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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676854/effects-of-candidatus-liberibacter-solanacearum-haplotype-b-on-bactericera-cockerelli-fitness-and-vitellogenesis
#1
Angélica Albuquerque Tomilhero Frias, Freddy Ibanez, Azucena Mendoza, William Mario de Carvalho Nunes, Cecilia Tamborindeguy
'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) are phloem-restricted and unculturable gram-negative bacteria. Presently five haplotypes have been identified worldwide; but only haplotypes A and B are associated with the vector Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc.) in the Americas. Previous studies showed that Lso-infection reduces B. cockerelli reproductive output and that Lso haplotype B is more pathogenic than Lso haplotype A. To understand the interaction of Lso haplotype B and B. cockerelli, the fitness of Lso-free and Lso B-infected insects, and the expression of vitellogenin (BcVg1-like), a gene involved directly in the insect reproduction were analyzed...
April 20, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675013/development-of-chemically-defined-media-reveals-citrate-as-preferred-carbon-source-for-liberibacter-growth
#2
Maritsa Cruz-Munoz, Joseph R Petrone, Alexa R Cohn, Alam Munoz-Beristain, Nabil Killiny, Jennifer C Drew, Eric W Triplett
Liberibacter crescens is the closest cultured relative of four important uncultured crop pathogens. Candidatus L. asiaticus, L. americanus, and L. africanus are causal agents of citrus greening disease, otherwise known as huanglongling (HLB). Candidatus L. solanacearum is responsible for potato Zebra chip disease. Cultures of L. crescens grow slowly on BM-7 complex medium, while attempts to culture the Ca. Liberibacter pathogens in BM-7 have failed. Developing a defined medium for the growth of L. crescens will be useful in the study of Liberibacter metabolism and will improve the prospects for culturing the Ca ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668923/genomic-insights-into-the-agromyces-like-symbiont-of-earthworms-and-its-distribution-among-host-species
#3
Marie B Lund, Mathias F Mogensen, Ian P G Marshall, Mads Albertsen, Flávia Viana, Andreas Schramm
The nephridia (excretory organs) of lumbricid earthworms generally harbour symbiotic bacteria. In the compost worms Eisenia fetida and E. andrei, these comprise Verminephrobacter, Ca. Nephrothrix, and an Agromyces-like symbiont. While diversity, transmission, and function of the first two symbionts has been unraveled in recent years, little is known about the biology of the uncultured Agromyces-like symbiont or about its distribution within lumbricid earthworms.In this study we sequenced a cocoon metagenome of E...
April 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666049/m1-and-m2-macrophages-differentially-regulate-hematopoietic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-ex-vivo-expansion
#4
Yi Luo, Lijian Shao, Jianhui Chang, Wei Feng, Y Lucy Liu, Michele H Cottler-Fox, Peter D Emanuel, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Irwin D Bernstein, Lingbo Liu, Xing Chen, Jianfeng Zhou, Peter J Murray, Daohong Zhou
Uncovering the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal is regulated can lead to the development of new strategies for promoting ex vivo HSC expansion. Here, we report the discovery that alternative (M2)-polarized macrophages (M2-MΦs) promote, but classical (M1)-polarized macrophages (M1-MΦs) inhibit, the self-renewal and expansion of HSCs from mouse bone marrow (BM) in vitro. The opposite effects of M1-MΦs and M2-MΦs on mouse BM HSCs were attributed to their differential expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and arginase 1 (Arg1), because genetic knockout of Nos2 and Arg1 or inhibition of these enzymes with a specific inhibitor abrogated the differential effects of M1-MΦs and M2-MΦs...
