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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629639/atp-synthesis-capacity-of-pulsed-light-exposed-bacteria
#1
B Kramer, J Wunderlich, P Muranyi
The ability of four different bacteria to synthesize new ATP upon exposure to different doses of pulsed-light (PL) irradiation was investigated. The bacterial cells were PL treated on a gel surface, resuspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and subsequently incubated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) at 37°C. Cellular ATP levels were monitored during a 2h incubation period and compared to the respective colony count data. Although PL affected ATP production in a dose dependent manner, the results showed that bacteria, which had rendered unculturable after PL exposure, are still capable of generating significant quantities of ATP...
June 7, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629476/stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-for-the-treatment-of-critical-limb-ischemia-a-pilot-study
#2
Adas Darinskas, Mindaugas Paskevicius, Gintaras Apanavicius, Gintaris Vilkevicius, Liutauras Labanauskas, Thomas E Ichim, Rytis Rimdeika
BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapy is being explored as an alternative treatment option for critical limb ischemia (CLI), a disease associated with high amputation and mortality rates and poor quality of life. However, therapeutic potential of uncultured adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells has not been evaluated as a possible treatment. In this pilot study, we investigated the efficacy of multiple injections of autologous uncultured adipose-derived SVF cells to treat patients with CLI...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628218/microbiota-analysis-using-an-illumina-miseq-platform-to-sequence-16s-rrna-genes
#3
Alexis Rapin, Céline Pattaroni, Benjamin J Marsland, Nicola L Harris
The microbiota have been shown to play an important role in diverse biological processes including immunity, metabolism, and digestion. Assessing the exact composition of the microbiota has proven challenging due to the often unknown growth specificities of its members, and culture-based approaches typically fail to capture the complete diversity of microorganisms present. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods provide an efficient means to gather information about cultured and uncultured members of the microbiota...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625995/novel-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-from-agricultural-soil-exposed-to-antibiotics-widely-used-in-human-medicine-and-animal-farming
#4
Calvin Ho-Fung Lau, Kalene van Engelen, Stephen Gordon, Justin Renaud, Edward Topp
Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624689/from-complex-gut-communities-to-minimal-microbiomes-via-cultivation
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Bärbel Stecher
The mammalian gut microbiota is dominated by populations of bacteria, mostly strict anaerobes. Because these bacteria can influence the health of their host, it is important to investigate their diversity and functions, which can be done via culture-based or molecular approaches. In recent years, microbiologists have very often preferred the use of molecular techniques, as they do not limit the analysis to the fraction of communities that can be grown in the laboratory. In reality, cultivation and molecular methods are complementary, and we are now witnessing a period of unification...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620390/belatacept-does-not-inhibit-follicular-t-cell-dependent-b-cell-differentiation-in-kidney-transplantation
#6
Gretchen N de Graav, Dennis A Hesselink, Marjolein Dieterich, Rens Kraaijeveld, Wenda Verschoor, Dave L Roelen, Nicolle H R Litjens, Anita S Chong, Willem Weimar, Carla C Baan
Humoral alloreactivity has been recognized as a common cause of kidney transplant dysfunction. B-cell activation, differentiation, and antibody production are dependent on IL-21(+)CXCR5(+)follicular T-helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we studied whether belatacept, an inhibitor of the costimulatory CD28-CD80/86-pathway, interrupts the crosstalk between Tfh- and B-cells more efficiently than the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus. The suppressive effects of belatacept and tacrolimus on donor antigen-driven Tfh-B-cell interaction were functionally studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 kidney transplant patients randomized to a belatacept- or tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609211/bioprospecting-of-functional-cellulases-from-metagenome-for-second-generation-biofuel-production-a-review
#7
Rameshwar Tiwari, Lata Nain, Nikolaos E Labrou, Pratyoosh Shukla
Second generation biofuel production has been appeared as a sustainable and alternative energy option. The ultimate aim is the development of an industrially feasible and economic conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel molecules. Since, cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and also represented as the photosynthetically fixed form of carbon, the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose is the most important step towards the development of a sustainable biofuel production process. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by suites of hydrolytic enzymes underlines the importance of cellulase enzyme system in whole hydrolysis process...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608866/a-small-wolbachia-protein-directly-represses-phage-lytic-cycle-genes-in-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-within-psyllids
#8
Mukesh Jain, Laura A Fleites, Dean W Gabriel
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe disease of citrus caused by an uncultured alphaproteobacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri). Two prophage genomes, SC1 and SC2, integrated in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strain UF506 were described previously, and very similar prophages are found resident in the majority of "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strains described worldwide. The SC1 lytic cycle is marked by upregulation of prophage late genes, including a functional holin (SC1_gp110); these late genes are activated when "Ca...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605203/extremozymes-from-metagenome-potential-applications-in-food-processing
#9
Mahejibin Khan, T A Sathya
The long-established use of enzymes for food processing and product formulation has resulted in an increased enzyme market compounding to 7.0% annual growth rate. Advancements in molecular biology and recognition that enzymes with specific properties have application for industrial production of infant, baby and functional foods boosted research toward sourcing the genes of microorganisms for enzymes with distinctive properties. In this regard, functional metagenomics for extremozymes has gained attention on the premise that such enzymes can catalyze specific reactions...
