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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447252/a-preliminary-study-for-conducting-a-rational-assessment-of-radon-exposure-levels
#1
Hyung-Jin Jeon, Dae-Ryoung Kang, Sang-Baek Go, Tae-Hyun Park, Si-Hyun Park, Jung-Eun Kwak, Cheol-Min Lee
The aim of this study was to determine the factors that go into a highly reliable estimate of radon exposure levels for use in setting up the case-control study. To this end, the present study conducted a multi-faceted investigation of the distribution of radon concentrations in the bedrooms and living rooms of 400 households in the target areas during the winter months from December 2014 to February 2015. We determined that taking the mean value of the radon concentration levels detected in the bedroom and living room as the representative value of residential concentration is appropriate, given the usability of previous research data and the difference in the concentration levels between the two...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444252/accurate-measurement-of-indoor-radon-concentration-using-a-low-effective-volume-radon-monitor
#2
Aya Tanaka, Nodoka Minami, Yumi Yasuoka, Takeshi Iimoto, Yasutaka Omori, Hiroyuki Nagahama, Jun Muto, Takahiro Mukai
AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ~10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437900/model-and-reconstruction-of-a-k-edge-contrast-agent-distribution-with-an-x-ray-photon-counting-detector
#3
Bo Meng, Wenxiang Cong, Yan Xi, Bruno De Man, Jian Yang, Ge Wang
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) helps enhance the visibility for tumor imaging. When a high-Z contrast agent interacts with X-rays across its K-edge, X-ray photoelectric absorption would experience a sudden increment, resulting in a significant difference of the X-ray transmission intensity between the left and right energy windows of the K-edge. Using photon-counting detectors, the X-ray intensity data in the left and right windows of the K-edge can be measured simultaneously. The differential information of the two kinds of intensity data reflects the contrast-agent concentration distribution...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437651/population-attributable-risk-associated-with-lung-cancer-induced-by-residential-radon-in-canada-sensitivity-to-relative-risk-model-and-radon-probability-density-function-choices-in-memory-of-professor-jan-m-zielinski
#4
Mo'tassem Al-Arydah
Indoor radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) estimates the proportion of lung cancer cases associated with indoor radon exposure. Different relative risk (RR) models have been used in the literature to calculate PAR. The aim of this study is to assess how sensitive PAR is to the relative risk model and radon probability distribution functions choices. METHODS: Using Canadian observed first floor radon data collected by Health Canada during the period October 2010 to March 2011, seven common PAR radon models used for North American miners and dwelling scenarios were applied...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432368/indoor-radon-in-micro-geological-setting-of-an-indigenous-community-in-canada-a-pilot-study-for-hazard-identification
#5
Atanu Sarkar, Derek Hc Wilton, Erica Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426983/constraining-the-temporal-variations-of-ra-isotopes-and-rn-in-the-groundwater-end-member-implications-for-derived-sgd-estimates
#6
Marc Cerdà-Domènech, Valentí Rodellas, Albert Folch, Jordi Garcia-Orellana
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important supplier of chemical compounds to the ocean that may influence coastal geochemical cycles. Radium isotopes ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra,(228)Ra) and radon ((222)Rn) have been widely applied as tracers of SGD. Their application requires the appropriate characterization of both the concentrations of tracers in the discharging groundwater and their distribution in the coastal water column. This study evaluates the temporal evolution of Ra isotopes and (222)Rn concentrations in a dynamic subterranean estuary of a microtidal Mediterranean coastal aquifer that experiences large displacements of the fresh-saltwater interface as a necessary initial step in evaluating the influence of SGD in coastal waters...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420217/microfluidic-ebg-sensor-based-on-phase-shift-method-realized-using-3d-printing-technology
#7
Vasa Radonić, Slobodan Birgermajer, Goran Kitić
In this article, we propose a novel microfluidic microstrip electromagnetic band gap (EBG) sensor realized using cost-effective 3D printing technology. Microstrip sensor allows monitoring of the fluid properties flowing in the microchannel embedded between the microstrip line and ground plane. The sensor's operating principle is based on the phase-shift method, which allows the characterization at a single operating frequency of 6 GHz. The defected electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure is realized as a pattern in the microstrip ground plane to improve sensor sensitivity...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415203/transfer-entropy-in-continuous-time-with-applications-to-jump-and-neural-spiking-processes
