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Coronary artery calcium scoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801122/deoxycholic-acid-a-metabolite-of-circulating-bile-acids-and-coronary-artery-vascular-calcification-in-ckd
#1
Anna Jovanovich, Tamara Isakova, Geoffrey Block, Jason Stubbs, Gerard Smits, Michel Chonchol, Makoto Miyazaki
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Deoxycholic acid, a metabolite of circulating bile acids, is elevated in CKD and induces vascular mineralization and osteogenic differentiation in animal models. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort analysis of clinical trial participants. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 112 patients with moderate to severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 20-45mL/min/1...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797416/coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-is-it-time-for-a-change-in-methodology
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Blaha, Martin Bødtker Mortensen, Sina Kianoush, Rajesh Tota-Maharaj, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica
Quantification of coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been shown to be reliable, reproducible, and predictive of cardiovascular risk. Formal CAC scoring was introduced in 1990, with early scoring algorithms notable for their simplicity and elegance. Yet, with little evidence available on how to best build a score, and without a conceptual model guiding score development, these scores were, to a large degree, arbitrary. In this review, we describe the traditional approaches for clinical CAC scoring, noting their strengths, weaknesses, and limitations...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797406/ct-detected-growth-of-coronary-artery%C3%A2-calcification-in-asymptomatic-middle-aged-subjects-and-association-with-15-biomarkers
#3
Søren Zöga Diederichsen, Mette Hjortdal Grønhøj, Hans Mickley, Oke Gerke, Flemming Hald Steffensen, Jess Lambrechtsen, Niels Peter Rønnow Sand, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Michael Hecht Olsen, Axel Diederichsen
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the incidence and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects and to evaluate the value of a broad panel of biomarkers in the prediction of CAC growth. BACKGROUND: CAC continues to be a major risk factor, but the value of biochemical markers in predicting CAC incidence and progression remains unresolved. METHODS: At baseline, 1,227 men and women underwent traditional risk assessment and a computed tomography (CT) scan to determine the CAC score...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797404/coronary-artery-calcium-volume-and%C3%A2-density-potential-interactions-and-overall-predictive-value-the%C3%A2-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#4
Michael H Criqui, Jessica B Knox, Julie O Denenberg, Nketi I Forbang, Robyn L McClelland, Thomas E Novotny, Veit Sandfort, Jill Waalen, Michael J Blaha, Matthew A Allison
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the possibility of interactions between coronary artery calcium (CAC) volume or CAC density with each other, and with age, sex, ethnicity, the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score, diabetes status, and renal function by estimated glomerular filtration rate, and, using differing CAC scores, to determine the improvement over the ASCVD risk score in risk prediction and reclassification. BACKGROUND: In MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), CAC volume was positively and CAC density inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797402/the-identification-of-calcified-coronary-plaque-is-associated-with-initiation-and-continuation-of-pharmacological-and-lifestyle-preventive-therapies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Ankur Gupta, Emily Lau, Ravi Varshney, Edward A Hulten, Michael Cheezum, Marcio S Bittencourt, Michael J Blaha, Nathan D Wong, Roger S Blumenthal, Matthew J Budoff, Craig A Umscheid, Khurram Nasir, Ron Blankstein
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the odds of initiation or continuation of pharmacological and lifestyle preventive therapies in patients with nonzero versus zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score detected on cardiac computed tomography. BACKGROUND: Detection of calcified coronary plaque could serve as a motivational tool for physicians and patients to intensify preventive therapies. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica database), Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL (Cochrane central register of controlled trials), ClinicalTrials...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794054/cardiovascular-event-prediction-by-machine-learning-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#6
Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Xiaoying Yang, Colin O Wu, Kiang Liu, W G Hundley, Robyn L McClelland, Antoinette S Gomes, Aaron R Folsom, Steven Shea, Eliseo Guallar, David A Bluemke, João A Lima
Rationale: Machine learning may be useful to characterize cardiovascular risk, predict outcomes and identify biomarkers in population studies. Objective: To test the ability of random survival forests (RF), a machine learning technique, to predict six cardiovascular outcomes in comparison to standard cardiovascular risk scores. Methods and Results: We included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Baseline measurements were used to predict cardiovascular outcomes over 12 years of follow-up...
