bulluck
Aquatic prey subsidies entering terrestrial habitats are well documented, but little is known about the degree to which these resources provide fitness benefits to riparian consumers. Riparian species take advantage of seasonal pulses of both terrestrial and aquatic prey, although aquatic resources are often overlooked in studies of how diet influences the reproductive ecology of these organisms. Ideally, the timing of resource pulses should occur at the time of highest reproductive demand. This study investigates the availability of aquatic (mayfly) and terrestrial (caterpillar) prey resources as well as the nestling diet of the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) at two sites along the lower James River in Virginia during the 2014 breeding season...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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