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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048660/canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-in-cancer-stem-cells-and-their-niches-cellular-heterogeneity-omics-reprogramming-targeted-therapy-and-tumor-plasticity-review
#1
Masaru Katoh
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the potential for self-renewal, differentiation and de-differentiation, undergo epigenetic, epithelial-mesenchymal, immunological and metabolic reprogramming to adapt to the tumor microenvironment and survive host defense or therapeutic insults. Intra-tumor heterogeneity and cancer-cell plasticity give rise to therapeutic resistance and recurrence through clonal replacement and reactivation of dormant CSCs, respectively. WNT signaling cascades cross-talk with the FGF, Notch, Hedgehog and TGFβ/BMP signaling cascades and regulate expression of functional CSC markers, such as CD44, CD133 (PROM1), EPCAM and LGR5 (GPR49)...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047224/ral-signaling-pathway-in-health-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Adel Rezaei Moghadam, Elham Patrad, Elham Tafsiri, Warner Peng, Benjamin Fangman, Timothy J Pluard, Anthony Accurso, Michael Salacz, Kushal Shah, Brandon Ricke, Danse Bi, Kyle Kimura, Leland Graves, Marzieh Khajoie Najad, Roya Dolatkhah, Zohreh Sanaat, Mina Yazdi, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Mohammad Mazani, Mojtaba Amani, Saeid Ghavami, Robyn Gartell, Colleen Reilly, Zaid Naima, Tuba Esfandyari, Faris Farassati
The Ral (Ras-Like) signaling pathway plays an important role in the biology of cells. A plethora of effects is regulated by this signaling pathway and its prooncogenic effectors. Our team has demonstrated the overactivation of the RalA signaling pathway in a number of human malignancies including cancers of the liver, ovary, lung, brain, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Additionally, we have shown that the activation of RalA in cancer stem cells is higher in comparison with differentiated cancer cells...
October 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045292/ovarian-metastases-of-breast-cancers-with-signet-ring-cells-a-report-of-17-cases-including-14-krukenberg-tumors
#3
Jennifer A Bennett, Robert H Young, Ai-Ying Chuang, Melinda F Lerwill
Krukenberg tumor, defined as metastatic adenocarcinoma to the ovary containing at least 10% signet ring cells, usually arises from the stomach but can also originate from other sites. We reviewed 17 metastatic breast carcinomas to the ovary with signet ring cells to potentially identify features indicative of mammary origin as opposed to other possible primary sites. The patients ranged from 41 to 76 (mean, 53.6) yr. Fourteen had a prior history of invasive breast carcinoma (invasive ductal carcinoma, 4; invasive lobular carcinoma, 3; adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, 3; carcinoma with ductal and lobular features, 2; and unspecified carcinoma, 2) and metastases were identified 2 to 284 (mean, 79) mo after the original diagnosis...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038151/obesity-and-cancer-evidence-impact-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Graham A Colditz, Lindsay L Peterson
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence, particularly from prospective epidemiologic studies but with additional support from animal models and mechanistic studies, supported conclusions in 2016 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)(3) in their review of the preventive effects of weight control on cancer risk. CONTENT: The workgroup concluded that obesity is causally related to cancer at 13 anatomic sites (esophagus: adenocarcinoma; gastric cardia; colon and rectum; liver; gallbladder; pancreas; breast: postmenopausal; uterine endometrial; ovary; kidney: renal cell; meningioma; thyroid; and multiple myeloma)...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029123/outcome-of-elevated-ca125-values-from-primary-care-following-implementation-of-ovarian-cancer-guidelines
#5
S Michael Crawford, Colin Evans
Background: Ovarian cancer presents later in the UK compared to economically similar countries. National guidance suggests measuring CA125 in primary care as a means of bringing patients to specialist attention. Aim: To investigate the outcome of CA125 values measured in accordance with this policy. Setting and design: Examination of the laboratory records of female patients from the usual catchment population of one general hospital in whom CA125 was measured from primary care in a calendar year...
September 28, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026839/missing-the-benefit-of-metformin-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-problem-of-contrast
#6
Alice C Ceacareanu, George K Nimako, Zachary A P Wintrob
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether metformin's cancer-related benefits reported in patients with solid tumors (ST) are also present in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. METHODS: Baseline demographic and clinical history for all diabetes mellitus patients newly diagnosed with AML or cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, lung, or kidney at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY (January 2003-December 2010, n = 924) was collected. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression (hazard ratio [HR])...