#8
Richard E Spinney, Mikhail Prokopenko, Joseph T Lizier
Transfer entropy has been used to quantify the directed flow of information between source and target variables in many complex systems. While transfer entropy was originally formulated in discrete time, in this paper we provide a framework for considering transfer entropy in continuous time systems, based on Radon-Nikodym derivatives between measures of complete path realizations. To describe the information dynamics of individual path realizations, we introduce the pathwise transfer entropy, the expectation of which is the transfer entropy accumulated over a finite time interval...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411425/thoron-mitigation-system-based-on-charcoal-bed-for-applications-in-thorium-fuel-cycle-facilities-part-1-development-of-theoretical-models-for-design-considerations
#9
B K Sahoo, K Sudeep Kumara, N Karunakara, J J Gaware, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya
Regulating the environmental discharge of (220)Rn (historically known as thoron) and its decay products from thorium processing facilities is important for protection of environment and general public living in the vicinities. Activated charcoal provides an effective solution to this problem because of its high adsorption capacity to gaseous element like radon. In order to design and develop a charcoal based Thoron Mitigation System, a mathematical model has been developed in the present work for studying the (220)Rn transport and adsorption in a flow through charcoal bed and estimating the (220)Rn mitigation factor (MF) as a function of system and operating parameters...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410681/simulation-of-scanner-and-patient-specific-low-dose-ct-imaging-from-existing-ct-images
#10
Robiël E Naziroglu, Vincent F van Ravesteijn, Lucas J van Vliet, Geert J Streekstra, Frans M Vos
PURPOSE: Simulating low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) facilitates in-silico studies into the required dose for a diagnostic task. Conventionally, low-dose CT images are created by adding noise to the projection data. However, in practice the raw data is often simply not available. This paper presents a new method for simulating patient-specific, low-dose CT images without the need of the original projection data. METHODS: The low-dose CT simulation method included the following: (1) computation of a virtual sinogram from a high dose CT image through a radon transform; (2) simulation of a 'reduced'-dose sinogram with appropriate amounts of noise; (3) subtraction of the high-dose virtual sinogram from the reduced-dose sinogram; (4) reconstruction of a noise volume via filtered back-projection; (5) addition of the noise image to the original high-dose image...
April 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409286/the-dependence-on-ammonia-pretreatment-of-n-o-activation-by-co-ii-sites-in-zeolites-a-dft-and-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-study
#11
E Broclawik, K Góra-Marek, M Radoń, T Bučko, A Stępniewski
This work is focused on the donor properties of cobalt-exchanged cationic sites in zeolites. It is based on cluster and periodic density functional theory modeling for relevant {[Co(II)(NH3)n]-NO} adducts, where Co(II) means a cobalt cation embedded either in a periodic model of chabasite (CHA) zeolite or in model clusters. NO stretching frequencies were derived from MD trajectories and compared to harmonic values from cluster calculations. By relating calculated NO frequencies to experimental FTIR spectra, it was shown that the forms of {Co(II)-NO} adducts comprising three or four ammonia co-ligands dominate the spectrum taken in ammonia-saturation conditions while forms with two NH3 ligands prevail under intermediate ammonia saturation...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406747/100-years-of-radiation-research-in-the-footsteps-of-failla
#12
Eric J Hall
Gioacchino Failla was initially appointed to operate the radon plant at Memorial Hospital in 1916. What to most people would have been a part-time temporary position was to him a career. He was not satisfied to simply fabricate radon seeds, he wanted to understand the physics and biology of the radiation emitted by the progeny of radium. His was not the first medical physics group in the United States, though it was one of the earliest, but it was the first to put such emphasis on the biological effects. After more than 28 years at Memorial Hospital, Failla moved his research group to Columbia University Medical Center and his pioneering work, blending physics and biology, has continued to date at Columbia by those that he trained or inspired, under three directors that followed him...
