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Coronary artery calcium scoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345316/the-implication-of-coronary-artery-calcium-testing-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-and-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Ron Blankstein, Ankur Gupta, Jamal S Rana, Khurram Nasir
Over the last two decades coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning has emerged as a quick, safe, and inexpensive method to detect the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. Data from multiple studies has shown that compared to individuals who do not have any coronary calcifications, those with severe calcifications (i.e., CAC score >300) have a 10-fold increase in their risk of coronary heart disease events and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, those that have a CAC of 0 have a very low event rate (~0.1%/year), with data that now extends to 15 years in some studies...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345303/arterial-ageing-from-endothelial-dysfunction-to-vascular-calcification
#2
M Tesauro, A Mauriello, V Rovella, M Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, C Cardillo, G Melino, N Di Daniele
Complex structural and functional changes occur in the arterial system with advancing age. The aged artery is characterized by changes in microRNA expression patterns, autophagy, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and arterial calcification with progressively increased mechanical vessel rigidity and stiffness. With age the vascular smooth muscle cells modify their phenotype from contractile to 'synthetic' determining the development of intimal thickening as early as the second decade of life as an adaptive response to forces acting on the arterial wall...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343599/presence-characteristics-and-volumes-of-coronary-plaque-determined-by-computed-tomography-angiography-in-young-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Negin Nezarat, Matthew J Budoff, Yanting Luo, Sirous Darabian, Rine Nakanishi, Dong Li, Nasim Sheidaee, Michael Kim, Anas Alani, Suguru Matsumoto, Sina Rahmani, Mitsuru Kanisawa, Indre Ceponiene, Kazuhiro Osawa, Hong Qi, Sajad Hamal, Pieter Kitslaar, Alexander Broersen, Ferdinand Flores, Eli Ipp, Bahram Khazai
Prevention and management of coronary artery disease (CAD) is of great concern in patients with diabetes mellitus. Although the impact of coronary atherosclerosis is described well for subjects older than 40 years, the prevalence and types of coronary atherosclerosis in young patients are not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, extent, severity, and volumes of coronary plaque in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population younger than of 40 years. This prospective study enrolled 181 subjects (25-40 year old) undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography, with 86 T2DM and 95 nondiabetic age/gender-matched subjects...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342038/coronary-artery-calcium-in-breast-cancer-survivors-after-radiation-therapy
#4
Richard A P Takx, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, U Joseph Schoepf, Lothar R Pilz, Stefan O Schoenberg, Pamela B Morris, Thomas Henzler, Paul Apfaltrer
The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy have a higher burden of coronary artery calcium as a potential surrogate of radiation-induced accelerated coronary artery disease. 333 patients were included. 54 patients underwent chest CT ≥ 6 months after the start of radiation therapy (radiation therapy group), while 279 patients had a CT scan either prior to or without undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Coronary artery calcium was quantified from CT by applying a threshold-based automated algorithm...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335909/erratum-to-2016-scct-str-guidelines-for-coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-of-noncontrast-noncardiac-chest-ct-scans-a-report-of-the-society-of-cardiovascular-computed-tomography-and-society-of-thoracic-radiology-j-cardiovasc-comput-tomogr-11-2017-74-84
#5
Harvey S Hecht, Paul Cronin, Michael J Blaha, Matthew J Budoff, Ella A Kazerooni, Jagat Narula, David Yankelevitz, Suhny Abbara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326297/coronary-artery-calcium-score-and-bone-metabolism-a-pilot-study-in-postmenopausal-women
#6
Pooneh Salari, Abbasali Keshtkar, Shapour Shirani, Leila Mounesan
BACKGROUND: Since 1991 many studies evaluated the link between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis, two age-related conditions, but the main common pathologic pathway has not been determined yet. The histological similarity between arterial calcified plaque and bone matrix and involvement of similar cells and mediators provide a special field of research. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and bone mediators and parameters in postmenopausal women...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322097/association-between-ascending-aortic-diameter-and-coronary-artery-dilation-a-demographic-data-analysis
#7
Ali Can Hatemi, Aybala Tongut, Zeki Özyedek, İsmail Çerezci, İlhan Özgöl, Hande Perk Gürün
Objective Coronary artery dilations (CDs), a subgroup of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs), are relatively rare but important cardiac pathologies. They are considered to be linked to coronary atherosclerosis in most cases. Methods The demographic data, multi-slice computed tomographic coronary angiography data, coronary calcium score, and ascending aortic diameter (AAD) of 1538 patients were reviewed. In total, 197 (12.8%) patients (166 men, 31 women; age 15 - 84 years; mean 55.78 ± 12.32 years) with CAAs were identified, and 81 (5...
