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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446901/anaerobic-methanotrophic-archaea-of-the-anme-2d-cluster-are-active-in-a-low-sulfate-iron-rich-freshwater-sediment
#1
Hannah S Weber, Kirsten S Habicht, Bo Thamdrup
ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea remove the greenhouse gas methane from anoxic environments and diminish its flux to the atmosphere. High methane removal efficiencies are well documented in marine environments, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was only recently indicated as an important methane sink in freshwater systems. Freshwater AOM-mediating microorganisms lack taxonomic identification and only little is known about metabolic adaptions to prevailing biogeochemical conditions. One of the first study sites providing information about AOM activity in freshwater sediment is Lake Ørn, a low-sulfate, iron-rich Danish lake...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443069/long-term-enrichment-of-stress-tolerant-cellulolytic-soil-populations-following-timber-harvesting-evidenced-by-multi-omic-stable-isotope-probing
#2
Roland C Wilhelm, Erick Cardenas, Hilary Leung, András Szeitz, Lionel D Jensen, William W Mohn
Soil management is vital for maintaining the productivity of commercial forests, yet the long-term impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities remains largely a matter of conjecture. Decomposition of plant biomass, comprised mainly of lignocellulose, has a broad impact on nutrient cycling, microbial activity and physicochemical characteristics of soil. At "Long-term Soil Productivity Study" sites in California dominated by Ponderosa pine, we tested whether clear-cut timber harvesting, accompanied by varying degrees of organic matter (OM) removal, affected the activity and structure of the cellulose-degrading microbial populations 16 years after harvesting...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442730/exploration-of-the-relationship-between-biogas-production-and-microbial-community-under-high-salinity-conditions
#3
Shaojie Wang, Xiaocong Hou, Haijia Su
High salinity frequently causes inhibition and even failure in anaerobic digestion. To explore the impact of increasing NaCl concentrations on biogas production, and reveal the microbial community variations in response to high salinity stress, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was employed. The results showed that a NaCl concentration of 20 g/L (H group) exhibited a similar level of VFAs and specific CO2 production rate with that in the blank group, thus indicating that the bacterial activity in acidogenesis might not be inhibited...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426403/pcr-denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis-as-a-useful-method-to-identify-of-intestinal-bacteria-flora-in-haemaphysalis-flava-ticks
#4
Tian-Yin Cheng, Guo-Hua Liu
Ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary significance that can transmit bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses, causing a variety of human and animal diseases worldwide. In the present study, the intestinal bacterial flora associated with Haemaphysalis flava ticks in different developmental stages were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Eleven distinct DGGE bands were found using PCR-DGGE method. Sequences analyses indicated that they belonged to Bacillus cereus, Candidatus rickettsia, Erwinia sp...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420516/prenatal-diagnosis-and-molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of%C3%A2-low-level-mosaic-trisomy-12-at-amniocentesis-associated-with%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-favorable-pregnancy-outcome
#5
Chih-Ping Chen, Chen-Ju Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Chen-Wen Pan, Chien-Wen Yang, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaic trisomy 12. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+12[5]/46,XX[24] consistent with 17.2% (5/29) mosaicism for trisomy 12. Repeat amniocentesis performed at 21 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+12[4]/46,XX[6] consistent with 40% (4/10) mosaicism for trisomy 12. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on 112 uncultured amniocytes detected 23 cells with trisomy 12 consistent with 20...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420511/prenatal-diagnosis-and-molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-concomitant-familial-small-supernumerary-marker-chromosome-derived-from-chromosome-4q-4q11-1-q13-2-and-5q13-2-microdeletion-with-no-apparent-phenotypic-abnormality
#6
Chih-Ping Chen, Schu-Rern Chern, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Peih-Shan Wu, Chien-Wen Yang, Chen-Chi Lee, Meng-Shan Lee, Chen-Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of concomitant familial small supernumerary marker chromosome 4 [sSMC(4)] derived from 4q11.1-q12 and q13.2, and 5q13.2 microdeletion with no apparent phenotypic abnormality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 32-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 21 weeks of gestation because of absent nasal bone on fetal ultrasound. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+mar[13]/46,XX[3]. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the cultured amniocytes revealed a 2...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394321/the-role-of-angiopoietin-2-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells-during-human-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#7
Kun Wang, Wei Liu, Yu Song, Xinghuo Wu, Yukun Zhang, Shuai Li, Yong Gao, Ji Tu, Yingle Liu, Cao Yang
Although evidence shows that intervertebral disc degeneration is generally characterized by angiogenesis, the role of angiopoietin has not been investigated. This study examined the presence of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) within the native intervertebral disc (IVD) and elucidated their functions in the regulation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Initial investigation of uncultured NP tissue revealed that Ang-1 and Ang-2 were expressed by native NP cells. Ang-2 expression was significantly increased in infiltrated and degenerate samples relative to normal samples...
