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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342901/the-sympathetic-neuro-adipose-connection-and-the-control-of-body-weight
#1
REVIEW
Inês Mahú, Ana I Domingos
In recent decades, obesity has become a global public health crisis irrespective of age or gender [21]. But according to historic records, concerns over appropriate maintenance of body size have been long established. For more than to 2 millennia, the main therapeutic approach to curb excess weight has been to recommend dietary restrictions and regular exercise (Haslam, 2016). Nevertheless, more contemporary studies indicate that the employment of such approaches in the treatment of severely obese patients causes metabolic adaptions which impair their long-term success in weight management [8]...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342781/modulation-of-neuroinflammation-the-role-and-therapeutic-potential-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-in-neuro-immune-axis
#2
REVIEW
Wei-Lin Kong, Yuan-Yuan Peng, Bi-Wen Peng
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1), as a ligand-gated non-selective cation channel, has recently been demonstrated to have wide expression in the neuro-immune axis, where its multiple functions occur through regulation of both neuronal and non-neuronal activities. Growing evidence has suggested that TRPV1 is functionally expressed in glial cells, especially in the microglia and astrocytes. Glial cells perform immunological functions in response to pathophysiological challenges through pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in which TRPV1 is involved...
March 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337948/software-version-of-roland-morris-disability-questionnaire-for-outcome-assessment-in-low-back-pain
#3
Sumeet G Pawar, P S Ramani, Apurva Prasad, Arjun Dhar, Sudhendoo S Babhulkar, Yogesh A Bahurupi
BACKGROUND: Developing and using the software version of existing validated paper version of patient-related outcome can go a long way in saving cost, time and effort. However, the equivalence of paper version and software versions cannot be assumed. The aim of the study is to test the equivalence between paper version and software version of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and its acceptability among patients. METHODS: This is a within-subject cross over equivalence study...
March 24, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337642/the-small-heat-shock-proteins-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-hspb5-and-hsp27-hspb1-inhibit-the-intracellular-aggregation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#4
Dezerae Cox, Heath Ecroyd
Protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is the process of maintaining the conformational and functional integrity of the proteome. Proteostasis is preserved in the face of stress by a complex network of cellular machinery, including the small heat shock molecular chaperone proteins (sHsps), which act to inhibit the aggregation and deposition of misfolded protein intermediates. Despite this, the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases has been inextricably linked with the amyloid fibrillar aggregation and deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn)...
March 23, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#5
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336920/xiaoyaosan-exerts-anxiolytic-like-effects-by-down-regulating-the-tnf-%C3%AE-jak2-stat3-pathway-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#6
Xiao-Juan Li, Qing-Yu Ma, You-Ming Jiang, Xiao-Hui Bai, Zhi-Yi Yan, Qun Liu, Qiu-Xia Pan, Yue-Yun Liu, Jia-Xu Chen
Although the anxiolytic-like effects of Xiaoyaosan, a Chinese herbal formula, have been described in many previous studies, its underlying mechanism remains undefined. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its closely associated janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signalling pathway regulate the neuro-inflammatory response in the brain, thus participating in the development of anxiety. Our purpose was to investigate whether the anxiolytic-like effects of Xiaoyaosan are related to the TNF-α/JAK2-STAT3 pathway in the hippocampus...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334859/neurocognitive-function-of-school-aged-hiv-infected-children-in-enugu-nigeria
#7
Kenechukwu K Iloh, Ifeoma J Emodi, Ngozi S Ibeziako, Anthony N Ikefuna, Agozie C Ubesie, Ogochukwu N Iloh, Gideon C Ilechukwu, Adaeze C Ayuk
Background: Evidence has shown neurocognitive problems often exist among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. There are limited data for children in Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 school-aged perinatally HIV-infected children seen in the paediatric HIV clinic and age/sex-matched controls from the general paediatric clinic. Neuro-cognitive functioning was assessed using the Raven's progressive matrices (RPM) that has been adapted for the Nigerian population...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333589/a-unified-theory-of-neuro-mri-data-shows-scale-free-nature-of-connectivity-modes
#8
Vitaly L Galinsky, Lawrence R Frank
A primary goal of many neuroimaging studies that use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to deduce the structure-function relationships in the human brain using data from the three major neuro-MRI modalities: high-resolution anatomical, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI. To date, the general procedure for analyzing these data is to combine the results derived independently from each of these modalities. In this article, we develop a new theoretical and computational approach for combining these different MRI modalities into a powerful and versatile framework that combines our recently developed methods for morphological shape analysis and segmentation, simultaneous local diffusion estimation and global tractography, and nonlinear and nongaussian spatial-temporal activation pattern classification and ranking, as well as our fast and accurate approach for nonlinear registration between modalities...