July 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022494/colder-environments-are-associated-with-a-greater-cancer-incidence-in-the-female-population-of-the-united-states
#7
Ankit Sharma, Tanu Sharma, Mahaveer S Panwar, Devesh Sharma, Rashmi Bundel, Ryan T Hamilton, James A Radosevich, Chandi C Mandal
Cancer incidence and/or mortality among individuals varies with diet, socio-culture, ethnicity, race, gender, and age. Similarly, environmental temperature modulates many biological functions. To study the effect of environment temperature on cancer incidence, the US population was selected. Because, county-wise cancer incidence rate data of various anatomical site-specific cancers and different races/ethnicities for both males and females are available. Moreover, the differences amongst the aforementioned factors among individuals are much less, as compared to the world population...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022007/is-uterine-preservation-combined-with-bilateral-salpingo-oophorectomy-to-promote-subsequent-fertility-safe-in-infiltrative-mucinous-ovarian-cancer
#8
Sebastien Gouy, Marine Saidani, Amandine Maulard, Matthieu Faron, Slim Bach-Hamba, Enrica Bentivegna, Alexandra Leary, Patricia Pautier, Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Catherine Genestie, Philippe Morice
According to the latest World Health Organization classification (2014), mucinous ovarian cancers should be classified histologically as being either expansile or infiltrative. Compared to other epithelial cancers, both of these mucinous patterns are diagnosed, in the main, at an early stage, although they can affect relatively young patients. The infiltrative subtype is characterized by a morphologically and clinically more aggressive disease versus the expansile form. Consequently, even in young patients who would prefer fertility sparing management, the removal of both ovaries (even for a unilateral tumor) remains a common recommendation...
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993799/genetic-characterization-of-brain-metastases-in-the-era-of-targeted-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Catherine H Han, Priscilla K Brastianos
In the current era of molecularly targeted therapies and precision medicine, choice of cancer treatment has been increasingly tailored according to the molecular or genomic characterization of the cancer the individual has. Previously, the clinical observation of inadequate control of brain metastases was widely attributed to a lack of central nervous system (CNS) penetration of the anticancer drugs. However, more recent data have suggested that there are genetic explanations for such observations. Genomic analyses of brain metastases and matching primary tumor and other extracranial metastases have revealed that brain metastases can harbor potentially actionable driver mutations that are unique to them...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991003/site-specific-solid-cancer-mortality-following-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-a-cohort-study-of-workers-inworks
#10
David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Robert D Daniels, Michael Gillies, Richard Haylock, Klervi Leuraud, Dominique Laurier, Monika Moissonnier, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene
BACKGROUND: There is considerable scientific interest in associations between protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation and the occurrence of specific types of cancer. METHODS: Associations between ionizing radiation and site-specific solid cancer mortality were examined among 308,297 nuclear workers employed in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Workers were monitored for external radiation exposure and follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person-years...
October 4, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989927/metastatic-uterine-cancer-looking-as-cervical-fibroid-in-recurrent-breast-cancer-woman-a-case-report
#11
So Young Seo, Jin Yong Shin, Yong Il Ji
Metastasis to the female genital tract from extragenital primary cancer is uncommon. In this case, a 46-year-old woman was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast in 2011. She had left breast conserving surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapy (gosereline and tamoxifen). However, she developed menorrhagia after interruption of hormonal therapy and incidentally, the ultrasonogram of her pelvis showed a solid, large mass in the cervix. It looked like leiomyoma. Because of massive vaginal bleeding requiring multiple blood transfusions, she underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy...
September 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988106/dcpp1-is-the-mouse-ortholog-of-human-pauf-that-possesses-functional-analogy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Hayne Song, Jinhoi Song, Yeon Jeong Kim, Hyeon Hee Jeong, Hye Jin Min, Sang Seok Koh
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) plays a major role in tumor progression and metastasis by autocrine and paracrine manners. However, underlying molecular mechanism of PAUF functioning in pancreatic cancer are not fully understood yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of demilune cell and parotid protein 1 (DCPP1) as a putative mouse ortholog of human PAUF by sequence alignment and functional studies. Overexpression of mouse DCPP1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or pancreatic cancer cells increased cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion ability in vitro...
