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Andrea Rossnerova, Michaela Pokorna, Vlasta Svecova, Radim J Sram, Jan Topinka, Friedo Zölzer, Pavel Rossner
The human population is continually exposed to numerous harmful environmental stressors, causing negative health effects and/or deregulation of biomarker levels. However, studies reporting no or even positive impacts of some stressors on humans are also sometimes published. The main aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the last decade of Czech biomonitoring research, concerning the effect of various levels of air pollution (benzo[a]pyrene) and radiation (uranium, X-ray examination and natural radon background), on the differently exposed population groups...
July 2017: Mutation Research
Estelle Rage, Sylvaine Caër-Lorho, Dominique Laurier
After the extension of the French cohort of uranium miners with the inclusion of workers employed in the Jouac mines, this article seeks to describe the new Jouac cohort and to estimate mortality risks, as well as to quantify their relation to radon exposure in this extended cohort. The Jouac cohort includes 458 miners hired by the Société des Mines de Jouac between 1957 and 2001. As there is no measurement of radon exposure before 1978 were unavailable, only the post-1977 Jouac cohort (n=314) has been included in the French cohort, creating an extended cohort of 5400 French uranium miners followed up from 1946 to 2007...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Masoud Elhami Asl, Navid Alemi Koohbanani, Alejandro F Frangi, Ali Gooya
Extraction of blood vessels in retinal images is an important step for computer-aided diagnosis of ophthalmic pathologies. We propose an approach for blood vessel tracking and diameter estimation. We hypothesize that the curvature and the diameter of blood vessels are Gaussian processes (GPs). Local Radon transform, which is robust against noise, is subsequently used to compute the features and train the GPs. By learning the kernelized covariance matrix from training data, vessel direction and its diameter are estimated...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
T R Beck
The risks and dose conversion coefficients for residential and occupational exposures due to radon were determined with applying the epidemiological risk models to ICRP representative populations. The dose conversion coefficient for residential radon was estimated with a value of 1.6 mSv year(-1) per 100 Bq m(-3) (3.6 mSv per WLM), which is significantly lower than the corresponding value derived from the biokinetic and dosimetric models. The dose conversion coefficient for occupational exposures with applying the risk models for miners was estimated with a value of 14 mSv per WLM, which is in good accordance with the results of the dosimetric models...
September 15, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Xiaodong Cao, Piers MacNaughton, Jose Cedeno Laurent, Joseph G Allen
BACKGROUND: EPA reported that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, killing 21,100 people per year. EPA relies on the BEIR VI models, based on an evaluation of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in studies of miners. But these models did not account for co-exposure to diesel exhaust, a known human carcinogen recently classified by IARC. It is probable then that a portion of the lung cancer deaths in the miner cohorts are originally attributable to the exposure to diesel rather than radon...
2017: PloS One
Trang VoPham, Natalie DuPré, Rulla M Tamimi, Peter James, Kimberly A Bertrand, Veronica Vieira, Francine Laden, Jaime E Hart
BACKGROUND: Radon and its decay products, a source of ionizing radiation, are primarily inhaled and can deliver a radiation dose to breast tissue, where they may continue to decay and emit DNA damage-inducing particles. Few studies have examined the relationship between radon and breast cancer. METHODS: The Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) includes U.S. female registered nurses who completed biennial questionnaires since 1989. Self-reported breast cancer was confirmed from medical records...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
N Shamul, L Joskowicz
We present a new method for on-line radiation dose optimization in repeat CT scanning. Our method uses the information of the baseline scan during the repeat scanning to significantly reduce the radiation dose without compromising the repeat scan quality. It automatically registers the patient to the baseline scan using fractional scanning and detects in sinogram space the patient regions where changes have occurred without having to reconstruct the repeat scan image. It scans only these regions in the patient, thereby considerably reducing the necessary radiation dose...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Elin L Lundin, Martin Stauber, Panagiota Papageorgiou, Martin Ehrbar, Chafik Ghayor, Franz E Weber, Christine Tanner, Orcun Goksel
Histomorphometry and microCT are the two dominant imaging techniques to study bone structure and quality to evaluate repair, regeneration, and disease. These two methods are complementary; where histology provides highly resolved tissue properties on a cellular level in 2D, microCT provides spatial information of bone micro-structure in 3D. For this reason, both of these modalities are commonly used in bone studies. As it is not trivial to combine the images of these two modalities, the two methods are typically applied to different specimens within a study...
September 1, 2017: Bone
Peng Li, Ruiwen Zhang, Mintian Gu, Guiling Zheng
Radon ((222)Rn) is a natural radioactive gas and the major radioactive contributor to human exposure. The present effective ways to control Rn contamination are ventilation and adsorption with activated carbon. Plants are believed to be negligible in reducing airborne Rn. Here, we found epiphytic Tillandsia brachycaulos (Bromeliaceae) was effective in reducing airborne Rn via the leaves. Rn concentrations in the Rn chamber after Tillandsia plant treatments decreased more than those in the natural situation...
August 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Vedran Radonić, Damir Kozmar, Darko Počanić, Helena Jerkić, Ivan Bohaček, Tomislav Letilović
AIM: To compare the overall and disease-specific mortality of Croatian male athletes who won one or more Olympic medals representing Yugoslavia from 1948 to 1988 or Croatia from 1992 to 2016, and the general Croatian male population standardized by age and time period. METHODS: All 233 Croatian male Olympic medalists were included in the study. Information on life duration and cause of death for the Olympic medalists who died before January 1, 2017, was acquired from their families and acquaintances...
