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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677645/autophagy-as-a-cytoprotective-mechanism-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Timothy M Hall, Marie-Pier Tétreault, Kathryn E Hamilton, Kelly A Whelan
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is amongst the most aggressive human malignancies, representing a significant health burden worldwide. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that degrades and recycles damaged organelles and misfolded proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis. Alterations in autophagy are associated with cancer pathogenesis, including ESCC; however, the functional role of autophagy in ESCC remains elusive. Here, we discuss the clinical relevance of autophagy effectors in ESCC and review current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms through which autophagy contributes to ESCC...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677567/methods-for-assessing-mitochondrial-quality-control-mechanisms-and-cellular-consequences-in-cell-culture
#2
Matthew Redmann, Gloria A Benavides, Willayat Yousuf Wani, Taylor F Berryhill, Xiaosen Ouyang, Michelle S Johnson, Saranya Ravi, Kasturi Mitra, Stephen Barnes, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Mitochondrial quality is under surveillance by autophagy, the cell recycling process which degrades and removes damaged mitochondria. Inadequate autophagy results in deterioration in mitochondrial quality, bioenergetic dysfunction, and metabolic stress. Here we describe in an integrated work-flow to assess parameters of mitochondrial morphology, function, mtDNA and protein damage, metabolism and autophagy regulation to provide the framework for a practical assessment of mitochondrial quality. This protocol has been tested with cell cultures, is highly reproducible, and is adaptable to studies when cell numbers are limited, and thus will be of interest to researchers studying diverse physiological and pathological phenomena in which decreased mitochondrial quality is a contributory factor...
April 10, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677472/translating-immunology-into-therapeutic-concepts-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Holm H Uhlig, Fiona Powrie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) defines a spectrum of complex disorders. Understanding how environmental risk factors, alterations of the intestinal microbiota, and polygenetic and epigenetic susceptibility impact on immune pathways is key for developing targeted therapies. Mechanistic understanding of polygenic IBD is complemented by Mendelian disorders that present with IBD, pharmacological interventions that cause colitis, autoimmunity, and multiple animal models. Collectively, this multifactorial pathogenesis supports a concept of immune checkpoints that control microbial-host interactions in the gut by modulating innate and adaptive immunity, as well as epithelial and mesenchymal cell responses...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677174/the-role-of-autophagy-and-the-chemokine-c-x-c-motif-ligand-16-during-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#4
Ye Gao, Ni Wang, Rui H Li, Yang Z Xiao
BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) is responsible for mortality in hospitalized patients. Autophagy can negatively regulate inflammatory response, and CXCL16 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16) is a kind of chemokine, which is closely related to the inflammatory response. However, the relationship between autophagy and CXCL16 in ALI is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy and chemokine CXCL16 in ALI in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-two male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676845/mir-490-3p-inhibits-autophagy-via-targeting-atg7-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Yingliang Ou, Jiafa He, Yubin Liu
The miR-490-3p was transfected into HepG2 cells to explore the correlation between miR-490-3p and hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy and its downstream target gene ATG7. Then we could possibly provide a mechanism for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. MiR-490-3p was screened out by fold change > 4 and P < 0.01 using gene microarray data. The expression level of miR-490-3p was tested by qRT-PCR and the prognosis analysis was achieved by using TCGA data...
April 20, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676829/er-stress-mediated-autophagy-protects-against-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dimethylacrylshikonin-induced-apoptosis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#6
Haibing Wang, Gaochenxi Zhang
β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS) is an anti-cancer compound extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. This study aims to investigate the effects of DMAS on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and explored the mechanisms of its anti-cancer action. We demonstrated that DMAS markedly inhibited cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induced apoptosis as well as autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, we found that DMAS stimulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mediated autophagy via the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP and IRE1-TRAF2-JNK axises of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in human lung adenocarcinoma cells...