April 24, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642587/pervasive-chimerism-in-the-replication-associated-proteins-of-uncultured-single-stranded-dna-viruses
#5
Darius Kazlauskas, Arvind Varsani, Mart Krupovic
Numerous metagenomic studies have uncovered a remarkable diversity of circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, the majority of which are uncultured and unclassified. Unlike capsid proteins, the Reps show significant similarity across different groups of CRESS DNA viruses and have conserved domain organization with the N-terminal nuclease and the C-terminal helicase domain. Consequently, Rep is widely used as a marker for identification, classification and assessment of the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627868/nitrogen-removal-performance-and-microbial-community-of-an-enhanced-multistage-a-o-biofilm-reactor-treating-low-strength-domestic-wastewater
#6
Han Chen, Ang Li, Qiao Wang, Di Cui, Chongwei Cui, Fang Ma
The low-strength domestic wastewater (LSDW) treatment with low chemical oxygen demand (COD) has drawn extensive attention for the poor total nitrogen (TN) removal performance. In the present study, an enhanced multistage anoxic/oxic (A/O) biofilm reactor was designed to improve the TN removal performance of the LSDW treatment. Efficient nitrifying and denitrifying biofilm carriers were cultivated and then filled into the enhanced biofilm reactor as the sole microbial source. Step-feed strategy and internal recycle were adopted to optimize the substrate distribution and the organics utilization...
April 7, 2018: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625978/subgroup-characteristics-of-marine-methane-oxidizing-anme-2-archaea-and-their-syntrophic-partners-revealed-by-integrated-multimodal-analytical-microscopy
#7
Shawn E McGlynn, Grayson L Chadwick, Ariel O'Neill, Mason Mackey, Andrea Thor, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Victoria J Orphan
Phylogenetically diverse environmental ANME archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria cooperatively catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane oxidation (AOM) in multi-celled consortia within methane seep environments. To better understand these cells and their symbiotic associations, we applied a suite of electron microscopy approaches including correlative<u>f</u>luorescence <u>i</u> n<u>s</u>itu <u>h</u>ybridization -<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (FISH-EM),<u>t</u>ransmission<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (TEM), and<u>s</u>erial<u>b</u>lock face scanning<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy 3D reconstructions (SBEM)...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605643/intracellular-toxicity-exerted-by-pcbs-and-role-of-vbnc-bacterial-strains-in-biodegradation
#8
REVIEW
Karuvelan Murugan, Namasivayam Vasudevan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are xenobiotic compounds that persists in the environment for long-term, though its productivity is banned. Abatement of the pollutants have become laborious due to it's recalcitrant nature in the environment leading to toxic effects in humans and other living beings. Biphenyl degrading bacteria co-metabolically degrade low chlorinated PCBs using the active metabolic pathway. bph operon possess different genetic arrangements in gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The binding ability of the genes and the active sites were determined by PCB docking studies...
March 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600411/differential-modulation-of-endophytic-microbiome-of-ginger-in-the-presence-of-beneficial-organisms-pathogens-and-both-as-identified-by-dgge-analysis
#9
Rohini Sabu, R Aswani, Priya Prabhakaran, B Krishnakumar, E K Radhakrishnan
Endophytic microorganisms play a significant role in plants response to beneficial organisms and pathogens. In the current study, endophytic microorganisms from Zingiber officinale were screened for in vitro inhibition against Pythium myriotylum. From this, Burkholderia vietnamiensis ZoB74 was selected as an organism with remarkable antifungal effect. Further, the study focussed on analysis of in vivo changes in endophytic bacterial community of Z. officinale in presence of selected organisms and the pathogen P...
March 29, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595106/isolating-bacteria-from-sponges-why-and-how
#10
Marinella Silva Laport
BACKGROUND: It is known that sponge-associated bacteria are an attractive source of new bioactive substances with biotechnological potential. These include antimicrobials, enzymes and surfactants. However, the potential of these microorganisms remains little investigated due to the difficulty of isolating new bacterial groups that produce original bioactive metabolites and enzymes. METHODS: Cultivation methods are still playing crucial functions in many studies involving bacteria isolated from sponges, and in the traditional approach for biodiscovery by screening culture collections...