October 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984773/ovarian-torsion-of-mixed-epithelial-tumor-misdiagnosed-as-a-malignancy-in-postmenopausal-woman-a-case-report
#13
Hyeji Jeon, Aeli Ryu, Hui-Gyeong Seo, Si-Hyong Jang
RATIONALE: Adnexal torsion is 1 of the most common emergency gynecological disease. It is more often diagnosed in reproductive age, but rarely in postmenopausal women. The clinical symptoms of adnexal torsion are nonspecific in postmenopausal women. Epithelial ovarian tumors are common in adults, and the risk of malignancy increases with age, especially after menopause. So, it is difficult to diagnose adnexal torsion precisely compared with reproductive women, and most cases of adnexal torsion with postmenopausal women are diagnosed as a malignancy preoperatively...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984674/targeted-genomic-profiling-reveals-recurrent-kras-mutations-in-mesonephric-like-adenocarcinomas-of-the-female-genital-tract
#14
Jelena Mirkovic, Marie McFarland, Elizabeth Garcia, Lynette M Sholl, Neal Lindeman, Laura MacConaill, Fei Dong, Michelle Hirsch, Marisa R Nucci, Charles M Quick, Christopher P Crum, W Glenn McCluggage, Brooke E Howitt
Mesonephric adenocarcinoma most commonly arises in the cervix and is presumed to be derived from normal or hyperplastic mesonephric remnants. It is characterized by recurrent KRAS mutations and lack of PIK3CA/PTEN alterations. Adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus and ovary characterized by morphologic and immunophenotypic similarities to mesonephric adenocarcinoma have been reported. The pathogenesis of these tumors, which have been designated "mesonephric-like adenocarcinomas" is unknown, and it has been debated whether these represent mesonephric adenocarcinomas that arise in the endometrium/ovary or endometrioid adenocarcinomas that closely mimic mesonephric adenocarcinoma...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982890/debulking-surgery-for-clear-cell-carcinoma-of-the-ovary-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Nicolae Bacalbasa, Irina Balescu, Alexandru Filipescu
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma represents a distinct histopathological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer, with poor outcomes, especially in cases diagnosed in advanced stages of disease. However, even in these cases, it seems that the most effective treatment remains debulking surgery to no residual disease. We present the case of a 56-year-old patient diagnosed with a large pelvic mass invading the rectosigmoidal colon, and ileal loop who was successfully submitted to cytoreductive surgery to no residual disease...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982275/bisphenol-a-initiates-excessive-premature-activation-of-primordial-follicles-in-mouse-ovaries-via-the-pten-signaling-pathway
#16
Ying Hu, Dong-Zhi Yuan, Yi Wu, Lin-Lin Yu, Liang-Zhi Xu, Li-Min Yue, Lin Liu, Wen-Ming Xu, Xiao-Yong Qiao, Ru-Jun Zeng, Zhi-Lan Yang, Wei-Yao Yin, Ya-Xian Ma, Ying Nie
The essence of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the premature exhaustion of primordial follicles in the follicle pool, which is caused by the excessive premature activation of primordial follicles after birth. Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure promotes the transition of primordial follicles to primary follicles, thus the number of primordial follicles in the primordial follicle pool decreases significantly. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal follicle activation are poorly understood. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) signal system is a negative regulator of follicle activation, which is called the brake of follicle activation...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981482/vital-signs-trends-in-incidence-of-cancers-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-united-states-2005-2014
#17
C Brooke Steele, Cheryll C Thomas, S Jane Henley, Greta M Massetti, Deborah A Galuska, Tanya Agurs-Collins, Mary Puckett, Lisa C Richardson
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer. METHODS: Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site...
October 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980762/case-report-of-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-imaging-of-a-patient-with-multiple-endocrine-gland-metastases-from-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Hongguang Zhao, Chenghe Lin, Benzheng Jiao, Ri Sa, Sen Hou, Songbai Xu
Synchronous multiple endocrine gland metastasis caused by small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is rare. A patient was investigated for primary cancer because of suspected brain metastasis on computed tomography (CT). Baseline (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT was positive in the lung and multiple endocrine glands (right thyroid, right breast, pancreatic body, right adrenal gland, and left ovary). Histopathology confirmed small cell lung cancer. The patient's symptoms were alleviated after chemotherapy and brain radiotherapy...
October 5, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980228/female-reproductive-system-and-immunology
#19
Yukinori Yoshimura, Animesh Barua
Health of the reproductive organs is essential for formation and production of high quality and hygienic eggs. It is of importance to review the structures and functions of female reproductive system for better understanding of the mechanism by which the eggs are formed. The unique functions of ovarian cells for follicular growth and differentiation as well as steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation are regulated by gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. The oviduct is responsible for egg formation, while the unique function to store sperms for a prolonged period takes place in the specific tissue of this organ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977607/skeletal-and-uterotrophic-effects-of-endoxifen-in-female-rats
#20
Anne Gingery, Urszula T Iwaniec, Malayannan Subramaniam, Russell T Turner, Kevin S Pitel, Renee M McGovern, Joel M Reid, Ronald J Marler, James N Ingle, Matthew P Goetz, John R Hawse
Endoxifen, the primary active metabolite of tamoxifen, is currently being investigated as a novel endocrine therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that elicits potent anti-breast cancer effects. However, long-term use of tamoxifen also induces bone loss in premenopausal women and is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. For these reasons, we have used a rat model system to comprehensively characterize the impact of endoxifen on the skeleton and uterus...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
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