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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471231/a-novel-methanotrophic-co-metabolic-system-with-high-soluble-methane-monooxygenase-activity-to-biodegrade-refractory-organics-in-pulping-wastewater
#1
Yancheng Li, Yingmu Wang, Ziyuan Lin, Jiale Wang, Qiang He, Jian Zhou
Pulping wastewater still contains massive refractory organics after biotreatment, with high colority, low biodegradability, and lasting biotoxicity. To eliminate refractory organics in pulping wastewater, a methanotrophic co-metabolic system in a gas cycle Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (gcSBBR) seeded by soil at a ventilation opening of coal mine was quickly built on the 92nd day. The removal rate of COD, colority and TOC was 53.28%, 50.59% and 51.60%, respectively. Analysis of 3D-EEM indicated that glycolated protein-like, melanoidin-like or lignocellulose-like, and humic acid-like decreased by 7...
February 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462992/new-bacterial-phytase-through-metagenomic-prospection
#2
Nathálya Farias, Isabela Almeida, Carlos Meneses
Alkaline phytases from uncultured microorganisms, which hydrolyze phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositols and inorganic phosphate, have great potential as additives in agricultural industry. The development of metagenomics has stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. In this study, a gene encoding a phytase was cloned from red rice crop residues and castor bean cake using a metagenomics strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 60%...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460958/harnessing-a-methane-fueled-sediment-free-mixed-microbial-community-for-utilization-of-distributed-sources-of-natural-gas
#3
Jeffrey J Marlow, Amit Kumar, Brandon Enalls, Linda M Reynard, Noreen Tuross, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Peter Girguis
Harnessing the metabolic potential of uncultured microbial communities is a compelling opportunity for the biotechnology industry, an approach that would vastly expand the portfolio of usable feedstocks. Methane is particularly promising because it is abundant and energy-rich, yet the most efficient methane-activating metabolic pathways involve mixed communities of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria. These communities oxidize methane at high catabolic efficiency and produce chemically reduced by-products at a comparable rate and in near-stoichiometric proportion to methane consumption...
February 20, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459706/gene-based-predictive-models-of-trophic-modes-suggest-asgard-archaea-are-not-phagocytotic
#4
John A Burns, Alexandros A Pittis, Eunsoo Kim
With the current explosion of genomic data, there is a greater need to draw inference on phenotypic information based on DNA sequence alone. We considered complete genomes from 35 diverse eukaryotic lineages, and discovered sets of proteins predictive of trophic mode, including a set of 485 proteins that are enriched among phagocytotic eukaryotes (organisms that internalize large particles). Our model is also predictive of other aspects of trophic mode, including photosynthesis and the ability to synthesize a set of organic compounds needed for growth (prototrophy for those molecules)...
February 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458884/late-onset-fetal-bilateral-pleural-effusions-associated-with-down-syndrome
#5
Shih-Ting Lai, Chih-Ping Chen, Chen-Ju Lin, Chin Yuan Hsu, Peih-Shan Wu, Chen Chi Lee, Chen Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present two cases of late-onset bilateral fetal pleural effusions associated with fetal Down syndrome. CASE REPORTS: Case 1. A 33-year-old Vietnamese woman had undergone regular sonographic examinations since 23 weeks of gestation and no abnormality had been noted. However, bilateral moderate pleural effusions were found at 33 weeks of gestation, and massive pleural effusion, ascites and polyhydramnios developed at 34 weeks of gestation. Aspiration of the pleural effusion was subsequently performed...
February 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458880/prenatal-diagnosis-of-hydrancephaly-and-enlarged-cerebellum-and-cisterna-magna-in-a-fetus-with-thanatophoric-dysplasia-type-ii-and-a-review-of-prenatal-diagnosis-of-brain-anomalies-associated-with-thanatophoric-dysplasia
#6
Chih-Ping Chen, Tung-Yao Chang, Tan-Wei Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Tzu-Yun Chuang, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis of hydrancephaly and enlarged cerebellum and cisterna magna in a fetus with thanatophoric dysplasia type II (TD2) and a review of prenatal diagnosis of brain anomalies associated with TD. CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old woman was referred for genetic counseling at 25 weeks of gestation because of fetal ultrasound abnormalities. Prenatal ultrasound at 14 weeks of gestation revealed an increased nuchal translucency (NT) and hydrocephalus...
