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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811607/localized-iron-accumulation-precedes-nucleation-and-growth-of-magnetite-crystals-in-magnetotactic-bacteria
#1
Jacques Werckmann, Jefferson Cypriano, Christopher T Lefèvre, Kassiogé Dembelé, Ovidiu Ersen, Dennis A Bazylinski, Ulysses Lins, Marcos Farina
Many magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetite crystals that nucleate and grow inside intracellular membranous vesicles that originate from invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane. The crystals together with their surrounding membranes are referred to magnetosomes. Magnetosome magnetite crystals nucleate and grow using iron transported inside the vesicle by specific proteins. Here we address the question: can iron transported inside MTB for the production of magnetite crystals be spatially mapped using electron microscopy? Cultured and uncultured MTB from brackish and freshwater lagoons were studied using analytical transmission electron microscopy in an attempt to answer this question...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805616/prenatal-diagnosis-and-molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-mosaicism-for-a-small-supernumerary-marker-chromosome-derived-from-chromosome-16
#2
Chih-Ping Chen, Tsang-Ming Ko, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Chien-Wen Yang, Chen-Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 16. CASE REPORT: A 28-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of abnormal maternal serum screening for Down syndrome. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[5]/46,XY[9]. Parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed a de novo 16% gene dosage increase of 16q11...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803266/a-degradome-based-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-resolve-the-potential-of-environmental-samples-for-2-4-dichlorophenol-biodegradation
#3
Eslam S Ibrahim, Mona T Kashef, Tamer M Essam, Mohammed A Ramadan
A clean way to overcome environmental pollution is biodegradation. In this perspective, at the intersection of biodegradation and metagenomics, the degradome is defined as the totality of genes related to the biodegradation of a certain compound. It includes the genetic elements from both culturable and uncultured microorganisms. The possibility of assessing the biodegradation potential of an environmental samples, using a degradome-based polymerase chain reaction, was explored. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was chosen as a model and the use of tfdB gene as a biodegradation marker was confirmed by bioinformatics study of TfdB protein...
August 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801972/brief-report-a-differential-transcriptomic-profile-of-ex-vivo-expanded-adult-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells-empowers-them-for-engraftment-better-than-their-surface-phenotype
#4
Nikoletta Psatha, Grigorios Georgolopoulos, Susan Phelps, Thalia Papayannopoulou
Transplantation of small cord blood (CB) units, or of autologous ex vivo-genetically modified adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), face the common challenge of suboptimal HSC doses for infusion and impaired engraftment of the transplanted cells. Ex vivo expansion of HSCs, using either cell-based coculture approaches or especially small molecules have been successfully tested mainly in CB and in prolonged cultures. Here, we explored whether innovative combinations of small molecules can sufficiently, after short culture, expand adult HSCs while retaining their functionality in vivo...
August 11, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790980/exploring-microdiversity-in-novel-kordia-sp-bacteroidetes-with-proteorhodopsin-from-the-tropical-indian-ocean-via-single-amplified-genomes
#5
Marta Royo-Llonch, Isabel Ferrera, Francisco M Cornejo-Castillo, Pablo Sánchez, Guillem Salazar, Ramunas Stepanauskas, José M González, Michael E Sieracki, Sabrina Speich, Lars Stemmann, Carlos Pedrós-Alió, Silvia G Acinas
Marine Bacteroidetes constitute a very abundant bacterioplankton group in the oceans that plays a key role in recycling particulate organic matter and includes several photoheterotrophic members containing proteorhodopsin. Relatively few marine Bacteroidetes species have been described and, moreover, they correspond to cultured isolates, which in most cases do not represent the actual abundant or ecologically relevant microorganisms in the natural environment. In this study, we explored the microdiversity of 98 Single Amplified Genomes (SAGs) retrieved from the surface waters of the underexplored North Indian Ocean, whose most closely related isolate is Kordia algicida OT-1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777886/lower-levels-of-il-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-are-associated-with-impaired-langerhans-cell-migration-in-aged-human-skin
#6
Suzanne M Pilkington, Stephanie Ogden, Laura Eaton, Rebecca J Dearman, Ian Kimber, Christopher Em Griffiths
Langerhans' cells (LC) play pivotal roles in skin immune responses, linking innate and adaptive immunity. In aged skin there are fewer LC and migration is impaired compared with young skin. These changes may contribute to declining skin immunity in the elderly, including increased skin infections and skin cancer. Interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α are mandatory signals for LC migration and previous studies suggest IL-1β signalling may be dysregulated in aged skin. Therefore, we sought to explore the mechanisms underlying these phenomena...