August 9, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792141/validation-of-a-newly-developed-equation-for-estimating-serum-apolipoprotein-b-associations-with-cardiovascular-disease-surrogate-markers-in-koreans
#7
Jong Dai Kim, You Cheol Hwang, Hong Yup Ahn, Cheol Young Park
PURPOSE: Many clinical guidelines recommend apolipoprotein B (apoB) measurement, particularly in subjects with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Recently, we developed a new equation to estimate serum apoB (apoBE). We validated the clinical relevance of apoBE and compared the performance of the equation with conventional lipid measurements and direct measurement of apoB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study subjects were recruited from patients who visited the Health Screening Center at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between January and December 2009 for routine medical examinations (n=78125)...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792138/association-of-inter-arm-systolic-blood-pressure-difference-with-coronary-atherosclerotic-disease-burden-using-calcium-scoring
#8
Ae Young Her, Kyoung Im Cho, Scot Garg, Yong Hoon Kim, Eun Seok Shin
PURPOSE: There are no sufficient data on the correlation between inter-arm blood pressure (BP) difference and coronary atherosclerosis found using coronary artery calcium score (CACS). We aimed to investigate if the increased difference in inter-arm BP is independently associated with severity of CACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors or an intermediate Framingham Risk Score (FRS; ≥10) were enrolled. Inter-arm BP difference was defined as the absolute difference in BP in both arms...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791822/a-coronary-proatherosclerotic-marker-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-and-its-association-with-coronary-calcium-score-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness
#9
Abdullah Guven, Bora Demircelik, Ozgul Malcok Gurel, Okan Er, Halil Ibrahim Aydin, Alper Bozkurt
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the arteries, is responsible for the greatest number of deaths in westernized societies, with numbers increasing at a marked rate in developing countries. Coronary calcium score (CCS), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) are predictors for the development of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between CCS, CIMT and PAPP-A for earlier diagnosis of atherosclerosis...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790836/evaluation-of-coronary-calcium-score-in-patients-with-normocalcemic-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#10
Patrícia Nunes Mesquita, Ana Paula Dornelas Leão Leite, Stella das Chagas Crisóstomo, Enio Veras Filho, Lucas da Cunha Xavier, Francisco Bandeira
RATIONALE: Given that the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is given at an increasingly less-symptomatic phase, and the literature data on the cardiovascular risk of patients with normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NPHPT) are controversial, the coronary calcium score (CCS), which is correlated with coronary artery disease, may be useful for clarifying the association between cardiovascular risk and NPHPT. OBJECTIVE: This research aims to describe the CCS and the clinical and laboratory variables of patients with NPHPT compared with a control group and to verify the presence of an association between NPHPT and CCS...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771600/eicosapentaenoic-acid-prevents-arterial-calcification-in-klotho-mutant-mice
#11
Kazufumi Nakamura, Daiji Miura, Yukihiro Saito, Kei Yunoki, Yasushi Koyama, Minoru Satoh, Megumi Kondo, Kazuhiro Osawa, Omer F Hatipoglu, Toru Miyoshi, Masashi Yoshida, Hiroshi Morita, Hiroshi Ito
BACKGROUND: The klotho gene was identified as an "aging-suppressor" gene that accelerates arterial calcification when disrupted. Serum and vascular klotho levels are reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease, and the reduced levels are associated with arterial calcification. Intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 fatty acid, reduces the risk of fatal coronary artery disease. However, the effects of EPA on arterial calcification have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of EPA on arterial calcification in klotho mutant mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756086/iterative-beam-hardening-correction-with-advanced-modeled-iterative-reconstruction-in-low-voltage-ct-coronary-calcium-scoring-with-tin-filtration-impact-on-coronary-artery-calcium-quantification-and-image-quality
#12
Christian Tesche, Carlo N De Cecco, U Joseph Schoepf, Taylor M Duguay, Moritz H Albrecht, Damiano Caruso, Akos Varga-Szemes, Virginia W Lesslie, Ullrich Ebersberger, Christian Canstein, Christian Thilo, Ellen Hoffmann, Thomas Allmendinger, John W Nance
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of iterative beam-hardening correction (IBHC) with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) of ultra-low radiation-dose tin filtered (Sn100 kVp) CACS acquisitions on image quality, calcium quantification, and risk classification. METHODS: CT data of 60 patients (55% male, age 62.3 ± 9.8years) who underwent a 3rd generation dual-source CACS scan using a prospectively ECG-triggered 100 kVp sequential acquisition protocol with tin filtration (Sn100 kVp) were reconstructed using IBHC with filtered back projection (FBP) and ADMIRE with strength levels of three and five...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754439/myocardial-blood-flow-reserve-is-impaired-in-patients-with-aortic-valve-calcification-and-unobstructed-epicardial-coronary-arteries
#13
Karen Nel, Michael C Y Nam, Chris Anstey, Christopher J Boos, Edward Carlton, Roxy Senior, Juan Carlos Kaski, Ahmed Khattab, Delva Shamley, Christopher D Byrne, Tony Stanton, Kim Greaves
BACKGROUND: Although calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is associated with coronary atherosclerosis, it is not known whether early CAVD is associated with coronary microcirculatory dysfunction (CMD). We sought to investigate the relationship between myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) - a measure of CMD, and early CAVD in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. We also determined whether this relationship was independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hs-CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754436/sex-differences-in-coronary-atherosclerosis-progression-and-major-adverse-cardiac-events-in-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Hui Gu, Yang Gao, Haiping Wang, Zhihui Hou, Lei Han, Ximing Wang, Bin Lu