March 23, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332134/clinical-characteristics-of-bladder-cancer-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-the-experience-from-a-single-centre
#9
Ralf Böthig, Ines Kurze, Kai Fiebag, Albert Kaufmann, Wolfgang Schöps, Thura Kadhum, Michael Zellner, Klaus Golka
INTRODUCTION: Life expectancy for people with spinal cord injury has shown a marked increase due to modern advances in treatment methods and in neuro-urology. However, since life expectancy of people with paralysis increases, the risk of developing of urinary bladder cancer is gaining importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-centre retrospective evaluation of patient data with spinal cord injuries and proven urinary bladder cancer and summary of the literature...
March 22, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332073/aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome-unusual-neuro-radiological-manifestations
#10
Ghada M H Abdel-Salam, Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid, Shaimaa A Mohammad, Sherif F Abdel-Ghafar, Doaa R Soliman, Hala T El-Bassyouni, Laila Effat, Maha S Zaki
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is one of the expanding group of inherited congenital infection like syndromes. Here, we describe the detailed clinical and imaging findings of two sibs with AGS. Each shows scattered periventricular intracranial calcifications, severe global delay, seizures, microcephaly and spasticity. Interestingly, chilblains were observed in the two sisters as well as their parents and a paternal uncle. The brain MRI of the older sister showed marked ventricular dilatation as a result of unusual associated porencephalic cysts...
March 23, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331560/introducing-crucial-protein-panel-of-gastric-adenocarcinoma-disease
#11
Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid Rezaei-Tavirani, Vahid Mansouri, Seyed Mohammad Mahdavi, Reza Valizadeh, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad Reza Zali
AIM: Since interactome analysis of diseases can provide candidate biomarker panel related to the diseases, in this research, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis is used to introduce the involved crucial proteins in Gastric adenocarcinoma (GA). BACKGROUND: Gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) is the most common type of stomach cancer. There is no efficient diagnostic molecular method for GA. METHOD: Applying Cytoscape software 3.4.0 and String Database, the PPI network was constructed for 200 genes...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331360/clear-differences-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-between-women-with-chronic-widespread-pain-and-healthy-women-a-multivariate-explorative-cross-sectional-study
#12
Patrik Olausson, Bijar Ghafouri, Emmanuel Bäckryd, Björn Gerdle
INTRODUCTION: Frequent chronic local pain can develop into chronic widespread pain (CWP). The spread of pain is correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, and depression, conditions that ultimately lead to a poor quality of life. Knowledge is incomplete about CWP's etiology, although it has been suggested that both central hyperexcitability and/or a combination with peripheral factors may be involved. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could act as a mirror for the central nervous system as proteins are signal substances that activate the formation of algesics and control nociceptive processes...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#13
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329104/vascular-cerebral-damage-in-frail-older-adults-the-amimage-study
#14
José Alberto Avila-Funes, Amandine Pelletier, Céline Meillon, Gwénaëlle Catheline, Olivier Periot, Irene Trevin O-Frenk, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Jean-François Dartigues, Karine Pérès, Michèle Allard, Bixente Dilharreguy, Hélène Amieva
Background: Frailty has been associated with increased risk of adverse-health related outcomes including cognitive impairment. However, little is know about the pathogenesis relating frailty to cognitive decline. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between vascular cerebral damage and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 176 community-dwelling participants aged 67-86 years, participating in the AMImage Study, an ancillary neuro-imaging project of the AMI cohort, a French prospective cohort including older farmers living in rural areas...
