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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441325/the-effects-of-taekwondo-training-on-peripheral-neuroplasticity-related-growth-factors-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-and-cognitive-functions-in-healthy-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So, Hee-Tae Roh
Although regular Taekwondo (TKD) training has been reported to be effective for improving cognitive function in children, the mechanism underlying this improvement remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in neuroplasticity-related growth factors in the blood, assess cerebral blood flow velocity, and verify the resulting changes in children's cognitive function after TKD training. Thirty healthy elementary school students were randomly assigned to control (n = 15) and TKD (n = 15) groups...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390772/outcomes-of-thoracic-endovascular-repair-for-type-b-aortic-dissection-with-multichanneled-morphology
#2
Baolei Guo, Kai Hou, Daqiao Guo, Xin Xu, Zhenyu Shi, Yan Shan, Peng Lv, Weiguo Fu
OBJECTIVE: Clinical outcomes after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for patients with multichanneled aortic dissection (MCAD) are poorly understood but seem substantially different from those for patients with double-channeled aortic dissection (AD). This study compared the anatomic and clinical factors for patients with MCAD who underwent TEVAR with or without full true lumen (TL) collapse. METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2016, 54 of 644 consecutive type B AD patients (8...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386270/fimasartan-ameliorates-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-ppar%C3%AE-regulation-in-hyperlipidemic-and-hypertensive-conditions
#3
Yong-Jik Lee, Yoo-Na Jang, Yoon-Mi Han, Hyun-Min Kim, Jong-Min Jeong, Hong Seog Seo
To investigate the effects of fimasartan on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperlipidemic and hypertensive conditions, the levels of biomarkers related to fatty acid metabolism were determined in HepG2 and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells treated by high fatty acid and liver and visceral fat tissue samples of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) given high-fat diet. In HepG2 cells and liver tissues, fimasartan was shown to increase the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), phosphorylated 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC), malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and it led to a decrease in the protein levels of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSDH1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356434/the-growth-promoting-effect-of-dietary-nucleotides-in-fish-is-associated-with-an-intestinal-microbiota-mediated-reduction-in-energy-expenditure
#4
Xiaoze Guo, Chao Ran, Zhen Zhang, Suxu He, Min Jin, Zhigang Zhou
Background: Nucleotides have been used as functional nutrients to improve the growth and health of animals, including fish. The mechanism involved in the growth-promotion effect of nucleotides is still unclear.Objective: We investigated the bioenergetic mechanism underlying the growth-promotion effect of nucleotides in zebrafish and the associated roles played by the intestinal microbiota.Methods: Larval zebrafish were fed a control or a 0.1% mixed nucleotides-supplemented diet for 2 wk. Standard metabolic rate, the minimal rate of energy expenditure by animals at rest, was evaluated by oxygen consumption with the use of a respirometer...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353634/vitamin-d-insufficiency-exacerbates-adipose-tissue-macrophage-infiltration-and-decreases-ampk-sirt1-activity-in-obese-rats
#5
Eugene Chang, Yangha Kim
Obesity is recognized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation due to adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and production of proinflammatory adipokines. Decreased vitamin D status is associated with obesity. The specific aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of vitamin D on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed a normal diet (NOR, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), a 45% high-fat diet (HF, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), or a 45% high-fat diet containing 25 IU vitamin D/kg diet (HF+LVD) for 12 weeks...
March 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116391/a-rich-medium-chain-triacylglycerol-diet-benefits-adiposity-but-has-adverse-effects-on-the-markers-of-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-beta-oxidation
#6
Carolina Maria de Oliveira Chamma, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
We investigated the increasing amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in the diet on hepatic lipid metabolism. Mature C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group). The animals received their diet for 12 weeks, as a control (C group, 10% of energy from lipids); high-fat lard (HF group, isoenergetic diet, 50% of energy from lipids with lard); a mixture of lard and MCT oil (with a gradual replacement of lard by MCT: HF-MCT25%, HF-MCT75%, and HF-MCT100% groups). At euthanasia, we collected blood and dissected the liver for analyses (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICK index, and triacylglycerol, light microscopy, western blotting, and RT-qPCR)...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#7
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976856/unveiling-the-pathogenic-molecular-mechanisms-of-the-most-common-variant-p-k329e-in-medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-by-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches
#8
Cátia A Bonito, Joana Nunes, João Leandro, Filipa Louro, Paula Leandro, Fátima V Ventura, Rita C Guedes
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common genetic disorder affecting the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The mature and functional form of human MCAD (hMCAD) is a homotetramer assembled as a dimer of dimers (monomers A/B and C/D). Each monomer binds a FAD cofactor, necessary for the enzyme's activity. The most frequent mutation in MCADD results from the substitution of a lysine with a glutamate in position 304 of mature hMCAD (p.K329E in the precursor protein)...
