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T R Beck
The population-averaged risk rate and the annual average effective dose due to residential radon in Germany were calculated. The calculations were based on an epidemiological approach taking into account the age- and gender-specific lung cancer incidence rates for the German population and the excess relative risk of 0.16 per 100 Bq·m(-3) for residential radon. In addition, the risk estimates adjusted for the smoking habits were determined. The population-averaged risk rate for the whole population was estimated with 4...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hendrik J Vos, Bas M van Dalen, Ilkka Heinonen, Johan G Bosch, Oana Sorop, Dirk J Duncker, Antonius F W van der Steen, Nico de Jong
Cardiac muscle stiffness can potentially be estimated non-invasively with shear wave elastography. Shear waves are present on the septal wall after mitral and aortic valve closure, thus providing an opportunity to assess stiffness in early systole and early diastole. We report on the shear wave recordings of 22 minipigs with high-frame-rate echocardiography. The waves were captured with 4000 frames/s using a programmable commercial ultrasound machine. The wave pattern was extracted from the data through a local tissue velocity estimator based on one-lag autocorrelation...
January 5, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
M Korun, B Vodenik, B Zorko
In gamma-ray spectrometry the measurement threshold describes the lover boundary of the interval of peak areas originating in the response of the spectrometer to gamma-rays from the sample measured. In this sense it presents a generalization of the net indication corresponding to the decision threshold, which is the measurement threshold at the quantity value zero for a predetermined probability for making errors of the first kind. Measurement thresholds were determined for peaks appearing in the spectra of radon daughters (214)Pb and (214)Bi by measuring the spectrum 35 times under repeatable conditions...
December 28, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jiabei Zheng, Jeffrey A Fessler, Heang-Ping Chan
PURPOSE: Digital forward and back projectors play a significant role in iterative image reconstruction. The accuracy of the projector affects the quality of the reconstructed images. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) often uses the ray-tracing (RT) projector that ignores finite detector element size. This paper proposes a modified version of the separable footprint (SF) projector, called the segmented separable footprint (SG) projector, that calculates efficiently the Radon transform mean value over each detector element...
January 6, 2017: Medical Physics
Ivona Mladineo, Željka Trumbić, Ivana Radonić, Anamarija Vrbatović, Jerko Hrabar, Ivana Bušelić
The genus Anisakis includes nine species which, due to close morphological resemblance even in the adult stage, have previously caused many issues in their correct identification. Recently observed interspecific hybridisation in sympatric areas of two closely related species, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, has raised concerns whether a F1 hybrid generation is capable of overriding the breeding barrier, potentially giving rise to more resistant/pathogenic strains infecting humans...
January 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
K Kim, D Kim, S Kang, T Kim, D Shin, M Cho, Y Noh, T Suh
PURPOSE: The inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) composed of multiple source and small size detector has several merits such as reduction of scatter effect and large volumetric imaging within one rotation without cone-beam artifact, compared to conventional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). By using this multi-source characteristics, we intend to present a selective and multiple interior region-of-interest (ROI) imaging method by using a designed source on-off sequence of IGCT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
G Yu, Y Yin, L Qiang, B Li, Z Feng, P Huang, D Li
PURPOSE: Scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has obvious effect on the removal of image noise, the cup artifact and the increase of image contrast. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, the inconvenience of mechanics and propensity to residual artifacts limited the further evolution of basic and clinical research. Here, we propose a rotating collimator-based approach, in conjunction with reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Andreas Baumgartner, Michael Stietka, Franz Kabrt, Hannah Wiedner, Franz Josef Maringer
In this paper spectral interference effects for selected gamma-emitting radionuclides of the natural decay series and (40)K in selected NORM samples are studied. Recommendations for the choice of γ-lines and the consideration of possible spectral interferences are provided. Special attention is given to the radon tightness of the sample containers. A simple and sensitive method for the estimation of the (222)Rn leakage of sample containers is introduced. The applied polystyrene sample containers show (222)Rn leakages lower than 1%...
December 28, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Friedo Zölzer, Marcela Křížová, Zuzana Freitinger Skalická, Andrea Rössnerová, Radim Šrám
OBJECTIVE: To compare chromosomal damage in lymphocytes of individuals who did or did not report first-degree relatives with cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases and controls (68 each) were matched for sex, age and radon exposure. Chromosomal damage was quantified as frequency of micronucleus-containing cells and proportion of centromere-free micronuclei. RESULTS: Individuals not reporting cancer in their families showed lower values of both the frequency of micronucleus-containing cells (n...
January 3, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Jácint Jónás, János Somlai, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Miklós Hegedűs, Tibor Kovács
Coal-fired power plants play a significant role in the production of electricity. The Ra-226 concentration of coals mined in the Ajka region can reach up to 3000 Bq/kg. This study focuses on the effects of a Hungarian (Ajka) remediated coal ash depository on the environment and the effectiveness of the cover layer. During the remediation, a method patented in Hungary was used, in which the upper layer of the depository, which had settled like concrete, was ploughed and mixed with woodchips before being planted with vegetation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
L R Greenwood, M G Cantaloub, J L Burnett, A W Myers, C T Overman, J B Forrester, B G Glasgow, H S Miley
PNNL has developed two low-background gamma-ray spectrometers in a new shallow underground laboratory, thereby significantly improving its ability to detect low levels of gamma-ray emitting fission or activation products in airborne particulate in samples from the IMS (International Monitoring System). The combination of cosmic veto panels, dry nitrogen gas to reduce radon and low background shielding results in a reduction of the background count rate by about a factor of 100 compared to detectors operating above ground at our laboratory...