April 20, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676481/high-mobility-group-box-1-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-therapeutic-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Efthalia Angelopoulou, Christina Piperi, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Parkinson's disease (PD) presents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with largely unknown pathogenesis and inefficient therapeutic management. Accumulating data indicate that neuroinflammation, autophagy impairment, α-synuclein aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to PD onset; however the molecular mechanisms underlying these pathophysiological processes are still under elucidation. Interestingly, recent evidence has indicated that High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA-binding protein that can be actively secreted by inflammatory cells and passively released by necrotic cells may play a key role in PD pathogenesis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676231/combating-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-the-plant-alkaloid-berberine-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#8
Dahua Fan, Liping Liu, Zhengzhi Wu, Meiqun Cao
Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most serious health problems affecting millions of people worldwide. Such diseases are characterized by a progressive degeneration and / or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Currently, there are no therapeutic approaches to cure or even halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the neuroprotective and anti-neurodegenerative activities of compounds isolated from natural products with high efficacy and low toxicity...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676088/-explore-microcosmic-connection-between-autophagy-mechanism-and-follicular-development-based-on-kidney-governing-reproduction-theory
#9
REVIEW
Jun Bai, Ke-Ming Wu, Ran-Ran Gao
In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) that "kidney storing essence and governing reproduction", reproductive essence is an important part of the kidney essence and acts as the original material of offspring embryos. Sperm, oocyte and zygote should be all included in the range of reproductive essence. Ovum is the essence of reproduction from inborn. The follicles maturation depends on the quality of oocyte and the vigor of kidney essence. Meanwhile, discharge of mature ovum relies on the stimulation and promotion by kidney Qi...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675785/neuronal-autophagy-and-axon-degeneration
#10
REVIEW
Yu Wang, Mingxue Song, Fuyong Song
Axon degeneration is a pathophysiological process of axonal dying and breakdown, which is characterized by several morphological features including the accumulation of axoplasmic organelles, disassembly of microtubules, and fragmentation of the axonal cytoskeleton. Autophagy, a highly conserved lysosomal-degradation machinery responsible for the control of cellular protein quality, is widely believed to be essential for the maintenance of axonal homeostasis in neurons. In recent years, more and more evidence suggests that dysfunctional autophagy is associated with axonal degeneration in many neurodegenerative diseases...
April 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675630/saikosaponin-d-inhibits-proliferation-by-up-regulating-autophagy-via-the-camkk%C3%AE-ampk-mtor-pathway-in-adpkd-cells
#11
Weiwei Shi, Dechao Xu, Junhui Gu, Cheng Xue, Bo Yang, Lili Fu, Shuwei Song, Dongmei Liu, Wei Zhou, Jiayi Lv, Ke Sun, Meihan Chen, Changlin Mei
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common heritable human disease. Recently, the role of repressed autophagy in ADPKD has drawn increasing attention. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of Saikosaponin-d (SSd), a sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump (SERCA) inhibitor. We show that SSd suppresses proliferation in ADPKD cells by up-regulating autophagy. We found that treatment with SSd results in the accumulation of intracellular calcium, which in turn activates the CaMKKβ-AMPK signalling cascade, inhibits mTOR signalling and induces autophagy...
April 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675586/rapamycin-alleviates-hormone-imbalance-induced-chronic-nonbacterial-inflammation-in-rat-prostate-through-activating-autophagy-via-the-mtor-ulk1-atg13-signaling-pathway
#12
Yang Su, Jingxiao Lu, Xianguo Chen, Chaozhao Liang, Pengcheng Luo, Cong Qin, Jie Zhang
Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a clinically common disease with high morbidity. It affects the patients' quality of life (QoL) as well as physical and mental health seriously due to the recurring symptoms of lower urinary tract and genitalia. As the opinions about the etiology of CP are still not uniform, it is very difficult to be treated or even cured. Autophagy is a highly conserved physiological function which is widely found in eukaryotic cells. In general, cells maintain a certain level of autophagy under physiological conditions, and the basal level of autophagy can be regulated by a variety of autophagy-related genes under stress such as hunger, infection, trauma, and other circumstances...