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of coronary atherosclerosis progression on the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Similarly, differences between men and women regarding atherosclerosis progression are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis by coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) in men and women, and to evaluate its prognostic value regarding MACE. METHODS: This study included 1046 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent serial coronary CTA because of new or worsening symptoms or because follow-up coronary CTA had been recommended by attending physicians...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754224/residual-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-statin-treated-adults-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#15
Nathan D Wong, Yanglu Zhao, Ruben G W Quek, Roger S Blumenthal, Matthew J Budoff, Mary Cushman, Parveen Garg, Veit Sandfort, Michael Tsai, J Antonio G Lopez
BACKGROUND: Residual atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in statin-treated US adults without known ASCVD is not well described. OBJECTIVE: To quantitate residual ASCVD risk and its predictors in statin-treated adults. METHODS: We studied 1014 statin-treated adults (53.3% female, mean 66.0 years) free of clinical ASCVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We examined ASCVD event rates by National Lipid Association risk groups over 11-year follow-up and the relation of standard risk factors, biomarkers, and subclinical atherosclerosis measures with residual ASCVD event risk...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746709/association-of-coronary-artery-calcium-score-vs-age-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-older-adults-an-analysis-of-pooled-population-based-studies
#16
Yuichiro Yano, Christopher J O'Donnell, Lewis Kuller, Maryam Kavousi, Raimund Erbel, Hongyan Ning, Ralph D'Agostino, Anne B Newman, Khurram Nasir, Albert Hofman, Nils Lehmann, Klodian Dhana, Ron Blankstein, Udo Hoffmann, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Joseph M Massaro, Amir-Abbas Mahabadi, Joao A C Lima, M Arfan Ikram, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Oscar H Franco, Kiang Liu, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Philip Greenland
Importance: Besides age, other discriminators of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk are needed in older adults. Objectives: To examine the predictive ability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score vs age for incident ASCVD and how risk prediction changes by adding CAC score and removing only age from prediction models. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted an analysis of pooled US population-based studies, including the Framingham Heart Study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and the Cardiovascular Health Study...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742912/association-of-genetic-variants-related-to-serum-calcium-levels-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-myocardial-infarction
#17
Susanna C Larsson, Stephen Burgess, Karl Michaëlsson
Importance: Serum calcium has been associated with cardiovascular disease in observational studies and evidence from randomized clinical trials indicates that calcium supplementation, which raises serum calcium levels, may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the potential causal association between genetic variants related to elevated serum calcium levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction using mendelian randomization...
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740456/carotid-artery-stiffness-digital-endothelial-function-and-coronary-calcium-in-patients-with-essential-thrombocytosis-free-of-overt-atherosclerotic-disease
#18
Matjaz Vrtovec, Ajda Anzic, Irena Preloznik Zupan, Katja Zaletel, Ales Blinc
BACKGROUND: Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET), a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 ET patients without overt vascular disease, and 42 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects with comparable classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and Framingham risk of coronary disease were enrolled...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735291/subclinical-atherosclerosis-cardiac-and-kidney-function-heart-failure-and-dementia-in-the-very-elderly
#19
Lewis H Kuller, Oscar L Lopez, John S Gottdiener, Dalane W Kitzman, James T Becker, Yuefang Chang, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) and dementia are major causes of disability and death among older individuals. Risk factors and biomarkers of HF may be determinants of dementia in the elderly. We evaluated the relationship between biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and HF and risk of dementia and death. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) higher levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, N-terminal of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, and cystatin C predict risk of death, cardiovascular disease, HF, and dementia; (2) higher levels of cardiovascular disease biomarkers are associated with increased risk of HF and then secondary increased risk of dementia; and (3) risk of dementia is lower among participants with a combination of lower coronary artery calcium, atherosclerosis, and lower high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (myocardial injury)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732689/defining-coronary-artery-calcium-concordance-and-repeatability-implications-for-development-and-change-the-dallas-heart-study
#20
Andre R M Paixao, Ian J Neeland, Colby R Ayers, Frank Xing, Jarett D Berry, James A de Lemos, Suhny Abbara, Ronald M Peshock, Amit Khera
BACKGROUND: Development and change of coronary artery calcium (CAC) are associated with coronary heart disease. Interpretation of serial CAC measurements will require better understanding of changes in CAC beyond the variability in the test itself. METHODS: Dallas Heart Study participants (2888) with duplicate CAC scans obtained minutes apart were analyzed to determine interscan concordance and 95% confidence bounds (ie: repeatability limits) for each discrete CAC value...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
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