keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

genome instability

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934716/automatic-detection-of-micronuclei-by-cell-microscopic-image-processing
#1
Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Hosein Azimian, Omid Sarrafzadeh, Shokoufeh Mohebbi, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard
With the development and applications of ionizing radiation in medicine, the radiation effects on human health get more and more attention. Ionizing radiation can lead to various forms of cytogenetic damage, including increased frequencies of micronuclei (MNi) and chromosome abnormalities. The cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is widely used method for measuring MNi to determine chromosome mutations or genome instability in cultured human lymphocytes. The visual scoring of MNi is time-consuming and scorer fatigue can lead to inconsistency...
August 12, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932365/causal-role-of-infectious-agents-in-cancer-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
Jila Masrour-Roudsari, Soheil Ebrahimpour
Cancer is a complex group of diseases with multiple eventual causes. The underlying causes are not fully known. Thus, learning more about the known causes of cancer is an important issue. Moreover, among these factors, infection and its association to cancers is controversial. Although, it seems that the genome instability of the cells can initiate cancer development. The purpose of this review was to present the role of infection in the development of cancer. Infectious agents, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931650/epigenetic-inactivation-of-tumour-suppressor-coding-and-non-coding-genes-in-human-cancer-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Pere Llinàs-Arias, Manel Esteller
Cancer cells undergo many different alterations during their transformation, including genetic and epigenetic events. The controlled division of healthy cells can be impaired through the downregulation of tumour suppressor genes. Here, we provide an update of the mechanisms in which epigenetically altered coding and non-coding tumour suppressor genes are implicated. We will highlight the importance of epigenetics in the different molecular pathways that lead to enhanced and unlimited capacity of division, genomic instability, metabolic shift, acquisition of mesenchymal features that lead to metastasis, and tumour plasticity...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931330/sequential-molecular-changes-and-dynamic-oxidative-stress-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#4
Hiroshi Kobayashi, Kenji Ogawa, Naoki Kawahara, Kana Iwai, Emiko Niiro, Sachiko Morioka, Yuki Yamada
The mechanism of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) development remains elusive. This review outlines recent advances in the understanding of sequential molecular changes associated with the development of HGSC, as well as describes oxidative stress-induced genomic instability and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the English-language literature between 2005 and 2017. Clinicopathological features analysis provide a sequential progression of fallopian tubal epithelium to precursor lesions to type 2 HGSC...
September 21, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929220/-pathogenesis-and-genetics-of-osteosarcoma-current-concepts-and-developments
#5
REVIEW
D Baumhoer
Osteosarcomas are genetically complex tumours for which the cell of origin and the molecular pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Despite intensive multimodal treatment protocols only two thirds of patients currently survive the disease which is at least partly due to the early occurring chromosomal instability resulting in marked inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity. This review article outlines the current state of osteosarcoma research with a particular focus on exome- and genome-wide sequencing analyses and potential impacts on new therapeutic opportunities...
September 19, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928870/the-impact-of-microsatellite-instability-status-and-sidedness-of-the-primary-tumor-on-the-effect-of-cetuximab-containing-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#6
Seung Tae Kim, Su-Jin Lee, Jeeyun Lee, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Ho Yeong Lim, Won Ki Kang, Young Suk Park