August 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772023/evidence-for-h2-consumption-by-uncultured-desulfobacterales-in-coastal-sediments
#7
Stefan Dyksma, Petra Pjevac, Kin Ovanesov, Marc Mussmann
Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) is the key intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. Its removal by H2 -oxidizing microorganisms is essential to keep anaerobic degradation energetically favorable. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) are known as the main H2 scavengers in anoxic marine sediments. Although the community of marine SRM has been extensively studied, those consuming H2 in situ are completely unknown. We combined metagenomics, PCR-based clone libraries, single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metatranscriptomics to identify potentially H2 -consuming SRM in anoxic coastal sediments...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769908/isolation-of-uncultured-bacteria-from-antarctica-using-long-incubation-periods-and-low-nutritional-media
#8
Andre A Pulschen, Amanda G Bendia, Ashwana D Fricker, Vivian H Pellizari, Douglas Galante, Fabio Rodrigues
Uncultured microorganisms comprise most of the microbial diversity existing on our planet. Despite advances in environmental sequencing and single-cell genomics, in-depth studies about bacterial metabolism and screening of novel bioproducts can only be assessed by culturing microbes in the laboratory. Here we report uncultured, or recalcitrant, microorganisms from an Antarctic soil sample, using relatively simple methods: oligotrophic media, extended incubation periods, observation under stereo microscopy, and selection of slow-growing bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764112/effects-of-bamboo-charcoal-on-fouling-and-microbial-diversity-in-a-flat-sheet-ceramic-membrane-bioreactor
#9
Wenjie Zhang, Xiaoning Liu, Dunqiu Wang, Yue Jin
Membrane fouling is a problem in full-scale membrane bioreactors. In this study, bamboo charcoal (BC) was evaluated for its efficacy in alleviating membrane fouling in flat-sheet membrane bioreactors treating municipal wastewater. The results showed that BC addition markedly improved treatment performance based on COD, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus levels. Adding BC slowed the increase in the trans-membrane pressure rate and resulted in lower levels of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances detected in the flat-sheet membrane bioreactor...
July 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750065/biochemical-characterization-of-a-new-nicotinamidase-from-an-unclassified-bacterium-thriving-in-a-geothermal-water-stream-microbial-mat-community
#10
Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Ana-Belén Martínez-Moñino, Antonio-Ginés García-Saura, Juana Cabanes, Hideto Takami, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
Nicotinamidases are amidohydrolases that convert nicotinamide into nicotinic acid, contributing to NAD+ homeostasis in most organisms. In order to increase the number of nicotinamidases described to date, this manuscript characterizes a nicotinamidase obtained from a metagenomic library fosmid clone (JFF054_F02) obtained from a geothermal water stream microbial mat community in a Japanese epithermal mine. The enzyme showed an optimum temperature of 90°C, making it the first hyperthermophilic bacterial nicotinamidase to be characterized, since the phylogenetic analysis of this fosmid clone placed it in a clade of uncultured geothermal bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749495/characterization-of-a-highly-efficient-antibiotic-degrading-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-obtained-from-an-uncultured-member-of-a-permafrost-community
#11
Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Christopher Selleck, Charmaine Enculescu, Jeffrey R Harmer, Nataša Mitić, Whitney R Craig, Waleed Helweh, Philip Hugenholtz, Gene W Tyson, David L Tierney, James A Larrabee, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem, one that threatens to derail the benefits garnered from arguably the greatest success of modern medicine, the discovery of antibiotics. Among the most potent agents contributing to antibiotic resistance are metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The discovery of MBL-like enzymes in microorganisms that are not in contact with the human population is of particular concern as these proteins already have the in-built capacity to inactivate antibiotics, even though they may not need MBL activity for their survival...