April 10, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393681/characterization-of-bacterial-community-structure-in-a-hydrocarbon-contaminated-tropical-african-soil
#8
Lateef B Salam, Mathew O Ilori, Olukayode O Amund, Yee LiiMien, Hideaki Nojiri
Bacterial community structure in a hydrocarbon-contaminated Mechanical Engineering Workshop (MWO) soil was deciphered using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. Four hundred and thirty seven clones cutting across thirteen bacterial phyla were recovered from the soil. The representative bacterial phyla identified from MWO soil are Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Ignavibacteriae, Spirochaetes, Chlamydiae, Candidatus Saccharibacteria and Parcubacteria...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391986/gene-products-promoting-remyelination-are-up-regulated-in-a-cell-therapy-product-manufactured-from-banked-human-cord-blood
#9
Paula Scotland, Susan Buntz, Pamela Noeldner, Arjun Saha, Tracy Gentry, Joanne Kurtzberg, Andrew E Balber
BACKGROUND AIMS: DUOC-01, a cell product being developed to treat demyelinating conditions, is composed of macrophages that arise from CD14(+) monocytes in the mononuclear cell (MNC) population of banked cord blood (CB). This article demonstrates that expression of multiple gene products that promote remyelination is rapidly up-regulated during manufacturing of DUOC-01 from either MNC or purified CB CD14(+) monocytes. METHODS: Cell cultures were initiated with MNC or with immunoselected CD14(+) monocytes isolated from the same CB unit...
April 5, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390576/functional-relevance-of-microbiome-signatures-the-correlation-era-requires-tools-for-consolidation
#10
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Compelling research over the past decade identified a fundamental role of the intestinal microbiome on human health. Compositional and functional changes of this microbial ecosystem are correlated with a variety of human pathologies. Metagenomic resolution and bioinformatic tools considerably improved, allowing even strain-level analysis. However, the search for microbial risk patterns in human cohorts is often confounded by environmental factors (eg, medication) and host status (eg, disease relapse), questioning the prognostic and therapeutic value of the currently available information...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389550/single-cell-resolution-study-of-uncultured-magnetotactic-bacteria-via-fluorescence-coupled-electron-microscopy
#11
Jinhua Li, Heng Zhang, Nicolas Menguy, Karim Benzerara, Fuxian Wang, Xiaoting Lin, Zhibao Chen, Yongxin Pan
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) form intracellular chain-assembled nanocrystals of magnetite or greigite termed magnetosomes. The characterization of magnetosome crystals requires electron microscopy due to their nanoscopic sizes. However, electron microscopy does not provide phylogenetic information for MTB. We have developed a strategy for the simultaneous and rapid phylogenetic and biomineralogical characterization of uncultured MTB at the single-cell level. It consists of four steps: (1) the enrichment of MTB cells from an environmental sample, (2) 16S rRNA gene sequencing of MTB, and (3) fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses coordinated with (4) scanning or transmission electron microscopy (SEM) of the probe-hybridized cells...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389039/bacterial-unculturability-and-the-formation-of-intercellular-metabolic-networks
#12
REVIEW
Samay Pande, Christian Kost
The majority of known bacterial species cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. Here we argue that the adaptive emergence of obligate metabolic interactions in natural bacterial communities can explain this pattern. Bacteria commonly release metabolites into the external environment. Accumulating pools of extracellular metabolites create an ecological niche that benefits auxotrophic mutants, which have lost the ability to autonomously produce the corresponding metabolites. In addition to a diffusion-based metabolite transfer, auxotrophic cells can use contact-dependent means to obtain nutrients from other co-occurring cells...