December 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321775/presence-and-extent-of-cardiac-computed-tomography-angiography-defined-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-presenting-with-syncope
#8
S Altintas, T Dinh, N G H M Marcks, M Kok, A J J Aerts, B Weijs, Y Blaauw, J E Wildberger, M Das, B L J H Kietselaer, H J G M Crijns
BACKGROUND: In syncope patients, presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with poor prognosis. However, data concerning CAD prevalence in syncope patients without known cardiovascular disease are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate presence and extent of CAD in syncope patients. METHODS: We included 142 consecutive patients presenting with syncope at the outpatient cardiology clinic who underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography...
March 20, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320747/association-of-cardiovascular-health-with-subclinical-disease-and-incident-events-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#9
Tamar S Polonsky, Hongyan Ning, Martha L Daviglus, Kiang Liu, Gregory L Burke, Mary Cushman, John Eng, Aaron R Folsom, Pamela L Lutsey, Jennifer A Nettleton, Wendy S Post, Ralph L Sacco, Moyses Szklo, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
BACKGROUND: Few adults have ideal cardiovascular health (CVH). We studied associations of an overall CVH score with subclinical cardiovascular disease and events. We assessed whether associations varied by race/ethnicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 5961 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, components of CVH were measured at baseline, 2000-2002: systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, smoking, physical activity, diet, and body mass index...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320601/coronary-atherosclerosis-in-indigenous-south-american-tsimane-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#10
Hillard Kaplan, Randall C Thompson, Benjamin C Trumble, L Samuel Wann, Adel H Allam, Bret Beheim, Bruno Frohlich, M Linda Sutherland, James D Sutherland, Jonathan Stieglitz, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, David E Michalik, Chris J Rowan, Guido P Lombardi, Ram Bedi, Angela R Garcia, James K Min, Jagat Narula, Caleb E Finch, Michael Gurven, Gregory S Thomas
BACKGROUND: Conventional coronary artery disease risk factors might potentially explain at least 90% of the attributable risk of coronary artery disease. To better understand the association between the pre-industrial lifestyle and low prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors, we examined the Tsimane, a Bolivian population living a subsistence lifestyle of hunting, gathering, fishing, and farming with few cardiovascular risk factors, but high infectious inflammatory burden. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional cohort study including all individuals who self-identified as Tsimane and who were aged 40 years or older...
March 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315622/subclinical-atherosclerosis-statin-eligibility-and-outcomes-in-african-american-individuals-the-jackson-heart-study
#11
Ravi V Shah, Aferdita Spahillari, Stanford Mwasongwe, J Jeffrey Carr, James G Terry, Robert J Mentz, Daniel Addison, Udo Hoffmann, Jared Reis, Jane E Freedman, Joao A C Lima, Adolfo Correa, Venkatesh L Murthy
Importance: Modern prevention guidelines substantially increase the number of individuals who are eligible for treatment with statins. Efforts to refine statin eligibility via coronary calcification have been studied in white populations but not, to our knowledge, in large African American populations. Objective: To compare the relative accuracy of US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommendations in identifying African American individuals with subclinical and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
March 18, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302272/relation-of-fasting-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-cholesterol-to-coronary-artery-calcium-score-from-the-elsa-brasil-study
#12
Marcio S Bittencourt, Raul D Santos, Henrique Staniak, Rodolfo Sharovsky, Rao Kondapally, Antonio J Vallejo-Vaz, Kausik K Ray, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo Lotufo
Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is widely accepted as the principal lipid fraction associated with atherosclerosis, emerging evidence suggests a causal relation between lifelong elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in genetic studies. To provide further evidence for the potential relevance of TRL-C and atherosclerosis, we have evaluated the relation between TRL-C and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We included 3,845 subjects (49...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293706/coronary-atherosclerotic-burden-vs-coronary-vascular-function-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-patients-with-normal-myocardial-perfusion-a-propensity-score-analysis
#13
Roberta Assante, Wanda Acampa, Emilia Zampella, Parthiban Arumugam, Carmela Nappi, Valeria Gaudieri, Mariarosaria Panico, Mario Magliulo, Christine M Tonge, Mario Petretta, Alberto Cuocolo
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between coronary atherosclerotic burden and vascular function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients after balancing for coronary risk factors. METHODS: We studied 672 patients without overt coronary artery disease and normal myocardial perfusion on stress (82)Rb PET/CT imaging. To account for differences in baseline characteristics between diabetic patients and nondiabetic patients, we created a propensity score-matched cohort considering clinical variables and coronary risk factors...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283309/clinical-indications-for-coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-in-asymptomatic-patients-expert-consensus-statement-from-the-society-of-cardiovascular-computed-tomography