February 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458473/epidermidibacterium-keratini-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-member-of-the-family-sporichthyaceae-isolated-from-keratin-epidermis
#7
Dong-Geol Lee, Martha E Trujillo, Seunghyun Kang, Jin-Ju Nam, Yeon-Jun Kim
A novel actinobacterial strain, designated EPI-7T , was isolated on R2A agar from human skin (keratinocytes) and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain EPI-7T showed a Gram-positive reaction, was non-motile, non-spore-forming, and cells had a rod-shape. Colonies were round, convex and pale yellow. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel isolate formed a cluster with several uncultured bacterial clones and with cultured members of the genera Modestobacter and Sporichthya...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453262/insights-into-the-fundamental-physiology-of-the-uncultured-fe-oxidizing-bacterium-leptothrix-ochracea
#8
E J Fleming, T Woyke, A R Donatello, M M M Kuypers, A Sczyrba, S Littmann, D Emerson
Leptothrix ochracea is known for producing large volumes of iron-oxyhydroxide sheaths that alter wetland biogeochemistry. For over a century, these delicate structures have fascinated microbiologists and geoscientists. Because L. ochracea still resists long-term in vitro culture, the debate regarding its metabolic classification dates back to 1885. We developed a novel culturing technique for L. ochracea using in situ natural waters, and coupled this with single cell genomics and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrophotometry (nanoSIMS) to probe L...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445130/comparative-genomic-inference-suggests-mixotrophic-lifestyle-for-thorarchaeota
#9
Yang Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Jie Pan, Brett J Baker, Ji-Dong Gu, Meng Li
Thorarchaeota are a new archaeal phylum within the Asgard superphylum, whose ancestors have been proposed to play possible ecological roles in cellular evolution. However, little is known about the lifestyles of these uncultured archaea. To provide a better resolution of the ecological roles and metabolic capacity of Thorarchaeota, we obtained Thorarchaeota genomes reconstructed from metagenomes of different depth layers in mangrove and mudflat sediments. These genomes from deep anoxic layers suggest the presence of Thorarchaeota with the potential to degrade organic matter, fix inorganic carbon, reduce sulfur/sulfate and produce acetate...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438385/variability-in-metagenomic-samples-from-the-puget-sound-relationship-to-temporal-and-anthropogenic-impacts
#10
James C Wallace, Jessica E Youngblood, Jesse A Port, Alison C Cullen, Marissa N Smith, Tomomi Workman, Elaine M Faustman
Whole-metagenome sequencing (WMS) has emerged as a powerful tool to assess potential public health risks in marine environments by measuring changes in microbial community structure and function in uncultured bacteria. In addition to monitoring public health risks such as antibiotic resistance determinants, it is essential to measure predictors of microbial variation in order to identify natural versus anthropogenic factors as well as to evaluate reproducibility of metagenomic measurements.This study expands our previous metagenomic characterization of Puget Sound by sampling new nearshore environments including the Duwamish River, an EPA superfund site, and the Hood Canal, an area characterized by highly variable oxygen levels...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435598/community-structure-of-endophytic-actinobacteria-in-a-new-zealand-native-medicinal-plant-pseudowintera-colorata-horopito-and-their-influence-on-plant-growth
#11
Neeraj Purushotham, Eirian Jones, Jana Monk, Hayley Ridgway
The role of plant endophytic Actinobacteria remains poorly understood with no reports of these communities in New Zealand native plants. This first investigation of endophytic Actinobacteria in New Zealand targeted the culturally significant medicinal shrub Pseudowintera colorata (horopito) as a model plant. Community analysis in plant tissues collected from ten geographically distinct sites showed that tissue type had the strongest influence on diversity and richness of endophytic Actinobacteria. More denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were obtained from stems (n = 18) compared to roots (n = 13)...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420719/microbial-dark-matter-investigations-how-microbial-studies-transform-biological-knowledge-and-empirically-sketch-a-logic-of-scientific-discovery
#12
Guillaume Bernard, Jananan S Pathmanathan, Romain Lannes, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
Microbes are the oldest and most widespread, phylogenetically and metabolically diverse life forms on Earth. However, they have been discovered only 334 years ago, and their diversity started to become seriously investigated even later. For these reasons, microbial studies that unveil novel microbial lineages and processes affecting or involving microbes deeply (and repeatedly) transform knowledge in biology. Considering the quantitative prevalence of taxonomically and functionally unassigned sequences in environmental genomics datasets, and that of uncultured microbes on the planet, we propose that unraveling the microbial dark matter should be identified as a central priority for biologists...
February 5, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415909/-phylogenetic-diversity-and-single-cell-genome-analysis-of-melainabacteria-a-non-photosynthetic-cyanobacterial-group-in-the-termite-gut
#13
Yuniar Devi Utami, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Takumi Murakami, Takahiro Morikawa, Kaito Sugaya, Kumiko Kihara, Masahiro Yuki, Nathan Lo, Pinsurang Deevong, Sasitorn Hasin, Warin Boonriam, Tetsushi Inoue, Akinori Yamada, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
Termite guts harbor diverse yet-uncultured bacteria, including a non-photosynthetic cyanobacterial group, the class "Melainabacteria". We herein reported the phylogenetic diversity of "Melainabacteria" in the guts of diverse termites and conducted a single-cell genome analysis of a melainabacterium obtained from the gut of the termite Termes propinquus. We performed amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the guts of 60 termite and eight cockroach species, and detected melainabacterial sequences in 48 out of the 68 insect species, albeit with low abundances (0...