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been reconsidered as a heterogeneous disease. Among advances of genomic analysis in CRC, the sidedness of tumors (left-sided colon vs. right-sided colon) and microsatellite instability (MSI)-high (H) tumors have been highlighted. Methods: We analyzed 153 CRC patients who were available for evaluation of MSI status and had been treated with cetuximab-containing chemotherapy between April 2008 and January 2013. KRAS mutational status was available in all 153 patients, but BRAF mutational status was only available in 72 patients (47...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927971/the-interaction-of-polymorphisms-in-extracellular-matrix-genes-and-underlying-mirna-motifs-that-modulate-susceptibility-to-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture
#7
Kyle Willard, Sasha Mannion, Colleen J Saunders, Malcolm Collins, Alison V September
OBJECTIVES: Variants within genes that encode proteins regulating fibrillogenesis such as BGN (rs1126499 C>T, rs1042103 C>T), COL5A1 (rs12722 C>T) and DCN (rs516115 C>T) have been associated with susceptibility to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. A miRNA mediated transcript instability was proposed for the COL5A1 association. The study aims were: (i) to investigate the association of inferred allele combinations across the COL5A1 3'-UTR, BGN and DCN genes with susceptibility to ACL rupture; and (ii) to use an in silico approach to identify miRNA binding sites common to these risk associated allele combinations...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927539/transient-and-stable-vector-transfection-pitfalls-off-target-effects-artifacts
#8
REVIEW
Aleksei A Stepanenko, Henry H Heng
Transient and stable vector transfections have played important roles in illustrating the function of specific genes/proteins. The general assumption is that such a platform could effectively link a given gene/protein to gained phenotypes, revealing the mechanism of how a gene works. However, in reality, increased studies have surprisingly noticed some unexpected results. In this review, we demonstrate that an assumption that empty vector-transfected cells preserve the cytogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, and represent the adequate control in transfection experiments is not universally valid...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927537/interstitial-telomeric-sequences-in-vertebrate-chromosomes-origin-function-instability-and-evolution
#9
REVIEW
Alejandro D Bolzán
By definition, telomeric sequences are located at the very ends or terminal regions of chromosomes. However, several vertebrate species show blocks of (TTAGGG)n repeats present in non-terminal regions of chromosomes, the so-called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), interstitial telomeric repeats or interstitial telomeric bands, which include those intrachromosomal telomeric-like repeats located near (pericentromeric ITSs) or within the centromere (centromeric ITSs) and those telomeric repeats located between the centromere and the telomere (i...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927196/the-intricate-interplay-between-msi-and-polymorphisms-of-dna-repair-enzymes-in-gastric-cancer-h-pylori-associated
#10
Isabelle Joyce de Lima Silva-Fernandes, Emanuele Silva de Oliveira, Juliana Carvalho Santos, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro, Adriana Camargo Ferrasi, Maria Inês de Moura Campos Pardini, Rommel Mário Rodriguez Burbano, Silvia Helena Barem Rabenhorst
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is a well-established risk factor and may cause injuries to genomic integrity through an inefficient DNA repair. This study aimed to examine the influence of polymorphisms in DNA repair enzymes using markers for microsatellite instability (MSI). Polymorphisms of DNA repair enzymes were detected by PCR-RFLP and MSI, by high resolution melt (HRM) analysis. Helicobacter pylori detection and genotyping were accomplished by PCR...
July 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926134/early-genetic-aberrations-in-patients-with-sporadic-colorectal-cancer
#11
Brooke R Druliner, Xiaoyang Ruan, Hugues Sicotte, Daniel O'Brien, Hongfang Liu, Jean-Pierre A Kocher, Lisa Boardman
Chromosome instability (CIN) is widely observed in both sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). Defects in APC and WNT signaling are primarily associated with CIN in hereditary CRC, but the genetic causes for CIN in sporadic CRC remain elusive. Using high-density SNP array and exome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we characterized loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and copy number variation (CNV) in the peripheral blood, normal colon and corresponding tumor tissue in 15 CRC patients with proficient mismatch repair (MMR) and 24 CRC patients with deficient MMR...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925933/the-impact-of-dna-repair-pathways-in-cancer-biology-and-therapy
#12
EDITORIAL
Anatoly Nikolaev, Eddy S Yang
Genomic instability is one of the key hallmarks of cancer progression [1].[...].
