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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346750/from-healthcare-to-warfare-and-reverse-how-should-we-regulate-dual-use-neurotechnology
#1
Marcello Ienca, Fabrice Jotterand, Bernice S Elger
Recent advances in military-funded neurotechnology and novel opportunities for misusing neurodevices show that the problem of dual use is inherent to neuroscience. This paper discusses how the neuroscience community should respond to these dilemmas and delineates a neuroscience-specific biosecurity framework. This neurosecurity framework involves calibrated regulation, (neuro)ethical guidelines, and awareness-raising activities within the scientific community.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346716/neuropeptide-af-induces-piecemeal-degranulation-in-murine-mucosal-mast-cells-a-new-mediator-in-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-intestinal-lamina-propria
#2
Nada Abdellah, Samuel Van Remoortel, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Mohamed-Nabil Mostafa, Yasser A Ahmed, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Roeland Buckinx
Neuropeptides AF (NPAF), FF (NPFF) and SF (NPSF) are RFamide neuropeptides known to be widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, where they fulfill a wide range of functions with pain modulation being the most prominent one. Recent evidence indicates that RFamides act as mediators in mast cell-sensory nerve communications related to allergic disease. Previous work by our group has shown that the expression levels of some members of the Mas-related gene receptor (Mrgpr) family in both enteric neurons and mucosal mast cells change during intestinal inflammation...
January 18, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346315/dietary-total-prenylflavonoids-from-the-fruits-of-psoralea-corylifolia-l-prevents-age-related-cognitive-deficits-and-down-regulates-alzheimer-s-markers-in-samp8-mice
#3
Zhi-Jing Chen, Yan-Fang Yang, Ying-Tao Zhang, Dong-Hui Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious threat for the aging society. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of the total prenylflavonoids (TPFB) prepared from the dried fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L., using an age-related AD mouse model SAMP8. We found that long-term dietary TPFB at 50 mg/kg·day significantly improved cognitive performance of the SAMP8 mice in Morris water maze tests, similar to 150 mg/kg·day of resveratrol, a popular neuro-protective compound. Furthermore, TPFB treatment showed significant improvements in various AD markers in SAMP8 brains, which were restored to near control levels of the normal mice, SAMR1...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344418/advances-in-the-studies-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-extract-on-aging-related-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Wei Zuo, Feng Yan, Bo Zhang, Jiantao Li, Dan Mei
The prevalence of degenerative disorders in public health has promoted in-depth investigations of the underlying pathogenesis and the development of new treatment drugs. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb) is obtained from Ginkgo biloba leaves and has been used for thousands of years. In recent decades, both basic and clinical studies have established the effects of EGb. It is widely used in various degenerative diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, macroangiopathy and more. Here, we reviewed several pharmacological mechanisms of EGb, including its antioxidant properties, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunctions, and effect on apoptosis...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344074/proceedings-of-the-38th-annual-upper-midwest-neuro-ophthalmology-group-meeting-july-28-2017-chicago-illinois-usa
#5
Jonathan D Trobe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344060/neuro-ophthalmic-presentation-of-neuro-sweet-disease
#6
Padmaja Sudhakar, Stuart Tobin, William O Connor, Sachin Kedar
Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet syndrome) is a systemic inflammatory condition usually associated with autoimmune or neoplastic processes and characterised by inflammatory dermatologic lesions such as erythematous plaques and papules associated with fever and leukocytosis. Neurological and ophthalmological involvement is rare. The authors describe an unusual case of Sweet syndrome associated with microscopic polyangiitis presenting with papilloedema, anterior uveitis, and skin rash. Years later, he developed acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344059/retinitis-pigmentosa-sine-pigmento-mimicking-a-chiasm-disease
#7
Francesco Pellegrini, Giovanni Prosdocimo, Francesco Romano, Emanuela Interlandi
A 75-year-old woman presented to her ophthalmologist complaining of visual loss for several years. The ophthalmic examination was remarkable for a bitemporal visual field defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain was normal without evidence of chiasm compression. Neuro-ophthalmic examination was consistent with a retinal rather than a chiasmal disease. Retinal multimodal imaging helped in the correct diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa, later confirmed by genetic testing.
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343269/microglial-activation-mediates-chronic-mild-stress-induced-depressive-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#8
Ya-Lin Wang, Qiu-Qin Han, Wen-Qing Gong, Dong-Hui Pan, Li-Zheng Wang, Wei Hu, Min Yang, Bing Li, Jin Yu, Qiong Liu
BACKGROUND: Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, with the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease yet to be discovered. Recent work suggests it is accompanied by neuro-inflammation, characterized, in particular, by microglial activation. However, microglial activation and its involvement in neuro-inflammation and stress-related depressive disorders are far from understood. METHODS: We utilized multiple detection methods to detect the neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus of rats after exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342484/-neuro-ophthalmogical-aspects-of-driving-ability
#9
Klaus Rohrschneider
The requirements regarding visual functioning needed for driving ability are stipulated in Annex 6 of the German driving licence regulations: In case of a visual disorder an ophthalmological assessment is essential: It is of crucial importance for the examining ophthalmologist to exhaust all ocular-medical possibilities to enable the applicant to maintain or regain his driving permission. In the overwhelming majority of the cases this is eminently feasible.However, there is no way to attest driving ability in a patient suffering acute one-sided visual loss for a period of 3 months on the basis of legal recommendations...
January 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342314/fatigue-is-a-relevant-outcome-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis
#10
Christopher Tran, Vera Bril, Hans D Katzberg, Carolina Barnett
INTRODUCTION: Patients with myasthenia gravis often experience fatigue, but its effect on quality of life (QoL) is underestimated, and fatigue is rarely measured in clinical trials. METHODS: 257 myasthenic patients completed the Neuro-QoL-Fatigue and measures of disease severity and QoL. We studied the relationship between fatigue, clinical, and demographic variables. Finally, we studied the responsiveness of the Neuro-QoL-Fatigue in 95 patients receiving treatments for myasthenia, and estimated the minimal important difference (MID)...