March 28, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593704/cellular-injuries-in-cronobacter-sakazakii-cip-103183t-and-salmonella-enterica-exposed-to-drying-and-subsequent-heat-treatment-in-milk-powder
#11
Emilie Lang, Stéphane Guyot, Caroline Peltier, Pablo Alvarez-Martin, Jean-Marie Perrier-Cornet, Patrick Gervais
Because of the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low-moisture foods, their decontamination is an important issue in food protection. This study aimed to clarify some of the cellular mechanisms involved in inactivation of foodborne pathogens after drying and subsequent heating. Individual strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii were mixed into whole milk powder and dried to different water activity levels (0.25 and 0.58); the number of surviving cells was determined after drying and subsequent thermal treatments in closed vessels at 90 and 100°C, for 30 and 120 s...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588660/lignolytic-consortium-omics-analyses-reveal-novel-genomes-and-pathways-involved-in-lignin-modification-and-valorization
#12
Eduardo C Moraes, Thabata M Alvarez, Gabriela F Persinoti, Geizecler Tomazetto, Livia B Brenelli, Douglas A A Paixão, Gabriela C Ematsu, Juliana A Aricetti, Camila Caldana, Neil Dixon, Timothy D H Bugg, Fabio M Squina
Background: Lignin is a heterogeneous polymer representing a renewable source of aromatic and phenolic bio-derived products for the chemical industry. However, the inherent structural complexity and recalcitrance of lignin makes its conversion into valuable chemicals a challenge. Natural microbial communities produce biocatalysts derived from a large number of microorganisms, including those considered unculturable, which operate synergistically to perform a variety of bioconversion processes...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573371/effect-of-applied-magnetic-fields-on-motility-and-magnetotaxis-in-the-uncultured-magnetotactic-multicellular-prokaryote-candidatus-magnetoglobus-multicellularis
#13
Carolina N Keim, Roger Duarte de Melo, Fernando P Almeida, Henrique G P Lins de Barros, Marcos Farina, Daniel Acosta-Avalos
Magnetotactic bacteria are found in the chemocline of aquatic environments worldwide. They produce nanoparticles of magnetic minerals arranged in chains in the cytoplasm, which enable these microorganisms to align to magnetic fields while swimming propelled by flagella. Magnetotactic bacteria are diverse phylogenetically and morphologically, including cocci, rods, vibria, spirilla and also multicellular forms, known as Magnetotactic Multicellular Prokaryotes (MMPs). We used video-microscopy to study the motility of the uncultured MMP 'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' under applied magnetic fields ranging from 0...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572596/smacoviridae-a-new-family-of-animal-associated-single-stranded-dna-viruses
#14
Arvind Varsani, Mart Krupovic
Smacoviruses have small (∼2.3-2.9 kb), circular single-stranded DNA genomes encoding rolling circle replication-associated proteins (Rep) and unique capsid proteins. Although smacoviruses are prevalent in faecal matter of various vertebrates, including humans, none of these viruses have been cultured thus far. Smacoviruses display ∼45% genome-wide sequence diversity, which is very similar to that found within other families of circular Rep-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, including members of the families Geminiviridae (46% diversity) and Genomoviridae (47% diversity)...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569946/surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-in-microbiology-illumination-and-enhancement-of-the-microbial-world
#15
Malama Chisanga, Howbeer Muhamadali, David I Ellis, Royston Goodacre
The microbial world forms a huge family of organisms that exhibit the greatest phylogenetic diversity on Earth and thus colonize virtually our entire planet. Due to this diversity and subsequent complex interactions, the vast majority of microorganisms are involved in innumerable natural bioprocesses and contribute an absolutely vital role toward the maintenance of life on Earth, whilst a small minority cause various infectious diseases. The ever-increasing demand for environmental monitoring, sustainable ecosystems, food security, and improved healthcare systems drives the continuous search for inexpensive but reproducible, automated and portable techniques for detection of microbial isolates and understanding their interactions for clinical, environmental, and industrial applications and benefits...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566040/potential-human-pathogenic-bacteria-in-five-hot-springs-in-eritrea-revealed-by-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Amanuel Menghs Ghilamicael, Hamadi Iddi Boga, Sylvester Elikana Anami, Tadesse Mehari, Nancy L M Budambula