September 19, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923333/buccal-cell-micronucleus-frequency-is-significantly-elevated-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#13
Dany A Cuello-Almarales, Luis E Almaguer-Mederos, Yaimé Vázquez-Mojena, Dennis Almaguer-Gotay, Pedro Zayas-Feria, José M Laffita-Mesa, Yanetza González-Zaldívar, Raúl Aguilera-Rodríguez, Annelié Rodríguez-Estupiñán, Luis Velázquez-Pérez
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is part of a group of at least nine dominantly inherited disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of specific neuronal populations and a shared mutational mechanism involving the expansion of a CAG repeat tract in coding regions of novel genes. Efforts have been made to identify biomarkers of disease progression, which would allow timely preventive therapeutic interventions. In the present study was assessed the influence of several genome instability biomarkers on SCA2 clinical severity...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921524/karyotype-variation-of-cho-host-cell-lines-over-time-in-culture-characterized-by-chromosome-counting-and-chromosome-painting
#14
Sabine Vcelar, Vaibhav Jadhav, Michael Melcher, Norbert Auer, Astrid Hrdina, Rebecca Sagmeister, Kelley Heffner, Anja Puklowski, Michael Betenbaugh, Till Wenger, Friedrich Leisch, Martina Baumann, Nicole Borth
Genomic rearrangements are a common phenomenon in rapidly growing cell lines such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a feature that in the context of production of biologics may lead to cell line and product instability. Few methods exist to assess such genome wide instability. Here we use the population distribution of chromosome numbers per cell as well as chromosome painting to quantify the karyotypic variation in several CHO host cell lines. CHO-S, CHO-K1 8mM glutamine and CHO-K1 cells adapted to grow in media containing no glutamine were analyzed over up to 6 months in culture...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920961/germline-mutations-affecting-the-histone-h4-core-cause-a-developmental-syndrome-by-altering-dna-damage-response-and-cell-cycle-control
#15
Federico Tessadori, Jacques C Giltay, Jane A Hurst, Maarten P Massink, Karen Duran, Harmjan R Vos, Robert M van Es, Richard H Scott, Koen L I van Gassen, Jeroen Bakkers, Gijs van Haaften
Covalent modifications of histones have an established role as chromatin effectors, as they control processes such as DNA replication and transcription, and repair or regulate nucleosomal structure. Loss of modifications on histone N tails, whether due to mutations in genes belonging to histone-modifying complexes or mutations directly affecting the histone tails, causes developmental disorders or has a role in tumorigenesis. More recently, modifications affecting the globular histone core have been uncovered as being crucial for DNA repair, pluripotency and oncogenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918520/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-lines-and-mechanism-of-pluripotency-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#16
REVIEW
Arvind Chhabra
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hES) lines in 1998 was not only a major technological breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine; it also triggered a passionate debate about the ethical issues associated with the utilization of human embryos for derivation of hESC lines. Successful derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) lines from human somatic cells with defined reprogramming factors by Shinya Yamanaka`s group in 2007 was another breakthrough that generated enormous excitement and hope for the development of donor-specific personalized cell replacement therapies (CRT) without the ethical dilemma associated with it...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916651/escherichia-coli-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-uvrd-helicase-unwinds-g4-dna-structures
#17
Kaustubh Shukla, Roshan Thakur, Debayan Ganguli, Desirazu Rao, Ganesh Nagaraju
G-quadruplex (G4) secondary structures have been implicated in various biological processes including gene expression, DNA replication and telomere maintenance. However, unresolved G4 structures impede replication progression which can lead to generation of DNA double-strand breaks and genome instability. Helicases have been shown to resolve G4 structures to facilitate faithful duplication of the genome. Escherichia coli UvrD (EcUvrD) helicase plays a crucial role in nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and in the regulation of homologous recombination...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915699/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#18
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914798/genome-instability-and-%C3%AE-h2ax
#19
REVIEW
Anastasios Georgoulis, Constantinos E Vorgias, George P Chrousos, Emmy P Rogakou
γH2AX has emerged in the last 20 years as a central player in the DDR (DNA damage response), with specificity for DSBs (double-strand breaks). Upon the generation of DSBs, γ-phosphorylation extends along megabase-long domains in chromatin, both sides of the damage. The significance of this mechanism is of great importance; it depicts a biological amplification mechanism where one DSB induces the γ-phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules along megabaselong domains of chromatin, that are adjusted to the sites of DSBs...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913947/extreme-chromosome-17-copy-number-instability-is-a-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Jacqueline E Birkness, Neal G Spada, Caitlyn Miller, James D Luketich, Katie S Nason, Weijing Sun, Jon M Davison
Gastric and esophageal cancers frequently show genomic instability and aneuploidy. Chromosomal copy number instability (CIN) is a form of genomic instability that exerts pleiotropic effects on cellular biology and is a source of genetic heterogeneity in a population of cells. CIN results in cell-to-cell variation in chromosome copy number which can be detected and quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CIN is a biomarker associated with differential response to a number of chemotherapy compounds...
September 14, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
keyword
keyword
95033
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"