January 17, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#11
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342105/neuroimmune-driven-neuropathic-pain-establishment-a-focus-on-gender-differences
#12
REVIEW
Vincenzo Coraggio, Francesca Guida, Serena Boccella, Mariantonietta Scafuro, Salvatore Paino, Domenico Romano, Sabatino Maione, Livio Luongo
The role of neuroinflammatory cells in the establishment of neuropathic pain has been investigated in depth in the last few years. In particular, microglia have been shown to be key players in the induction of tactile allodynia, as they release proinflammatory molecules that, in turn, sensitize nociceptive neurons within the spinal cord. However, the role of peripheral immune cells such as macrophages, infiltrating monocytes, mast cells, and T-cells has been highlighted in the last few studies, even though the data are still conflicting and need to be clarified...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341997/literature-commentary
#13
(no author information available yet)
In this issue of Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, M. Tariq Bhatti, MD and Mark L. Moster, MD will discuss the following 6 articles.
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341893/targeting-bdnf-modulation-by-plant-glycosides-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#14
REVIEW
Haroon Khan, Surriya Amin, Seema Patel
Current therapies in clinical practice face strong criticism regarding their efficacy, and side effects, which forced the neuro-researchers to discover novel agents with different mechanistic insights. Glycosides are naturally-occurring plant secondary metabolites with significant medicinal potential and clinical scope as antidepressant. The aim of this review is to focus on the antidepressant effects of glycosides in preclinical studies, with an emphasis on the possible mechanisms. The literature search revealed that only a few phytoglycosides have been evaluated for their relevance in depression alleviation...
January 13, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341803/licorice-pretreatment-protects-against-brain-damage-induced-by-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#15
Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Byoungho Lee, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho
Licorice is extracted from the roots of plants in the Glycyrrhiza genus, especially Glycyrrhiza uralensis in China and Korea. It has several pharmacological activities, including neuro-protective, anti-fungal, and anti-cariogenic effects. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury is a leading cause of adult disability and death; thus, the identification of anti-apoptotic, neuro-protective therapeutic agents is viewed as an attractive drug development strategy. Infarct volumes and the expression of several apoptosis-related proteins, including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, caspase-8, and caspase-9, were evaluated by western blotting in the brains of mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341414/post-translational-incorporation-of-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-into-the-c-terminus-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-in-living-cells
#16
Yanela M Dentesano, Yanina Ditamo, Cristian Hansen, Carlos A Arce, C Gastón Bisig
The C-terminal tyrosine (Tyr) of the α-tubulin chain is subjected to post-translational removal and re-addition in a process termed the "detyrosination/tyrosination cycle". We showed in previous studies using soluble rat brain extracts that L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) is incorporated into the same site as Tyr. We now demonstrate that L-Dopa incorporation into tubulin also occurs in living cells. We detected such incorporation by determining the "tyrosination state" of tubulin before and after incubation of cells in the presence of L-Dopa...
January 17, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341379/erector-spinae-plane-block-for-inguinal-hernia-repair-in-preterm-infants
#17
Maria A Hernandez, Lucio Palazzi, Julio Lapalma, Joseph Cravero
Neuro-axial anesthesia has been the preferred technique for inguinal hernia repair when attempting to avoid general anesthesia in neonates and preterm infants. We present a case where an erector spinae plane block was used successfully for this surgery. Hemodynamic stability, minimal anesthetic requirements, and excellent pain control were documented. This block promises to be a valuable and safe alternative for inguinal hernia repair, accompanying the path of neuroprotective anesthesia.
January 17, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340286/cancer-imaging-phenomics-toolkit-quantitative-imaging-analytics-for-precision-diagnostics-and-predictive-modeling-of-clinical-outcome
#18
Christos Davatzikos, Saima Rathore, Spyridon Bakas, Sarthak Pati, Mark Bergman, Ratheesh Kalarot, Patmaa Sridharan, Aimilia Gastounioti, Nariman Jahani, Eric Cohen, Hamed Akbari, Birkan Tunc, Jimit Doshi, Drew Parker, Michael Hsieh, Aristeidis Sotiras, Hongming Li, Yangming Ou, Robert K Doot, Michel Bilello, Yong Fan, Russell T Shinohara, Paul Yushkevich, Ragini Verma, Despina Kontos
The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339644/changes-in-central-macular-thickness-and-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-eyes-with-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#19
Yong-Seop Han, Kyung-Sup Shin, Woo-Hyuk Lee, Jung-Yeul Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the central macular thickness (CMT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in eyes with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease associated with optic disc swelling and serous retinal detachment through a 24-month follow-up period. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 28 eyes of 14 treatment-naïve patients with acute VKH disease associated with optic disc swelling and serous retinal detachment and 30 eyes of 15 normal individuals to compare changes in the CMT and average RNFL thickness...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339344/analysis-and-evaluation-of-neuro-peptides-in-honey-bees-exposed-to-pesticides-in-field-conditions
#20
María Del Mar Gómez-Ramos, María José Gómez Ramos, María Martínez Galera, María Dolores Gil García, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
During the last years, declines in honey bee colonies are being registered worldwide. Cholinergic pesticides and their extensive use have been correlated to the decline of pollinators and there is evidence that pesticides act as neuroendocrine disruptors affecting the metabolism of neuropeptides. However, there is a big absence of studies with quantitative results correlating the effect of pesticide exposure with changes on neuropeptides insects, and most of them are conducted under laboratory conditions, typically with individual active ingredients...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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