#14
Harvey Hecht, Michael J Blaha, Daniel S Berman, Khurram Nasir, Matthew Budoff, Jonathon Leipsic, Ron Blankstein, Jagat Narula, John Rumberger, Leslee J Shaw
This expert consensus statement summarizes the available data regarding the prognostic value of CAC in the asymptomatic population and its ability to refine individual risk prediction, addresses the limitations identified in the current traditional risk factor-based treatment strategies recommended by the 2013 ACC/AHA Prevention guidelines including use of the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE), and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Recommendation Statement for Statin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281025/ct-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#15
Dong Hyun Yang, Young-Hak Kim
Computed tomography myocardial perfusion (CTP) combined with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) may constitute a "1-stop shop" for the noninvasive diagnosis of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis during a single CT examination. CTP shows high diagnostic performance and provides incremental value over CCTA for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis in patients with a high Agatston calcium score or coronary artery stents. Future studies should determine the optimal protocol and clinical value of CTP for guiding revascularization strategy and prognostication...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280728/the-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-is-associated-with-coronary-artery-calcification-in-asymptomatic-korean-males-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Su-Hyun Nam, Sung-Goo Kang, Sang-Wook Song
Introduction. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant systemic predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) reflects coronary artery calcification and is an independent risk factor for coronary artery stenosis. In the present study, we explored the relationship between the NLR and CACS in terms of subclinical inflammation and coronary artery calcification. Materials and Methods. We evaluated males and females who did not have CVD, diabetes, high blood pressure, or high fasting blood sugar levels...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279438/relation-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-radiodensity-to-coronary-artery-calcium-on-cardiac-computed-tomography-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Bas T Franssens, Hendrik M Nathoe, Frank L J Visseren, Yolanda van der Graaf, Tim Leiner
Adipose tissue radiodensity detected by computed tomography (CT) is hypothesized to be associated with differences in adipose tissue composition which may contribute to the development of coronary atherosclerosis independent of epicardial adipose tissue volume. The aim of the present study is to quantify the relation between epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity and presence, distribution, and density of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. A total of 140 patients of the Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study underwent cardiac-CT angiography...
February 11, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279437/coronary-plaque-characteristics-in-hemodialysis-dependent-patients-as-assessed-by-optical%C3%A2-coherence-tomography
#18
Chee Yang Chin, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Akiko Maehara, Wenbin Zhang, Cheolmin Tetsumin Lee, Myong Hwa Yamamoto, Lei Song, Yasir Parviz, Nisha B Jhalani, Sumit Mohan, Lloyd E Ratner, David J Cohen, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Gregg W Stone, Richard A Shlofmitz, Tsunekazu Kakuta, Gary S Mintz, Ziad A Ali
Coronary arteries in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been shown to exhibit more extensive atherosclerosis and calcium. We aimed to assess characteristics of coronary plaque in hemodialysis (HD)-dependent patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 124 patients with stable angina who underwent OCT imaging. Sixty-two HD-dependent patients who underwent pre-intervention OCT for coronary artery disease were compared 1:1 with a cohort of patients without CKD, matched for age, diabetes mellitus, gender, and culprit vessel...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275938/role-of-coronary-calcium-for-risk-stratification-and-prognostication
#19
REVIEW
Negin Nezarat, Michael Kim, Matthew Budoff
A multitude of studies now support the understanding that an increased coronary artery calcium (CAC) score represents advanced atherosclerosis and high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, as such, should be treated with conventional therapies for those considered high risk. Data is now available to guide treatment with aspirin, statins, and lifestyle management. The new ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines support intensifying statin therapy when the CAC is ≥75th percentile for age, sex, and ethnicity/race or when the calcium score is ≥300 Agatston units...
February 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265463/the-cardiovascular-risk-factors-associated-with-the-plaque-pattern-on-coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-in-subjects-for-health-check-up
#20
Dong-Hyeon Lee, Ho-Joong Youn, Hae-Ok Jung, Kiyuk Chang, Yun-Seok Choi, Jung Im Jung
BACKGROUND: Although it is known that coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) offers highly negative predictive value to exclude obstructive coronary lesions, the plaque pattern on CCTA has not been fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the difference of the plaque patterns on CCTA and to assess the cardiovascular risks in healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 3914 subjects (mean age: 55 ± 10 years, M : F = 2649 : 1265) who underwent CCTA for health check-up between January 2009 and December 2012 were enrolled...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
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