December 27, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943070/development-of-a-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-rapid-measurement-of-medium-and-very-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-activity-in-fibroblasts
#9
Damien Bouvier, Christine Vianey-Saban, Séverine Ruet, Cécile Acquaviva
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is a vital biochemical process for energy metabolism. Among the known fatty-acid metabolism disorders, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency count among the most frequent. Both are potentially very serious diseases as they carry a risk of severe neurological post-crisis sequelae, and even sudden death. Diagnosis relies on plasma acylcarnitine profile analysis and urine organic acid analysis, followed by genetic testing to confirm diagnosis...
December 10, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927213/living-on-the-edge-substrate-competition-explains-loss-of-robustness-in-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders
#10
Karen van Eunen, Catharina M L Volker-Touw, Albert Gerding, Aycha Bleeker, Justina C Wolters, Willemijn J van Rijt, Anne-Claire M F Martines, Klary E Niezen-Koning, Rebecca M Heiner, Hjalmar Permentier, Albert K Groen, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Terry G J Derks, Barbara M Bakker
BACKGROUND: Defects in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation (mFAO) reduce the ability of patients to cope with metabolic challenges. mFAO enzymes accept multiple substrates of different chain length, leading to molecular competition among the substrates. Here, we combined computational modeling with quantitative mouse and patient data to investigate whether substrate competition affects pathway robustness in mFAO disorders. RESULTS: First, we used comprehensive biochemical analyses of wild-type mice and mice deficient for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) to parameterize a detailed computational model of mFAO...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871288/tissue-specific-expression-of-human-fatty-acid-oxidation-enzyme-genes-in-late-pregnancy
#11
Jose L Bartha, Fernando Bugatto, Álvaro Fernández-Deudero, Rosa Fernández-Macías, Germán Perdomo
BACKGROUND: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. The contribution of maternal and fetal tissues to FAO capacity during late pregnancy is important to understand the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated complications. The aim of this study was to determine the expression levels of mitochondrial FAO enzymes in maternal and fetal tissues during late normal pregnancy. METHODS: We have measured by Real-time PCR the levels of long- and medium -chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD and MCAD), two acyl-CoA dehydrogenases that catalyze the initial step in the mitochondrial FAO spiral...
November 21, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856190/screening-of-mcad-deficiency-in-japan-16years-experience-of-enzymatic-and-genetic-evaluation
#12
Go Tajima, Keiichi Hara, Miyuki Tsumura, Reiko Kagawa, Satoshi Okada, Nobuo Sakura, Ikue Hata, Yosuke Shigematsu, Masao Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a representative disorder of fatty acid oxidation and is one of the most prevalent inborn errors of metabolism among Caucasian populations. In Japan, however, it was as late as 2000 when the first patient was found, and enzymatic and genetic evaluation of MCAD deficiency began. METHODS: We measured octanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes of symptomatic children and newborn screening (NBS)-positive subjects who showed elevated levels of C8-acylcarnitine in blood...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845265/the-effects-of-herbal-composition-gambigyeongsinhwan-4-on-hepatic-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats-and-hepg2-cells
#13
Seolah Yoon, Jeongjun Kim, Hyunghee Lee, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Heejeong Yang, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hepatic steatosis has risen rapidly in parallel with a dramatic increase in obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)), composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata, regulates hepatic steatosis and inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of GGH(4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and HepG2 cells were examined using Oil red O, hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819350/%C3%AE-msh-and-foxc2-promote-fatty-acid-oxidation-through-c-ebp%C3%AE-negative-transcription-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#14
Lu Gan, Zhenjiang Liu, Yizhe Chen, Dan Luo, Fei Feng, Guannv Liu, Chao Sun
Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and Forkhead box C2 protein (Foxc2) enhance lipolysis in multiple tissues. However, their relationship in adipose fatty acid oxidation (FAO) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that α-MSH and Foxc2 increased palmitate oxidation to CO2 in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). C/EBPβ expression was reduced by α-MSH and Foxc2. FFA level was elevated by α-MSH and pc-Foxc2 treatment along with increased FAO in white and brown adipocytes. The expression of FAO key enzymes, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) were increased in α-MSH and pc-Foxc2 group...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508665/-op-3c-05-characteristics-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-carotid-stiffness-in-patients-with-ischemic-leukoaraiosis-and-new-ultrasound-indices-of-ischemic-leukoaraiosis
#15
M Turk, M Zaletel, J Pretnar Oblak
OBJECTIVE: Leukoaraiosis (ILA) is believed to be ischaemic in origin due its association with cerebrovascular risk factors and similar location as lacunar infarctions. Its pathophysiology is not well understood and its diagnosis is still based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as exclusion of other causes of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). So far there are no known confirming or screening diagnostic tests of ILA. Ultrasound studies have recently shown increased large artery stiffness, increased cerebrovascular resistance and lower cerebral blood flow in ILA patients...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507861/nonatheroscleotic-isolated-middle-cerebral-artery-disease-may-be-early-manifestation-of-moyamoya-disease
#16
Yeon-Jung Kim, Joo Kyung Lee, Sung-Ho Ahn, Bum Joon Kim, Dong-Wha Kang, Jong S Kim, Sun U Kwon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Middle cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease (MCAD) is not an uncommon cause of ischemic stroke in young Asians. Aside from atherosclerosis, the pathogenesis of MCAD include various nonatherosclerotic vasculopathies, most of which are yet to be defined. This study investigated the pathogenesis of symptomatic isolated MCAD in young Asian patients using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) and mutation analysis of RNF213. METHODS: Patients aged <60 years with stroke or transient ischemic attack caused by MCAD were prospectively enrolled...
September 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338599/screening-of-newborns-for-disorders-with-high-benefit-risk-ratios-should-be-mandatory
#17
Nicole Kelly, Dalia Chehayeb Makarem, Melissa P Wasserstein
Newborn screening has evolved to include an increasingly complex spectrum of diseases, raising concerns that screening should be optional and require parental consent. Early detection of disorders like PKU and MCAD is essential to prevent serious disability and death in affected children. These are examples of high benefit-risk ratio disorders because of the irrefutable health benefits of early detection, coupled with the low risks of treatment. The dire consequences of not diagnosing an infant with a treatable disorder because of parental refusal to screen are wholly unacceptable...
June 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308838/variants-of-uncertain-significance-in-newborn-screening-disorders-implications-for-large-scale-genomic-sequencing
#18
Alekhya Narravula, Kathryn B Garber, S Hussain Askree, Madhuri Hegde, Patricia L Hall
PURPOSE: As exome and genome sequencing using high-throughput sequencing technologies move rapidly into the diagnostic process, laboratories and clinicians need to develop a strategy for dealing with uncertain findings. A commitment must be made to minimize these findings, and all parties may need to make adjustments to their processes. The information required to reclassify these variants is often available but not communicated to all relevant parties. METHODS: To illustrate these issues, we focused on three well-characterized monogenic, metabolic disorders included in newborn screens: classic galactosemia, caused by GALT variants; phenylketonuria, caused by PAH variants; and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, caused by ACADM variants...
June 16, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296863/acute-alcohol-exposure-during-mouse-gastrulation-alters-lipid-metabolism-in-placental-and-heart-development-folate-prevention
#19
Kersti K Linask, Mingda Han
BACKGROUND: Embryonic acute exposure to ethanol (EtOH), lithium, and homocysteine (HCy) induces cardiac defects at the time of exposure; folic acid (FA) supplementation protects normal cardiogenesis (Han et al., , ; Serrano et al., ). Our hypothesis is that EtOH exposure and FA protection relate to lipid and FA metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation. METHODS: On the morning of conception, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were placed on either of two FA-containing diets: a 3...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265561/the-use-of-economic-evaluation-to-inform-newborn-screening-policy-decisions-the-washington-state-experience
#20
Scott D Grosse, John D Thompson, Yao Ding, Michael Glass
POLICY POINTS: Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis...
June 2016: Milbank Quarterly
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