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Ewa Gawełek, Bogna Drozdzowska, Anna Fuchs
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Indoor radon concentration poses a significant and potentially subject to the prevention risk factor of lung cancer development. The paper present the history of studies assessing occupational and indoor radon exposure and an impact of international organizations for raise public and political awareness about the consequences of long term exposure to residential radon, resulting in the European Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
E Muñoz, B Frutos, M Olaya, J Sánchez
The focus of this study is broadly to define the physics involved in radon generation and transport through the soil and other materials using different parameter-estimation tools from the literature. The effect of moisture in the soil and radon transport via water in the pore space was accounted for with the application of a porosity correction coefficient. A 2D finite element model is created, which reproduces the diffusion and advection mechanisms resulting from specified boundary conditions. A comparison between the model and several analytical and numerical solutions obtained from the literature and field studies validates the model...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M I Savva, D J Karangelos, M J Anagnostakis
Natural radionuclides, such as short lived radon daughters and (7)Be, have been analyzed in aerosols at the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since many years, with high accuracy and precision. During this research, an effort to detect (22)Na and determine (7)Be/(22)Na ratio in aerosols is presented. In order to study the role of precipitation in surface air (7)Be and (22)Na activity concentration, a procedure for collecting and analyzing rainwater was developed...
July 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Andrew S Berens, Jeremy Diem, Christine Stauber, Dajun Dai, Stephanie Foster, Richard Rothenberg
Accounting for as much as 14% of all lung cancers worldwide, cumulative radon progeny exposure is the leading cause of lung cancer among never-smokers both internationally and in the United States. To understand the risk of radon progeny exposure, studies have mapped radon potential using aircraft-based measurements of gamma emissions. However, these efforts are hampered in urban areas where the built environment obstructs aerial data collection. To address part of this limitation, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using in situ gamma readings (taken with a scintillation probe attached to a ratemeter) to assess radon potential in an urban environment: DeKalb County, part of the Atlanta metropolitan area, Georgia, USA...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
H Wiedner, K Lotter, P Karner, H Friedmann, F J Maringer
In this study the radon activity concentration of water samples from the so called "Thermenlinie" are measured using two different techniques: currents measured with an ionisation chamber setup developed by H. Friedmann are compared with results obtained using a commercially available AlphaGUARD. A fit to compensate for measurements made in non-equilibrium state is applied and the detection limit is estimated.
June 23, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
David Müller, Andreas Otto, Günter Radons
In this paper, we investigate the influence of the retarded access by a time-varying delay on the dynamics of delay systems. We show that there are two universality classes of delays, which lead to fundamental differences in dynamical quantities such as the Lyapunov spectrum. Therefore, we introduce an operator theoretic framework, where the solution operator of the delay system is decomposed into the Koopman operator describing the delay access and an operator similar to the solution operator known from systems with constant delay...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Min Jiang, Yi Sun, Zhiping Qu, Mengjie Li
Sparse-view Computed Tomography (CT) plays an important role in industrial inspection and medical diagnosis. However, the established reconstruction equations based on traditional Radon transform are ill-posed and obtain an approximate solution in the case of finite sampling angles. By contrast, Mojette transform is considered as the discrete geometry of the projection and reconstruction lattice. It determines the geometrical conditions for ensuring a unique solution instead of solving an ill-posed problem from the start...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Anne Grundy, Abbey E Poirier, Farah Khandwala, Xin Grevers, Christine M Friedenreich, Darren R Brenner
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the proportion of cancer cases that can be attributed to modifiable risk factors are not available for Canada and, more specifically, Alberta. The purpose of this study was to estimate the total proportion of cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that could be attributed to a set of 24 modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors. METHODS: We estimated summary population attributable risk estimates for 24 risk factors (smoking [both passive and active], overweight and obesity, inadequate physical activity, diet [inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, inadequate fibre intake, excess red and processed meat consumption, salt consumption, inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake], alcohol, hormones [oral contraceptives and hormone therapy], infections [Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, human papillomavirus, Helicobacter pylori], air pollution, natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation, radon and water disinfection by-products) by combining population attributable risk estimates for each of the 24 factors that had been previously estimated...
July 7, 2017: CMAJ Open
Danielle Vienneau, Kees de Hoogh, Dimitri Hauri, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Christian Schindler, Anke Huss, Martin Röösli
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is among the highest in the world. In addition to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radon alpha particles attached to aerosols can adhere to the skin and potentially cause carcinogenic effects. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of radon and UV exposure on skin cancer mortality. METHODS: Cox proportional hazard regression was used to study the association between exposures and skin cancer mortality in adults from the Swiss National Cohort...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Erik Thunnissen, Timothy Craig Allen, Julien Adam, Dara L Aisner, Mary Beth Beasley, Alain C Borczuk, Philip T Cagle, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Wendy Cooper, Lida P Hariri, Izidor Kern, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Ross Miller, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Teodora Radonic, Kirtee Raparia, Natasha Rekhtman, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri, Prudence Russell, Frank Schneider, Lynette M Sholl, Ming Sound Tsao, Marina Vivero, Yasushi Yatabe
The use of immunohistochemistry for the determination of pulmonary carcinoma biomarkers is a well-established and powerful technique. Immunohistochemisty is readily available in pathology laboratories, is relatively easy to perform and assess, can provide clinically meaningful results very quickly, and is relatively inexpensive. Pulmonary predictive biomarkers provide results essential for timely and accurate therapeutic decision making; for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, predictive immunohistochemistry includes ALK, (ROS1, EGFR in Europe), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) testing...