Human pathogens can survive and grow in hot springs. For water quality assessment, Escherichia coli or Enterococci are the main thermotolerant enteric bacteria commonly used to estimate the load of pathogenic bacteria in water. However, most of the environmental bacteria are unculturable thus culture methods may cause bias in detection of most pathogens. Illumina sequencing can provide a more comprehensive and accurate insight into environmental bacterial pathogens, which can be used to develop better risk assessment methods and promote public health awareness...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561792/high-throughput-sequencing-analysis-of-the-actinobacterial-spatial-diversity-in-moonmilk-deposits
#17
Marta Maciejewska, Magdalena Całusińska, Luc Cornet, Delphine Adam, Igor S Pessi, Sandrine Malchair, Philippe Delfosse, Denis Baurain, Hazel A Barton, Monique Carnol, Sébastien Rigali
Moonmilk are cave carbonate deposits that host a rich microbiome, including antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, making these speleothems appealing for bioprospecting. Here, we investigated the taxonomic profile of the actinobacterial community of three moonmilk deposits of the cave "Grotte des Collemboles" via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Actinobacteria was the most common phylum after Proteobacteria, ranging from 9% to 23% of the total bacterial population. Next to actinobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) attributed to uncultured organisms at the genus level (~44%), we identified 47 actinobacterial genera with Rhodoccocus (4 OTUs, 17%) and Pseudonocardia (9 OTUs, ~16%) as the most abundant in terms of the absolute number of sequences...
March 21, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561233/the-logic-of-biologically-active-small-molecules-amazing-ability-of-microorganisms
#18
Makoto Ubukata
In this review article, I will outline my way of thinking about biologically active small molecules. The structure of liposidomycin B from Streptomyces species resulted in my initial sense that a structure tells its function. A biologically active small molecule may save directly or indirectly a number of people. Even if the molecule has not been used as a therapeutic agent, it can be used as a useful chemical probe for dissecting a living cell into different biochemical pieces. Such biologically active small molecules derived from microorganisms have been primarily found in cultivable microorganisms that make up only 1% of total microbes in nature...
March 21, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560821/vitcomic2-visualization-tool-for-the-phylogenetic-composition-of-microbial-communities-based-on-16s-rrna-gene-amplicons-and-metagenomic-shotgun-sequencing
#19
Hiroshi Mori, Takayuki Maruyama, Masahiro Yano, Takuji Yamada, Ken Kurokawa
BACKGROUND: The 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon sequencing analysis is widely used to determine the taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Once the taxonomic composition of each community is obtained, evolutionary relationships among taxa are inferred by a phylogenetic tree. Thus, the combined representation of taxonomic composition and phylogenetic relationships among taxa is a powerful method for understanding microbial community structure; however, applying phylogenetic tree-based representation with information on the abundance of thousands or more taxa in each community is a difficult task...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559567/-in-vitro-culture-of-the-insect-endosymbiont-spiroplasma-poulsonii-highlights-bacterial-genes-involved-in-host-symbiont-interaction
#20
Florent Masson, Sandra Calderon Copete, Fanny Schüpfer, Gonzalo Garcia-Arraez, Bruno Lemaitre
Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with eukaryotic hosts are omnipresent in nature, particularly in insects. Studying the bacterial side of host-symbiont interactions is, however, often limited by the unculturability and genetic intractability of the symbionts. Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with several Drosophila species. S. poulsonii strongly affects its host's physiology, for example by causing male killing or by protecting it against various parasites...
March 20, 2018: MBio
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