April 19, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675393/autophagy-a-potential-target-for-the-treatment-of-intraocular-neovascularization
#13
REVIEW
Xia-Ru Zhu, Jun-Hui Du
The formation of neovascularization is a common pathological feature of many ocular vascular diseases, and is an important cause of vision loss in patients. Neovascularization can cause retinal hemorrhage, vitreous hemorrhage, and other serious complications, leading to loss of vision. The treatment of intraocular neovascularization is the focus of ophthalmology research. In recent years, some studies have found that autophagy is closely related to vascular endothelial growth factor and the formation of neovascularization...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675372/autophagy-activation-and-the-mechanism-of-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-hypoxia
#14
Rong Li, Li-Zhao Wang, Jun-Hui Du, Lei Zhao, Yang Yao
AIM: To explore the state of autophagy and related mechanisms in the murine retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) under hypoxia stimulation. METHODS: The murine RMECs were primarily cultured and randomly divided into three groups: hypoxia group (cultured in 1% O2 environment), hypoxia+autophagy inhibition group [pretreated with 5 mmol/L 3-methyladenine (3-MA) for 4h followed by incubation in 1% O2 ] and control group (cultured under normoxic condition)...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675133/benefit-of-oleuropein-aglycone-for-alzheimer-s-disease-by-promoting-autophagy
#15
REVIEW
Joaquín G Cordero, Ramón García-Escudero, Jesús Avila, Ricardo Gargini, Vega García-Escudero
Alzheimer's disease is a proteinopathy characterized by accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau and β -amyloid. Autophagy is a physiological process by which aggregated proteins and damaged organelles are eliminated through lysosomal digestion. Autophagy deficiency has been demonstrated in Alzheimer's patients impairing effective elimination of aggregates and damaged mitochondria, leading to their accumulation, increasing their toxicity and oxidative stress. In the present study, we demonstrated by microarray analysis the downregulation of fundamental autophagy and mitophagy pathways in Alzheimer's patients...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675025/impact-of-paneth-cell-autophagy-on-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
REVIEW
Shu-Ling Wang, Bo-Zong Shao, Sheng-Bing Zhao, Jun Fang, Lun Gu, Chao-Yu Miao, Zhao-Shen Li, Yu Bai
Intestinal mucosal barrier, mainly consisting of the mucus layer and epithelium, functions in absorbing nutrition as well as prevention of the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. Paneth cell, an important component of mucosal barrier, plays a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis by producing antimicrobial materials and controlling the host-commensal balance. Current evidence shows that the dysfunction of intestinal mucosal barrier, especially Paneth cell, participates in the onset and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674256/effects-of-interleukin-6-and-il-6-ampk-signaling-pathway-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-astrocytes-viability-under-experimental-septic-condition
#17
Xiao-Lan Chen, Yang Wang, Wan-Wan Peng, Yi-Jun Zheng, Tian-Nan Zhang, Ping-Jun Wang, Jin-Da Huang, Qi-Yi Zeng
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a neuromodulation factor with extensive and complex biological activities. IL-6 has been reported to activate AMPK, while AMPK regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-6 in mitochondrial biogenesis using astrocytes under experimental septic condition and examined how IL-6/AMPK signaling pathway affected this process. METHODS: The primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes were randomly allocated into six groups: control group, LPS+IFN-γ group, IL-6 group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6), C group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+Compound C), siRNA group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+IL-6R siRNA) and siRNA+C group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+IL-6R siRNA+ Compound C)...
April 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673648/s6-kinase-1-plays-a-key-role-in-mitochondrial-morphology-and-cellular-energy-flow
#18
Quangdon Tran, Jae-Hun Jung, Jisoo Park, Hyunji Lee, Youngeun Hong, Hyeonjeong Cho, Minhee Kim, Sungjin Park, So-Hee Kwon, Seon-Hwan Kim, George Thomas, Kwang Pyo Kim, Myung-Haing Cho, Jongsun Park
Mitochondrial morphology, which is associated with changes in metabolism, cell cycle, cell development and cell death, is tightly regulated by the balance between fusion and fission. In this study, we found that S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) contributes to mitochondrial dynamics, homeostasis and function. Mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking S6K1 (S6K1-KO MEFs) exhibited more fragmented mitochondria and a higher level of Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) and active Drp1 (pS616) in both whole cell extracts and mitochondrial fraction...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673596/the-torc1-signaling-pathway-regulates-respiration-induced-mitophagy-in-yeast
#19
Yang Liu, Koji Okamoto
Mitophagy is an evolutionarily conserved autophagy process that selectively degrades mitochondria. This catabolic event is considered to be a mitochondrial quality control system crucial for cell homeostasis, however, mechanisms regulating mitophagy remain largely unknown. Here we show that the TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1) signaling pathway regulates mitophagy in budding yeast via SEACIT (Seh1-associated complex inhibiting TORC1) consisting of Iml1, Npr2, and Npr3. Cells lacking SEACIT displayed strong defects in mitophagy during prolonged respiratory growth, while the other selective autophagy processes are only partially affected...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673591/long-noncoding-rna-haglros-regulates-cell-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-lipopolysaccharides-induced-wi-38-cells-via-modulating-mir-100-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-axis
#20
Meihan Liu, Tao Han, Shaomin Shi, Enqi Chen
Pneumonia is a lower respiratory disease caused by pathogens or other factors. This study aimed to explore the roles and mechanism of long noncoding RNA HAGLROS in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury in pneumonia. The HAGLROS expression in serum of patients with acute stage pneumonia was detected. To induce pulmonary injury, WI-38 human lung fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The HAGLROS expressions in LPS-treated WI-38 cells and the effects of HAGLROS knockdown on the viability, apoptosis, and autophagy of LPS-induced cells were detected...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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