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Catrina Banks Whitley, Jeffrey L Boyer
Ancestral Puebloan people in the North American Southwest suffered high rates of disease, poor health, and early age-at-death. Four individuals with skeletal expressions of cancer were found in a pre-Columbian population in the Taos Valley - Reports of malignant neoplasms in the archaeological record are uncommon and their presence in four of 82 individuals is a high occurrence. This study continues Whitley and Boyer's (2012) research testing whether concentrations of ionizing radiation were sufficiently high to induce cancer and related health issues...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
Carlos Rizo Maestre, Víctor Echarri Iribarren
In healthy buildings, it is considered essential to quantify air quality. One of the most fashionable indicators is radon gas. To determine the presence of this element, which is harmful to health, in the environment, the composition of the soil is studied. The presence of radon gas within a building depends both on the terrain in which it is located and on the composition of the materials of which it is composed, and not as was previously believed, only by the composition of the soil (whether granitic or not)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sumit Sharma, Ajay Kumar, Rohit Mehra
Dosimetric approach is used in this study for the assessment of doses due to inhalation of short lived radon/thoron progeny to the inhabitants of Udhampur district of Jammu & Kashmir. This paper also presents the activity concentrations and unattached fraction of radon and thoron progeny. The observed annual concentration of attached and unattached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny has been found to vary from 8 to 32 and 0.09 to 14 Bq/m3, 0.75 to 3.16 and 0.01 to 1.13 Bq/m3, respectively. The inhalation doses from radon progeny to different body organs of different age groups have been calculated by using the age dependent biokinetic model...
May 16, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Murad Al Mugahed, Farida Bentayeb
The present article seeks to determine the annual effective doses of 222Rn exposure, effective radium content and radon exhalation rates in some building materials from the local market of Ibb province, Yemen. A total of 33 samples of building materials were collected from the target area. The radon exhalation rate and effective radium content in these samples were measured using solid-state nuclear track detector, which has become an important tool in every investigation of the radon levels in the surrounding environment...
May 15, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Guang-Quan Zhou, Yi Zhang, Ruo-Li Wang, Ping Zhou, Yong-Ping Zheng, Olga Tarassova, Anton Arndt, Qiang Chen
Displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) obtained by ultrasound imaging is crucial to quantify the interactive length changes of muscles and tendons for understanding the mechanics and pathological conditions of the muscle-tendon unit during motion. However, the lack of a reliable automatic measurement method restricts its application in human motion analysis. This paper presents an automated measurement of MTJ displacement using prior knowledge on tendinous tissues and MTJ, precluding the influence of nontendinous components on the estimation of MTJ displacement...
2018: BioMed Research International
Roula Ajrouche, Candice Roudier, Enora Cléro, Géraldine Ielsch, Didier Gay, Jérôme Guillevic, Claire Marant Micallef, Blandine Vacquier, Alain Le Tertre, Dominique Laurier
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Since the previous quantitative risk assessment of indoor radon conducted in France, input data have changed such as, estimates of indoor radon concentrations, lung cancer rates and the prevalence of tobacco consumption. The aim of this work was to update the risk assessment of lung cancer mortality attributable to indoor radon in France using recent risk models and data, improving the consideration of smoking, and providing results at a fine geographical scale...
May 8, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Adrian Radoń, Dariusz Łukowiec, Marek Kremzer, Jarosław Mikuła, Patryk Włodarczyk
On the basis of dielectric measurements performed in a wide temperature range (173⁻373 K), a comprehensive analysis of the dielectric and electrical properties of magnetite nanoparticles electrical conduction mechanism of compressed spherical shaped Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was proposed. The electrical conductivity of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was related to two different mechanisms (correlated barrier hopping and non-overlapping small polaron tunneling mechanisms); the transition between them was smooth. Additionally, role of grains and grain boundaries with charge carrier mobility and with observed hopping mechanism was described in detail...