June 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604695/a-scalable-platform-to-identify-fungal-secondary-metabolites-and-their-gene-clusters
#10
Kenneth D Clevenger, Jin Woo Bok, Rosa Ye, Galen P Miley, Maria H Verdan, Thomas Velk, Cynthia Chen, KaHoua Yang, Matthew T Robey, Peng Gao, Matthew Lamprecht, Paul M Thomas, Md Nurul Islam, Jonathan M Palmer, Chengcang C Wu, Nancy P Keller, Neil L Kelleher
The genomes of filamentous fungi contain up to 90 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding diverse secondary metabolites-an enormous reservoir of untapped chemical potential. However, the recalcitrant genetics, cryptic expression, and unculturability of these fungi prevent scientists from systematically exploiting these gene clusters and harvesting their products. As heterologous expression of fungal BGCs is largely limited to the expression of single or partial clusters, we established a scalable process for the expression of large numbers of full-length gene clusters, called FAC-MS...
June 12, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600059/molecular-genetic-characterization-of-a-prenatally-detected-de-novo-interstitial-deletion-of-chromosome-2q-2q31-1-q32-1-encompassing-hoxd13-znf385b-and-znf804a-associated-with-syndactyly-and-increased-first-trimester-nuchal-translucency
#11
Chih-Ping Chen, Chen-Ju Lin, Yen-Ni Chen, Schu-Rern Chern, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Peih-Shan Wu, Li-Feng Chen, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular genetic characterization of a de novo interstitial deletion of 2q (2q31.1-q32.1) and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old, primigravid woman was referred to the hospital at 20 weeks of gestation for genetic counseling because of a prenatally detected de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 2q (2q31.1-q32.1). She underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age and an increased first-trimester nuchal translucency (NT) thickness of 3...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600057/molecular-genetic-characterization-of-a-prenatally-detected-de-novo-interstitial-deletion-of-chromosome-20p-20p12-p13-encompassing-jag1-and-a-literature-review-of-prenatal-diagnosis-of-alagille-syndrome
#12
Chih-Ping Chen, Chang-Sheng Yin, Liang-Kai Wang, Schu-Rern Chern, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Peih-Shan Wu, Wen-Lin Chen, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular genetic characterization of a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 20p (20p12-p13) and a literature review of prenatal diagnosis of Alagille syndrome (ALGS). CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal result of combined first-trimester screening. Her husband was 35 years old, and there was no family history of congenital malformations. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(20)(p12p13), and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a 3...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600056/molecular-genetic-characterization-of-a-prenatally-detected-1-484-mb-xq13-3-q21-1-duplication-encompassing-atrx-and-a-literature-review-of-syndromic-intellectual-disability-and-congenital-abnormalities-in-males-with-a-duplication-at-xq13-3-q21-1
#13
Chih-Ping Chen, Hoi-Kin Yip, Liang-Kai Wang, Schu-Rern Chern, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Peih-Shan Wu, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis of dup(X)(q13.3q21.1) in a male fetus and molecular genetic analysis in three generations and a literature review of syndromic intellectual disability and congenital abnormalities in males with a duplication at Xq13.3-q21.1. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. The woman and her mother were phenotypically normal, and there was no intellectual disability in the maternal family...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589226/the-first-acidobacterial-laccase-like-multicopper-oxidase-revealed-by-metagenomics-shows-high-salt-and-thermo-tolerance
#14
Luka Ausec, Francesca Berini, Carmine Casciello, Mariana Silvia Cretoiu, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Flavia Marinelli, Ines Mandic-Mulec
Metagenomics is a powerful tool that allows identifying enzymes with novel properties from the unculturable component of microbiomes. However, thus far only a limited number of laccase or laccase -like enzymes identified through metagenomics has been subsequently biochemically characterized. This work describes the successful bio-mining of bacterial laccase-like enzymes in an acidic bog soil metagenome and the characterization of the first acidobacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO). LMCOs have hitherto been mostly studied in fungi and some have already found applications in diverse industries...