April 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401142/comprehensive-survey-of-household-radon-gas-levels-and-risk-factors-in-southern-alberta
#13
Fintan K T Stanley, Siavash Zarezadeh, Colin D Dumais, Karin Dumais, Renata MacQueen, Fiona Clement, Aaron A Goodarzi
BACKGROUND: The inhalation of naturally occurring radon (222Rn) gas from indoor air exposes lung tissue to α-particle bombardment, a highly mutagenic form of ionizing radiation that damages DNA and increases the lifetime risk of lung cancer. We analyzed household radon concentrations and risk factors in southern Alberta, including Calgary, the third-largest Canadian metropolis. METHODS: A total of 2382 residential homes (2018 in Calgary and 364 in surrounding townships) from an area encompassing 82% of the southern Alberta population were tested for radon, per Health Canada guidelines, for at least 90 days (median 103 d) between 2013 and 2016...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397205/assessment-of-the-implementation-of-the-infectious-diseases-screening-programmes-among-pregnant-women-in-the-lesser-poland-region-and-comparison-with-similar-programmes-conducted-in-other-european-union-countries
#14
Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Maciej Piasecki, Alicja Lachowska, Sebastian Baczkowski, Joanna Spaczyńska, Magdalena Górecka, Magdalena Nowak, Hubert Huras
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the level of implementation of recommendations of the Ministry of Health regarding infectious disease screening during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 477 patients who were admitted to the delivery room between December 2015 and February 2016. Data on screening test results were collected based on medical records covering the period before the admission. RESULTS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening was conducted in 410 (86%)...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396855/radon-risk-and-remediation-a-psychological-perspective
#15
David Hevey
Although radon exposure in the home increases the risk of lung cancer, this risk can be managed. However, evidence indicates that testing for radon and subsequent home remediation rates are generally low in many countries. The present perspective outlines some key insights from psychological science that might account for sub-optimal radon protection. Psychological aspects of how the health risks posed by radon are perceived and managed are outlined. There is need to consider radon risk perception in terms of the (a) cognitive and emotional responses to radon and (b) social context in which the radon threat occurs...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395156/phosphogypsum-recycling-in-the-building-materials-industry-assessment-of-the-radon-exhalation-rate
#16
M P Campos, L J P Costa, M B Nisti, B P Mazzilli
Phosphogypsum can be classified as a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. One of the main environmental concerns of its use as building material is the radon exhalation. The aim of this study is to measure the radon exhalation rate from plates and bricks manufactured with phosphogypsum from three installations of the main Brazilian producer, Vale Fertilizantes, in order to evaluate the additional health risk to dwellers. A simple and reliable accumulator method involving a PVC pipe sealed with a PVC pipe cover commercially available with CR-39 radon detector into a diffusion chamber was used for measuring radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum made plates and bricks...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395155/short-term-variability-of-gamma-radiation-at-the-arm-eastern-north-atlantic-facility-azores
#17
S M Barbosa, P Miranda, E B Azevedo
This work addresses the short-term variability of gamma radiation measured continuously at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM). The temporal variability of gamma radiation is characterized by occasional anomalies over a slowly-varying signal. Sharp peaks lasting typically 2-4 h are coincident with heavy precipitation and result from the scavenging effect of precipitation bringing radon progeny from the upper levels to the ground surface...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395145/socio-economic-costs-of-indoor-air-pollution-a-tentative-estimation-for-some-pollutants-of-health-interest-in-france
#18
Guillaume Boulanger, Thomas Bayeux, Corinne Mandin, Séverine Kirchner, Benoit Vergriette, Valérie Pernelet-Joly, Pierre Kopp
An evaluation of the socio-economic costs of indoor air pollution can facilitate the development of appropriate public policies. For the first time in France, such an evaluation was conducted for six selected pollutants: benzene, trichloroethylene, radon, carbon monoxide, particles (PM2.5 fraction), and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The health impacts of indoor exposure were either already available in published works or were calculated. For these calculations, two approaches were followed depending on the available data: the first followed the principles of quantitative health risk assessment, and the second was based on concepts and methods related to the health impact assessment...
April 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390997/processing-the-spike-like-radon-anomaly-exhalation-from-the-soil-surface-by-electrical-model
#19
Mohammad Musavi Nasab, Ali Negarestani
A model based on electric circuit theory has been developed to simulate the radon concentration in an accumulator chamber from the soil surface. This model simulates the radon generation on earth as a voltage source, diffusion to the earth's surface as an electrical conductor, the convection flux of radon as an electrical current source and radon concentration in a chamber as a voltage across a capacitor. We use this model for processing the spike like an anomaly of radon. This paper offers a radon anomaly spike like has a duration time less than several hours...
March 29, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388500/atmospheric-dispersion-of-radon-around-uranium-mill-tailings-of-the-former-pridneprovsky-chemical-plant-in-ukraine
#20
Ivan V Kovalets, Christian Asker, Alexander V Khalchenkov, Christer Persson, Tatyana V Lavrova
Simulations of atmospheric dispersion of radon around the uranium mill tailings of the former Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant (PChP) in Ukraine were carried out with the aid of two atmospheric dispersion models: the Airviro Grid Model and the CALMET/CALPUFF model chain. The available measurement data of radon emission rates taken in the territories and the close vicinity of tailings were used in simulations. The results of simulations were compared to the yearly averaged measurements of concentration data. Both models were able to reasonably reproduce average radon concentration at the Sukhachivske site using averaged measured emission rates as input together with the measured meteorological data...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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