May 5, 2018: Materials
David Rosen, Jingfeng Jiang
Our primary objective of this work was to design and test a new time-of-flight (TOF) method that allows measurements of shear wave speed (SWS) following impulsive excitation in soft tissues. Particularly, under the assumption of the local plane shear wave, this work named the Fourier-domain shift matching (FDSM) method, estimates SWS by aligning a series of shear waveforms either temporally or spatially using a solution space deduced by characteristic curves of the well-known 1-D wave equation. The proposed SWS estimation method was tested using computer-simulated data, and tissue-mimicking phantom and ex vivo tissue experiments...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Hubert Huras, Malgorzata Radon-Pokracka, Magdalena Nowak
INTRODUCTION: Relaparotomy is a serious complication of caesarean section. The aim of this study was to investigate its risk factors and postoperative outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study examining 48 reoperations between January 2013 and June 2017 at the Obstetrics and Perinatology Department, Jagiellonian University Hospital in Cracow, Poland. This is tertiary referral center, in that time 8421 cesarean section were performed. The control group was randomly matched from all CS in a 1 to 2 ratio...
April 26, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Geertje Goedhart, Luuk van Wel, Chelsea E Langer, Patricia de Llobet Viladoms, Joe Wiart, Martine Hours, Hans Kromhout, Geza Benke, Evdoxia Bouka, Revital Bruchim, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Amanda Eng, Mina Ha, Anke Huss, Kosuke Kiyohara, Noriko Kojimahara, Daniel Krewski, Brigitte Lacour, Andrea 't Mannetje, Milena Maule, Enrica Migliore, Charmaine Mohipp, Franco Momoli, Eleni Th Petridou, Katja Radon, Thomas Remen, Siegal Sadetzki, Malcolm Sim, Tobias Weinmann, Elisabeth Cardis, Martine Vrijheid, Roel Vermeulen
OBJECTIVE: To study recall of mobile phone usage, including laterality and hands-free use, in young people. METHODS: Actual mobile phone use was recorded among volunteers aged between 10 and 24 years from 12 countries by the software application XMobiSense and was compared with self-reported mobile phone use at 6 and 18 months after using the application. The application recorded number and duration of voice calls, number of text messages, amount of data transfer, laterality (% of call time the phone was near the right or left side of the head, or neither), and hands-free usage...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Research
Antonio Neri, Christina McNaughton, Behnoosh Momin, Mary Puckett, M Shayne Gallaway
Radon exposure is the second leading risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and the leading risk factor among non-smokers. Radon concentrated in lower levels of homes/buildings can be reduced if found, thus lowering lung cancer risk. The objective of this study was to measure radon knowledge in diverse populations, with varying radon-related laws, to inform radon-related cancer control practices and activities. A survey was mailed to 3,000 homebuyers who purchased single-family homes; 995 responses (33%) were received...
April 28, 2018: Indoor Air
Steven H Brown, Russel Edge, John Elmer, Michael McDonald
Thousands of former uranium mining sites in the United States, primarily in the southwestern states of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah, are being identified and evaluated to assess their potential for causing public and environmental impacts. The common radiological contaminant of concern that characterizes these sites is naturally occurring uranium ore and associated wastes that may have been left behind postmining. The majority of these sites were abandoned and in general, are referred to as abandoned uranium mines, regardless of the government authority currently managing the land or in some cases, assigned responsibility for the oversight of assessment and remediation...
June 2018: Health Physics
Hongwen Liu, Yating Chen, Chunli Song, Gang Tian, Shiya Li, Guiying Yang, Changyin Lv
Radioactive radon decays into a stable daughter product, 210 Pb, which was used as the detection target to determine the radon radiation dose in a new technique. Pb2+ triggers DNAzyme to cleave a molecular beacon (MB), resulting in the stem-loop structure opening and forming two single DNA strands (ssDNA). The ssDNA binds to unmodified gold nanoparticles and effectively prevents their aggregation in a salt solution. The detached enzyme strands continue to complement the remaining MB to amplify the response signal...