August 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747908/unraveling-rubisco-form-i-and-form-ii-regulation-in-an-uncultured-organism-from-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-via-metagenomic-and-mutagenesis-studies
#12
Stefanie Böhnke, Mirjam Perner
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) catalyzes the first major step of carbon fixation in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. This autotrophic CO2 fixation cycle accounts for almost all the assimilated carbon on Earth. Due to the primary role that RubisCO plays in autotrophic carbon fixation, it is important to understand how its gene expression is regulated and the enzyme is activated. Since the majority of all microorganisms are currently not culturable, we used a metagenomic approach to identify genes and enzymes associated with RubisCO expression...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744281/age-related-variations-in-intestinal-microflora-of-free-range-and-caged-hens
#13
Yizhe Cui, Qiuju Wang, Shengjun Liu, Rui Sun, Yaqiang Zhou, Yue Li
Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738864/identification-of-two-organohalide-respiring-dehalococcoidia-associated-to-different-dechlorination-activities-in-pcb-impacted-marine-sediments
#14
Andrea Nuzzo, Andrea Negroni, Giulio Zanaroli, Fabio Fava
BACKGROUND: Microbial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) plays a major role in detoxifying anoxic contaminated freshwater and marine sediments from PCBs. Known members of the phylum Chloroflexi are typically responsible for this activity in freshwater sediments, whereas less is known about the microorganisms responsible for this activity in marine sediments. PCB-respiring activities were detected in PCB-impacted marine sediments of the Venice Lagoon. The aim of this work was to identify the indigenous organohalide-respiring microorganisms in such environments and assess their dechlorination specificity against spiked Aroclor™ 1254 PCBs under laboratory conditions resembling the in situ biogeochemistry...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731467/uncultivated-microbes-in-need-of-their-own-taxonomy
#15
Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ramon Rosselló-Móra, Rudolf Amann
The great majority of microbial species remains uncultured, severely limiting their taxonomic characterization and thus communication among scientists. Although Candidatus was devised as a provisional category to classify uncultured taxa, it has not been widely accepted owing to technical limitations and lack of priority of Candidatus names in the official nomenclature. High-throughput sequencing provides the potential for data-rich taxonomic descriptions of uncultivated microbes, comparable in quality to those of cultured organisms...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729688/improved-genome-recovery-and-integrated-cell-size-analyses-of-individual-uncultured-microbial-cells-and-viral-particles
#16
Ramunas Stepanauskas, Elizabeth A Fergusson, Joseph Brown, Nicole J Poulton, Ben Tupper, Jessica M Labonté, Eric D Becraft, Julia M Brown, Maria G Pachiadaki, Tadas Povilaitis, Brian P Thompson, Corianna J Mascena, Wendy K Bellows, Arvydas Lubys
Microbial single-cell genomics can be used to provide insights into the metabolic potential, interactions, and evolution of uncultured microorganisms. Here we present WGA-X, a method based on multiple displacement amplification of DNA that utilizes a thermostable mutant of the phi29 polymerase. WGA-X enhances genome recovery from individual microbial cells and viral particles while maintaining ease of use and scalability. The greatest improvements are observed when amplifying high G+C content templates, such as those belonging to the predominant bacteria in agricultural soils...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724229/microbial-association-with-the-dynamics-of-particulate-organic-carbon-in-response-to-the-amendment-of-elevated-co2-derived-wheat-residue-into-a-mollisol
#17
Yanhong Wang, Zhenhua Yu, Yansheng Li, Guanghua Wang, Junjie Liu, Judong Liu, Xiaobing Liu, Jian Jin
As the chemical quality of crop residue is likely to be affected by elevated CO2 (eCO2), residue amendments may influence soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, in Mollisols, the dynamics of the SOC fractions in response to amendment with wheat residue produced under eCO2 and the corresponding microbial community composition remain unknown. Such investigation is essential to residue management, which affects the soil quality and productivity of future farming systems. To narrow this knowledge gap, (13)C-labeled shoot and root residue derived from ambient CO2 (aCO2) or eCO2 were amended into Mollisols and incubated for 200days...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717356/thermoplasmatales-and-methanogens-potential-association-with-the-crenarchaeol-production-in-chinese-soils
#18
Fuyan Li, Fengfeng Zheng, Yongli Wang, Weiguo Liu, Chuanlun L Zhang
Crenarchaeol is a unique isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (iGDGT) lipid, which is only identified in cultures of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota. However, the taxonomic origins of crenarchaeol have been debated recently. The archaeal populations, other than Thaumarchaeota, may have associations with the production of crenarchaeol in ecosystems characterized by non-thaumarchaeotal microorganisms. To this end, we investigated 47 surface soils from upland and wetland soils and rice fields and another three surface sediments from river banks...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716079/the-human-jejunum-has-an-endogenous-microbiota-that-differs-from-those-in-the-oral-cavity-and-colon
#19
Olof H Sundin, Antonio Mendoza-Ladd, Mingtao Zeng, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Elisa Morales, B Matthew Fagan, Javier Ordoñez, Philip Velez, Nishaal Antony, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics...
July 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709072/stimulation-effect-of-electric-current-density-ecd-on-microbial-community-of-a-three-dimensional-particle-electrode-coupled-with-biological-aerated-filter-reactor-tde-baf
#20
Yan Feng, Xing Li, Ting Song, Yanzhen Yu, Jingyao Qi
Improving the stimulation effect of electric current density (ECD) on microbial community is critical in designing and operating TDE-BAF. This study investigated the effect of ECD at 0.00, 4.08, 6.12, 12.20, 14.25, 16.30 and 20.20A·m(-2) on the removal performance, diversity and structure of microbial community in TDE-BAF. Results indicated that the ECD of 14.25A·m(-2) exhibited the highest COD, TOC and NH4(+)-N average removal rates with 93.33%, 91.26% and 93.87%, respectively; Under high ECD, especially exceeding 14...
July 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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