June 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587290/interpreting-microbial-biosynthesis-in-the-genomic-age-biological-and-practical-considerations
#15
REVIEW
Ian J Miller, Marc G Chevrette, Jason C Kwan
Genome mining has become an increasingly powerful, scalable, and economically accessible tool for the study of natural product biosynthesis and drug discovery. However, there remain important biological and practical problems that can complicate or obscure biosynthetic analysis in genomic and metagenomic sequencing projects. Here, we focus on limitations of available technology as well as computational and experimental strategies to overcome them. We review the unique challenges and approaches in the study of symbiotic and uncultured systems, as well as those associated with biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) assembly and product prediction...
June 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577311/acclimation-of-2-chlorophenol-biodegrading-activated-sludge-and-microbial-community-analysis
#16
(no author information available yet)
Taking glucose as co-substrate, the activated sludge which could effectively biodegrade 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) of 40 mg/L was successfully domesticated after acclimation for 49 days in sequencing batch reactors. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis revealed that the community richness initially increased for 5 days and then decreased after another 20 days with the increase of 2-CP. The original sludge obtained from water resource recovery facility had the highest diversity. At the beginning of acclimation, the community diversity decreased...
June 2, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562229/effect-of-chromium-vi-on-the-multiple-nitrogen-removal-pathways-and-microbial-community-of-aerobic-granular-sludge
#17
Xiao-Ying Zheng, Dan Lu, Ming-Yang Wang, Wei Chen, Gan Zhou, Yuan Zhang
The frequent appearance of Cr(VI) significantly impacts the microbial metabolism in wastewater. In this study, long-term effects of Cr(VI) on microbial community, nitrogen removal pathways and mechanism of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) were investigated. AGS had strong resistance ability to 1.0 mg/L Cr(VI). 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) increased the heterotrophic-specific ammonia uptake rate (HSAUR) and heterotrophic-specific nitrate uptake rate (HSNUR) transiently, whereas 5.0 mg/L Cr(VI) sharply decreased the specific ammonia uptake rate (SAUR), specific nitrate uptake rate (SNUR) and simultaneous nitrification denitrification rate (SNDR)...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562180/the-multi-omics-promise-in-context-from-sequence-to-microbial-isolate
#18
Johanna Gutleben, Maryam Chaib De Mares, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Hauke Smidt, Jörg Overmann, Detmer Sipkema
The numbers and diversity of microbes in ecosystems within and around us is unmatched, yet most of these microorganisms remain recalcitrant to in vitro cultivation. Various high-throughput molecular techniques, collectively termed multi-omics, provide insights into the genomic structure and metabolic potential as well as activity of complex microbial communities. Nonetheless, pure or defined cultures are needed to (1) decipher microbial physiology and thus test multi-omics-based ecological hypotheses, (2) curate and improve database annotations and (3) realize novel applications in biotechnology...
May 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551855/characterization-of-a-novel-theme-c-glycoside-hydrolase-family-9-cellulase-and-its-cbm-chimeric-enzymes
#19
Cheng-Jie Duan, Ming-Yue Huang, Hao Pang, Jing Zhao, Chao-Xing Wu, Jia-Xun Feng
In bacterial cellulase systems, glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) cellulases are generally regarded as the major cellulose-degrading factors besides GH48 exoglucanase. In this study, umcel9A, which was cloned from uncultured microorganisms from compost, with the encoded protein being theme C GH9 cellulase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the biochemical properties of the purified enzyme were characterized. Hydrolysis of carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) by Umcel9A led to the decreased viscosity of CMC solution and production of reducing sugars...
May 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548485/clinically-relevant-detection-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-with-dna-antibody-nanostructures
#20
Jinping Wang, May Ching Leong, Eric Zhe Wei Leong, Win Sen Kuan, David Tai Leong
Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a pathogenic bacterium and a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia that could be fatal if left untreated. Therefore, rapid and sensitive detection of SP is crucial to enable targeted treatment during SP infections. In this study, DNA tetrahedron (DNA TH) with a hollow structure is anchored on gold electrodes to construct an electrochemical immunosensor for rapid detection of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) peptide and SP lysate from synthetic and actual human samples...
June 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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