August 31, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
Gonzalo López-Abente, Olivier Núñez, Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Juan M Barros-Dios, Iván Martín-Méndez, Alejandro Bel-Lan, Juan Locutura, Luis Quindós, Carlos Sainz, Alberto Ruano-Ravina
Residential radon exposure is a serious public health concern, and as such appears in the recommendations of European Code Against Cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the association between residential radon levels and mortality due to different types of cancer, using misaligned data analysis techniques. Mortality data (observed cases) for each of the 313 Galician municipalities were drawn from the records of the National Statistics Institute for the study period (1999-2008). Expected cases were computed using Galician mortality rates for 14 types of malignant tumors as reference, with a total of 56,385 deaths due to the tumors analyzed...
August 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
S Cristina Oancea, Bradley C Rundquist, Isaac Simon, Sami Swartz, Yun Zheng, Xudong Zhou, Mary Ann Sens, Gary G Schwartz
AIM: We previously reported that incidence rates for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) among US states are significantly correlated with levels of residential radon (RR). Because these correlations could be influenced by confounding and/or misclassification among large geographic units, we reinvestigated them using smaller geographic units that better reflect exposure and disease at the individual level. METHODS: We examined the relationships between CLL and RR per county in 478 counties with publicly-available data...
September 2017: Future Oncology
Christina Søyland Hassfjell, Tom Kristian Grimsrud, William J F Standring, Steinar Tretli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2017: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Juncheng Liang, Zhijie Yang, Liyuan Wang, Zexi Li, Ming Zhang, Haoran Liu, Daqing Yuan
A defined solid angle counting apparatus for radon-222 activity absolute measurement is presented. Two home-made vacuum sealed radium-226 sources with radioactivity of 500kBq and 3MBq are used to minimize the impact from gas impurities. The defined solid angle is calculated using precisely measured geometrical parameters by several algorithms. The result from Monte Carlo simulation agrees with results obtained by other methods within the estimated uncertainty limit. Alpha particle's scattering behavior in the measurement chamber and collimator is simulated by the geant4 code and a total scattering alpha particle ratio of 0...
July 29, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Vanessa Hatje, Karina Kammer Attisano, Marcelo Friederichs Landim de Souza, Barbara Mazzilli, Joselene de Oliveira, Tamires de Araújo Mora, William C Burnett
Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hubert Huras, Magdalena Nowak, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Malgorzata Radon-Pokracka, Agnieszka Nocun, Marcin Wiechec
OBJECTIVES: 1) To analyze screening performance of second trimester scan for ACC, 2) to evaluate the agreement between ultrasound and MRI and 3) to compare prenatal and postnatal diagnosis. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study. All patients with fetuses suspected of ACC were referred to prenatal MRI (pMRI). RESULTS: One subject was not confirmed by pMRI with the diagnosis of ACC. This case demonstrated partial ACC in neonatal MRI (nMRI)...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Imaging
A Baeza, J García-Paniagua, J Guillén, B Montalbán
Indoor radon is a major health concern as it is a known carcinogenic. Nowadays there is a trend towards a greater energy conservation in buildings, which is reflected in an increasing number of regulations. But, can this trend increase the indoor radon concentration? In this paper, we selected a radon prone area in Spain and focused on single-family dwellings constructed in a variety of architectural styles. These styles ranged from 1729 up to 2014, with varying construction techniques (from local resources to almost universally standard building materials) and regulations in force (from none to the Spanish regulation in force)...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rupashree Dass, Paweł Kasprzak, Krzysztof Kazimierczuk
The Radon transform is a potentially powerful tool for processing the data from serial spectroscopic experiments. It makes it possible to decode the rate at which frequencies of spectral peaks shift under the effect of changing conditions, such as temperature, pH, or solvent. In this paper we show how it also improves speed and sensitivity, especially in multidimensional experiments. This is particularly important in the case of low-sensitivity techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy. As an example, we demonstrate how Radon transform processing allows serial measurements of (15)N-HSQC spectra of unlabelled peptides that would otherwise be infeasible...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
E Gören, Ş Turhan, A Kurnaz, A M K Garad, C Duran, F A Uğur, Z Yeğingil
Natural radionuclides are released into the environment together with fly ash from the coal-burning power plant and cause an increase in the natural radioactivity in environmental samples. The study concerns to the evaluation the influence of Kangal lignite-burning power plant (LBPP) with a power of 457 MWe, which has been in operation since 1989, on natural radionuclide a concentration in surface soil samples around it. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (222)Rn) in the soil samples, and emanation coefficient (EC) and mass (ERM) and surface (ERS) exhalation rate of radon were determined by using a gamma-ray spectrometer with an HPGe detector...
August 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ajay Kumar, Manpreet Kaur, Rohit Mehra, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Rosaline Mishra
The level of radon concentration has been assessed using the Advanced SMART RnDuo technique in 30 drinking water samples from Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The water samples were collected from wells, hand pumps, submersible pumps, and stored waters. The randomly obtained 14 values of radon concentration in water sources using the SMART RnDuo technique have been compared and cross checked by a RAD7 device. A good positive correlation (R = 0.88) has been observed between the two techniques. The overall value of radon concentration in various water sources has ranged from 2...
October 2017: Health Physics
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