July 7, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
N Anantrasirichai, Wesley Hayes, Marco Allinovi, David Bull, Alin Achim
This paper presents a novel method for line restoration in speckle images. We address this as a sparse estimation problem using both convex and non-convex optimisation techniques based on the Radon transform and sparsity regularisation. This breaks into subproblems which are solved using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), thereby achieving line detection and deconvolution simultaneously. We include an additional deblurring step in the Radon domain via a total variation blind deconvolution to enhance line visualisation and to improve line recognition...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Ljiljana Gulan, Jelena M Stajic, Francesco Bochicchio, Carmela Carpentieri, Gordana Milic, Dragoslav Nikezic, Zora S Zunic
This paper presents indoor radon concentrations and specific activities of natural radionuclides measured in soils of Kosovo and Metohija. The measurements of radon concentration were performed during two consecutive 6-month periods in two rooms of 63 houses using CR-39 detectors. The annual radon concentration ranged from 30 to 810 Bq m(-3) with the average value of 128 Bq m(-3). Almost 15% of the houses had radon concentration higher than 200 Bq m(-3). The difference between radon concentrations measured in the two 6-month periods was analyzed, showing, as expected, a slightly higher radon concentration in the "winter period" than in the "summer period"...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aki Pulkkinen, Jarkko J Leskinen, Aimo Tiihonen
Synthetic schlieren imaging, also known as background oriented schlieren imaging, is used to determine the acoustical field of a focused ultrasound transducer operating at 1.01 MHz frequency with peak pressure amplitude of 0.97 MPa. The measurement setup is composed of a commercial off-the-shelf digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera with an ordinary objective, a high power light-emitting diode driven in pulsating mode, water tank, ultrasound transducer, rotation stage, and driving electronics. Measurements are performed in tomographic fashion by rotating the ultrasound transducer within the water tank and photographing an imaged target behind the ultrasound field...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Frederick W Lipfert
I searched the NIH Medline database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalogue is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were evaluated most frequently among the 417 ambient air quality studies identified. Associations with TSP, carbon, ozone, sulfur, vehicular traffic, radon, and indoor air quality were also reported...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo, Alberto Ruano-Ravina, Sara Cerdeira-Caramés, Mónica Raíces-Aldrey, Juan M Barros-Dios
Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76...
July 3, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
M Bruggeman, S M Collins, L Done, M Đurašević, M A Duch, A Gudelis, M Hyža, A Jevremović, A Kandić, M Korun, S Ilie, J M Lee, K B Lee, A Luca, R M Margineanu, A Pantelica, I Serrano, B Šešlak, L C Tugulan, L Verheyen, B Vodenik, I Vukanac, Z Zeng, B Zorko
A method is presented for calculating the expected number of counts in peaks that have a large relative peak-area uncertainty and appear in measured gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to calculations of the correction factors for peaks occurring in the spectra of radon daughters. It was shown that the factors used for correcting the calculated peak areas to their expected values decrease with an increasing relative peak-area uncertainty. The accuracy of taking the systematic influence inducing the correction factors into account is given by the dispersion of the correction factors corresponding to specific peaks...
June 23, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jordi Vives I Batlle, Alexander Ulanovsky, David Copplestone
A method is presented to calculate radiation dose rates arising from radon, thoron and their progeny to non-human biota in the terrestrial environment. The method improves on existing methodologies for the assessment of radon to biota by using a generalised allometric approach to model respiration, calculating dose coefficients for the ICRP reference animals and plants, and extending the approach to cover thoron in addition to radon-derived isotopes. The method is applicable to a range of environmental situations involving these radionuclides in wildlife, with an envisaged application being to study the impact of human activities, which bring NORM radionuclides to the biosphere...
June 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein, Kenneth E Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the brain to ionizing radiation might promote the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Analysis of AD death rates versus radon background radiation and total background radiation in U.S. states. METHODS: Total background, radon background, cosmic and terrestrial background radiation measurements are from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States and Report No. 160 - Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chelsea E Langer, Patricia de Llobet, Albert Dalmau, Joe Wiart, Geertje Goedhart, Martine Hours, Geza P Benke, Evdoxia Bouka, Revital Bruchim, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Amanda Eng, Mina Ha, Maria Karalexi, Kosuke Kiyohara, Noriko Kojimahara, Daniel Krewski, Hans Kromhout, Brigitte Lacour, Andrea 't Mannetje, Milena Maule, Enrica Migliore, Charmaine Mohipp, Franco Momoli, Eleni Petridou, Katja Radon, Thomas Remen, Siegal Sadetzki, Malcolm R Sim, Tobias Weinmann, Roel Vermeulen, Elisabeth Cardis, Martine Vrijheid
Characterizing exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields from wireless telecommunications technologies during childhood and adolescence is a research priority in investigating the health effects of RF. The Mobi-Expo study aimed to describe characteristics and determinants of cellular phone use in 534 young people (10-24years) in 12 countries. The study used a specifically designed software application installed on smartphones to collect data on the use of wireless telecommunications devices within this age group...
June 29, 2017: Environment International
Yong-Jun Ye, Yun-Feng Zhang, Xin-Tao Dai, De-Xin Ding
The particle size and heaped methods of exhalation media have important effects on physical parameters, such as the free radon production rate, porosity, permeability, and radon diffusion coefficient. However, existing methods for determining those parameters are too complex, and time-consuming. In this study, a novel, systematic determining method was proposed based on nuclide decay, radon diffusion migration theory, and the mass conservation law, and an associated experimental device was designed and manufactured...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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