February 8, 2018: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415764/discrimination-between-some-mycoplasma-spp-and-acholeplasma-laidlawii-in-bovine-milk-using-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis
#14
Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha, Kiro Petrovski, Razi Jozani, Andrew Hoare, Farhid Hemmatzadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide a rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic real time polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting curve assay (PCR-HRM) to identify and distinguish between four different mycoplasmas and Acholeplasma laidlawii isolated at cow-level from a single commercial dairy farm in South Australia. One set of genus-level universal primers was designed targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. RESULTS: Real time PCR-HRM analysis was able to identify and distinguish between five different mollicutes, namely A...
February 7, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403458/contribution-of-bicarbonate-assimilation-to-carbon-pool-dynamics-in-the-deep-mediterranean-sea-and-cultivation-of-actively-nitrifying-and-co2-fixing-bathypelagic-prokaryotic-consortia
#15
Violetta La Cono, Gioachino Ruggeri, Maurizio Azzaro, Francesca Crisafi, Franco Decembrini, Renata Denaro, Gina La Spada, Giovanna Maimone, Luis S Monticelli, Francesco Smedile, Laura Giuliano, Michail M Yakimov
Covering two-thirds of our planet, the global deep ocean plays a central role in supporting life on Earth. Among other processes, this biggest ecosystem buffers the rise of atmospheric CO2. Despite carbon sequestration in the deep ocean has been known for a long time, microbial activity in the meso- and bathypelagic realm via the "assimilation of bicarbonate in the dark" (ABD) has only recently been described in more details. Based on recent findings, this process seems primarily the result of chemosynthetic and anaplerotic reactions driven by different groups of deep-sea prokaryoplankton...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392382/construction-of-effective-minimal-active-microbial-consortia-for-lignocellulose-degradation
#16
Pilar Eliana Puentes-Téllez, Joana Falcao Salles
Enriched microbial communities, obtained from environmental samples through selective processes, can effectively contribute to lignocellulose degradation. Unfortunately, fully controlled industrial degradation processes are difficult to reach given the intrinsically dynamic nature and complexity of the microbial communities, composed of a large number of culturable and unculturable species. The use of less complex but equally effective microbial consortia could improve their applications by allowing for more controlled industrial processes...
February 1, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391438/obtaining-high-quality-draft-genomes-from-uncultured-microbes-by-cleaning-and-co-assembly-of-single-cell-amplified-genomes
#17
Masato Kogawa, Masahito Hosokawa, Yohei Nishikawa, Kazuki Mori, Haruko Takeyama
Single-cell genomics is a straightforward approach to obtain genomes from uncultured microbes. However, sequence reads from a single-cell amplified genome (SAG) contain significant bias and chimeric sequences. Here, we describe Cleaning and Co-assembly of a Single-Cell Amplified Genome (ccSAG), a novel analytical workflow to obtain composite single-cell genomes with elimination of sequence errors. By the integration of ccSAG with a massively parallel single-cell genome amplification platform based on droplet microfluidics, we can generate multiple SAGs and effectively integrate them into the composite genomes quality equivalent to the data obtained from bulk DNA...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388390/acute-oral-administration-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-increases-intestinal-permeability-and-inflammatory-responses-association-with-the-changes-in-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#18
Hanqing Chen, Ruifang Zhao, Bing Wang, Lingna Zheng, Hong Ouyang, Hailong Wang, Xiaoyan Zhou, Dan Zhang, Zhifang Chai, Yuliang Zhao, Weiyue Feng
With the increasing production and widespread potential applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the possible impacts of oral administration of SWCNTs on gastrointestinal tract at currently occupational exposure limits and potential biomedical applications should be concerned. To address the concerns, mice are orally administrated of SWCNTs at doses of 0.05, 0.5, and 2.5 mg kg-1 body weight per day for 7 d. The investigation shows that SWCNT treatment had promoted intestinal injuries at the acute dose of 2...
February 1, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374638/fluctuating-hypercalcaemia-caused-by-cavitary-mycobacterium-bovis-pulmonary-infection
#19
Darren Patrick Moloney, Liam Chawke, Mairead Therese Crowley, Terence M O'Connor
Hypercalcaemia occurs in many granulomatous diseases. Among them, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are the most common causes. Other causes include berylliosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, Crohn's disease, silicone-induced granulomas, cat-scratch disease, Wegener's granulomatosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Hypercalcaemia in granulomatous disease occurs as a consequence of dysregulated production of 1,25-(OH)2 D3 (calcitriol) by activated macrophages in granulomas. Hypercalcaemia in patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been reported in 0%-28% of cases...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374036/the-fate-of-urinary-tract-virus-bk-human-polyomavirus-in-source-separated-urine
#20
Heather E Goetsch, Linbo Zhao, Mariah Gnegy, Michael J Imperiale, Nancy G Love, Krista R Wigginton
Human polyomaviruses are emerging pathogens that infect a large percentage of the human population and are excreted in urine. Consequently, urine that is collected for fertilizer production often has high concentrations of polyomavirus genes. We studied the fate of infectious double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) BK human polyomavirus (BKPyV) in hydrolyzed source-separated urine with infectivity assays and qPCR. Although BKPyV genomes persisted in the hydrolyzed urine for long periods of time (T90 >3 weeks), the viruses were rapidly inactivated (T90 = 1...
January 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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