April 23, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
A F Saad, R M Abdallah, N A Hussein
The influence of physical and geometrical parameters, such as grain size, volume of the emanation container and mass of the sample, on the emanation coefficient and exhalation rates of radon (with and without consideration of back diffusion effect and effective volume of the emanation container) released from soil have been investigated. Moreover, a method for assessing the flux of radon migrate through soil layers was proposed. This method is based on measurement of the cumulative radon concentration transmitted through five layers of soil...
March 29, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yan Zhang, Hailong Li, Xuejing Wang, Chaoyue Wang, Kai Xiao, Wenjing Qu
Naturally occurring radon (222 Rn) and radium isotopes are widely used to trace water mixing and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the coastal zones. However, their activities in groundwater are variable both spatially and temporally. Here, time series sampling of 222 Rn and radium was conducted to investigate their behavior in intertidal groundwater of Laizhou Bay, China. The result shows that groundwater redox conditions have an important impact on the behavior of tracers. The activities of tracers will decrease under oxidizing conditions and increase under reducing conditions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Charlene Siza, Melissa Morrison, Scott Harris, Timothy Hatch, Michael Tyler
The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) conducts an annual community assessment to evaluate household preparedness and local public health concerns. In June 2017, ADPH conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER), focusing on indoor air pollutants in seven neighborhoods in Madison County, Alabama, where a large percentage of homes were built before 1980. Local health partners had concerns about indoor air quality and environmental risks such as radon; however, limited information was available regarding community awareness, prevention, and mitigation measures related to potential exposures...
April 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
M Tirmarche
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) mandated a task group (Task Group 64) to review recently published epidemiological studies related to cancer risk and incorporated alpha emitters, and to evaluate whether the results might consolidate or challenge assumptions underlying the current radiation protection system. Three major alpha emitters were considered: radon and its decay products, plutonium, and uranium. Results came mainly from cohorts of workers, while for radon, major studies of the general population contributed to a better understanding of the risk of lung cancer at low and chronic exposure...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Antonio Azara, Marco Dettori, Paolo Castiglia, Andrea Piana, Paolo Durando, Valentina Parodi, Giovanni Salis, Laura Saderi, Giovanni Sotgiu
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess radon concentration in schoolrooms in a city located in the midwest of Italy. METHODS: A two-phase environmental study was carried out in 19 school buildings of 16 primary, secondary, and tertiary schools. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range-IQR) indoor radon concentration in schoolrooms was 91.6 (45.0-140.3) Bq/m³. The highest (median 952.8 Bq/m³) radon concentration was found in one (3.6%) classroom, located in a building of a primary school whose median concentration was 185 Bq/m³...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
I S Evstigneeva, A G Kulikov, O V Yarustovskaya, A S Shakhova, M G Lutoshkina
This article describes the modern approaches to the application of physical factors for the treatment of various forms of psoriasis taking into consideration the severity of clinical manifestations and the phase of the disease, the extent of disturbances of the functional state of different organs. The principles of prescription of physiotherapeutictreatmnt are formulated taking account of the stages and forms of the disease. Special attention is paid to the high therapeutic effectiveness of ultraviolet irradiation of the skin including narrow-band UVВ (311 nm) as well as to photodynamic therapy (PUVA), intravenous laser irradiation of blood, and ozone therapy...
April 9, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
J D Harrison
The practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of radiological protection requires the availability of appropriate methodology and data. Over many years, ICRP Committee 2 has provided sets of dose coefficients to allow users to evaluate equivalent and effective doses for radiation exposures of workers and members of the public. The methodology being applied in the calculation of doses is state-of-the-art in terms of the biokinetic models used to describe the behaviour of inhaled and ingested radionuclides, and the dosimetric models used to model radiation transport for external and internal exposures...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
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