December 28, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Janja Vaupotič, Nataša Smrekar, Zora S Žunić
In 43 places (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and one dwelling), indoor radon has been monitored as an intercomparison experiment, using α-scintillation cells (SC - Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia), various kinds of solid state nuclear track detectors (KfK - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; UFO - National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; RET - University College Dublin, Ireland) and active electronic devices (EQF, Sarad, Germany). At the same place, the radon levels and, consequently, the effective doses obtained with different radon devices differed substantially (by a factor of 2 or more), and no regularity was observed as regards which detector would show a higher or lower dose...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Denis Glavič-Cindro, Drago Brodnik, Toni Petrovič, Matjaž Vencelj, Dušan Ponikvar, Steven James Bell, Lynsey Keightley, Selina Woods
In the frame of the European metrological research project MetroERM, a compact portable aerosol sampling and measurement device was developed at Jožef Stefan Institute. The system incorporates a CeBr3 scintillation detector positioned centrally within a concertinaed filter assembly and an improved high flow rate air pump. It provides continuous on-line low level airborne radioactive particulate monitoring for field station use via 3G network communications. The calibration of the device was performed at National Physical Laboratory (NPL) with filters, spiked with a certified mixed nuclide solution...
December 24, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Miroslav Hýža, Petr Rulík
In order to increase the early warning ability of the radiation monitoring network of the Czech republic, a high-volume aerosol sampler was upgraded with a NaI(Tl) probe placed directly above the aerosol filter. The paper demonstrates the possibility of using a method based on principal component regression to accurately subtract the complicated natural background caused by radon decay products. This approach yielded minimum detectable activities of 8mBq/m(3), 3mBq/m(3) and 7mBq/m(3) for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively, after 24h of sampling...
December 22, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Amela Kasić, Amira Kasumović, Feriz Adrović, Muhamed Hodžić
Investigations of natural radioactivity in water, air, and soil are conducted frequently and routinely. Exposure to high concentrations of natural radioactive radon gas can cause irradiation of respiratory organs, which can lead to lung cancer. This paper presents measurements of radon activity concentrations in dug wells and natural springs of the Tuzla area (Bosnia and Herzegovina), which ranged from 214 to 3702 mBq L-1. Our results have shown that the radon activity concentration did not exceed the EU reference level for radon in drinking water (100 Bq L-1)...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
A Dowdall, P Murphy, D Pollard, D Fenton
In 2002, a National Radon Survey (NRS) in Ireland established that the geographically weighted national average indoor radon concentration was 89 Bq m(-3). Since then a number of developments have taken place which are likely to have impacted on the national average radon level. Key among these was the introduction of amending Building Regulations in 1998 requiring radon preventive measures in new buildings in High Radon Areas (HRAs). In 2014, the Irish Government adopted the National Radon Control Strategy (NRCS) for Ireland...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Magdalena Długosz-Lisiecka, Marcin Krystek, Paweł Raczyński, Ewa Głuszek, Barbara Kietlińska-Michalik, Mariusz Niechwedowicz
The radon exhaled from radioactive mineral collections exhibited in five Polish geological museums may influence its total indoor concentration. Radon concentrations measured in the exhibition halls do not pose a risk for visitors or museum staff. However, air exceeding the ICRP (2007) action limit for workers (equal to 300Bq/m(3)) was noted in the storage rooms of two museums. Significant(222)Rn activity concentrations equal to more than ~300kBq/m(3)were measured inside lead containers where radioactive minerals were stored...
December 16, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yasutaka Omori, Shinji Tokonami, Sarata Kumar Sahoo, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Atsuyuki Sorimachi, Masahiro Hosoda, Hiromi Kudo, Chanis Pornnumpa, Raghu Ram K Nair, Padmavaty Amma Jayalekshmi, Paul Sebastian, Suminori Akiba
In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y(-1)) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y(-1)) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Cheol-Min Lee, Myung-Hee Kwon, Dae-Ryong Kang, Tae-Hyun Park, Si-Hyun Park, Jung-Eun Kwak
This study was conducted to provide fundamental data on the distribution of radon concentrations in child day-care facilities in South Korea and to help establish radon mitigation strategies. For this study, 230 child-care centers were randomly chosen from all child-care centers nationwide, and alpha track detectors were used to examine cumulative radon exposure concentrations from January to May 2015. The mean radon concentration measured in Korean child-care centers is approximately 52 Bq m(-3), about one-third of the upper limit of 148 Bq m(-3), which is recommended by South Korea's Indoor Air Quality Control in Public Use Facilities, etc...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Rohit Mehra, Rajan Jakhu, Pargin Bangotra, Harish Mohan Mittal
Radon ((222)Rn) and its decay products are the major sources of natural radiation exposure to general population. The activity concentrations of unattached and attached short-lived (222)Rn and thoron ((220)Rn) progeny in indoor environment of some dwellings of the Jalandhar and Kapurthala districts of Punjab had been calculated using the deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) and wire-mesh-capped (DRPS/DTPS) progeny sensors. The observed concentration of attached (222)Rn and (220)Rn progeny showed the variation from 5 to 21 Bq·m(-3) and 0...
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
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