April 4, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387006/novel-candidatus-liberibacter-species-identified-in-the-australian-eggplant-psyllid-acizzia-solanicola
#13
Jacqueline Morris, Jason Shiller, Rachel Mann, Grant Smith, Alan Yen, Brendan Rodoni
A novel candidate species of the liberibacter genus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter brunswickensis' (CLbr), was identified in the Australian eggplant psyllid, Acizzia solanicola. This is the first discovery of a species belonging to the liberibacter genus in Australia and the first report of a liberibacter species in the psyllid genus Acizzia. This new candidate liberibacter species has not been associated with plant disease, unlike other psyllid-vectored species in the genus including 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus' (CLaf) and 'Ca...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382524/characterization-of-a-metagenome-derived-protease-from-contaminated-agricultural-soil-microorganisms-and-its-random-mutagenesis
#14
Chengjian Jiang, Liang Zhang, Fajia Li, Can Meng, Rong Zeng, Jie Deng, Peihong Shen, Qian Ou, Bo Wu
Proteases are typical key enzymes that hydrolyze proteins into amino acids and peptides. Numerous proteases have been studied, but the discovery of metagenome-derived proteases is still significant for both commercial applications and basic research. An unexplored protease gene sep1A was identified by function-based screening from a plasmid metagenomic library derived from uncultured contaminated agricultural soil microorganisms. The putative protease gene was subcloned into pET-32a (+) vector and overexpressed in E...
April 5, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382330/metatranscriptomics-supports-the-mechanism-for-biocathode-electroautotrophy-by-candidatus-tenderia-electrophaga
#15
Brian J Eddie, Zheng Wang, W Judson Hervey, Dagmar H Leary, Anthony P Malanoski, Leonard M Tender, Baochuan Lin, Sarah M Strycharz-Glaven
Biocathodes provide a stable electron source to drive reduction reactions in electrotrophic microbial electrochemical systems. Electroautotrophic biocathode communities may be more robust than monocultures in environmentally relevant settings, but some members are not easily cultivated outside the electrode environment. We previously used metagenomics and metaproteomics to propose a pathway for coupling extracellular electron transfer (EET) to carbon fixation in "Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga," an uncultivated but dominant member of an electroautotrophic biocathode community...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382024/current-advances-on-virus-discovery-and-diagnostic-role-of-viral-metagenomics-in-aquatic-organisms
#16
REVIEW
Hetron M Munang'andu, Kizito K Mugimba, Denis K Byarugaba, Stephen Mutoloki, Øystein Evensen
The global expansion of the aquaculture industry has brought with it a corresponding increase of novel viruses infecting different aquatic organisms. These emerging viral pathogens have proved to be a challenge to the use of traditional cell-cultures and immunoassays for identification of new viruses especially in situations where the novel viruses are unculturable and no antibodies exist for their identification. Viral metagenomics has the potential to identify novel viruses without prior knowledge of their genomic sequence data and may provide a solution for the study of unculturable viruses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378385/functional-characterization-of-lotp-from-liberibacter-asiaticus
#17
Flavia Loto, Janelle F Coyle, Kaylie A Padgett, Fernando A Pagliai, Christopher L Gardner, Graciela L Lorca, Claudio F Gonzalez
Liberibacter asiaticus is an unculturable parasitic bacterium of the alphaproteobacteria group hosted by both citrus plants and a psyllid insect vector (Diaphorina citri). In the citrus tree, the bacteria thrive only inside the phloem, causing a systemically incurable and deadly plant disease named citrus greening or Huanglongbing. Currently, all commercial citrus cultivars in production are susceptible to L. asiaticus, representing a serious threat to the citrus industry worldwide. The technical inability to isolate and culture L...
May 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368499/deep-lessons-from-the-uncultured
#18
Philip E Pellett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365113/associations-between-pathogen-specific-cases-of-subclinical-mastitis-and-milk-yield-quality-protein-composition-and-cheese-making-traits-in-dairy-cows
#19
T Bobbo, P L Ruegg, G Stocco, E Fiore, M Gianesella, M Morgante, D Pasotto, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360330/on-the-origins-of-oxygenic-photosynthesis-and-aerobic-respiration-in-cyanobacteria
#20
Rochelle M Soo, James Hemp, Donovan H Parks, Woodward W Fischer, Philip Hugenholtz
The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis in Cyanobacteria led to the rise of oxygen on Earth ~2.3 billion years ago, profoundly altering the course of evolution by facilitating the development of aerobic respiration and complex multicellular life. Here we report the genomes of 41 uncultured organisms related to the photosynthetic Cyanobacteria (class Oxyphotobacteria), including members of the class Melainabacteria and a new class of Cyanobacteria (class Sericytochromatia) that is basal to the Melainabacteria and Oxyphotobacteria All members of the Melainabacteria and Sericytochromatia lack photosynthetic machinery, indicating that phototrophy was not an ancestral feature of the Cyanobacteria and that Oxyphotobacteria acquired the genes for photosynthesis relatively late in cyanobacterial evolution...
March 31, 2017: Science
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