January 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328648/the-economic-and-clinical-impact-of-sustained-use-of-a-progressive-mobility-program-in-a-neuro-icu
#15
Jeannette M Hester, Peggy R Guin, Gale D Danek, Jaime R Thomas, William L Titsworth, Richard K Reed, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Brenda G Fahy
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a progressive mobility program in a neurocritical care population with the hypothesis that the benefits and outcomes of the program (e.g., decreased length of stay) would have a significant positive economic impact. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of economic and clinical outcome data before, immediately following, and 2 years after implementation of the Progressive Upright Mobility Protocol Plus program (UF Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL) involving a series of planned movements in a sequential manner with an additional six levels of rehabilitation in the neuro-ICU at UF Health Shands Hospital...
March 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326896/investigating-the-effect-of-regional-native-accents-on-sentence-comprehension-in-children-with-language-impairment
#16
Pauline Frizelle, Jennifer Harte, Paul Fletcher, Fiona Gibbon
PURPOSE: Research has shown that accent variation can affect typically developing (TD) children's understanding of language, as well as that of children with speech difficulties, neuro-typical adults and those with aphasia and dementia. This study aims to investigate the effect of regional native accents on sentence comprehension in children with language impairment (LI), an area not previously explored. METHOD: Forty-three children with LI (mean age 6.04) and forty-five younger TD children (mean age 4...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326012/androgen-receptor-regulates-the-growth-of-neuroblastoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Junyan Sun, Dongmei Wang, Lianying Guo, Shengyun Fang, Yang Wang, Rong Xing
Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumors in children. At present about the true etiology of neuroblastoma is unclear and many studies have tried to find effective treatments for these primary malignant tumors. Although it has been illustrated that androgen receptor (AR) was expressed in neuroblastoma cells in some former reports, the biological role of androgen receptor in the development of neuroblastoma is not fully understood. Methods: Androgen (R1881) and the antagonists of androgen receptor (MDV3100 and ARN509) were used to study the role of the androgen receptor signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo on SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a (N2a) cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325997/a-comprehensive-approach-in-high-grade-glioma-management-position-statement-from-the-neuro-oncology-scientific-club-nosc-shiraz-iran
#18
REVIEW
Mansour Ansari, Ahmad Mosalaei, Niloufar Ahmadloo, Alireza Rasekhi, Bita Geramizadeh, Ali Razmkon, Kazem Anvari, Mohammad Afarid, Ali Dadras, Leila Nafarieh, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah, Hamid Nasrolahi, Seyed Hasan Hamedi, Shapour Omidvari, Mohammad Nami
Establishing a robust teamwork model in the practice of neuro-oncology requires continued interdisciplinary efforts. The Neuro-Oncology Scientific Club (NOSC) initiative is an interdisciplinary clinical forum promoting the comprehensive approach across involved disciplines in the management of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. With its provincial founding panels and national steering board, NOSC has been operational in Iran since 2011. This initiative has pursued its mission through interval strategic meetings, tumor boards, case discussions as well as publishing neuro-oncology updates, case study periodicals, and newsletters...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325513/effectiveness-of-biplane-angiography-compared-to-monoplane-angiography-for-vascular-neuro-interventions-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
C A Bellemare, T G Poder
AIM: To compare biplane technology to monoplane technology for vascular neuro-intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Scopus, and ScienceDirect was conducted without date or language restrictions. The Downs and Black quality-assessment checklist was used. The findings of this systematic review were combined with local and Canadian data. RESULTS: The nine articles selected for analysis had a very low level of evidence...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325438/fetal-ecg-extraction-via-type-2-adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-inference-systems
#20
Hajar Ahmadieh, Babak Mohammadzadeh Asl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We proposed a noninvasive method for separating the fetal ECG (FECG) from maternal ECG (MECG) by using Type-2 adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems. METHODS: The method can extract FECG components from abdominal signal by using one abdominal channel, including maternal and fetal cardiac signals and other environmental noise signals, and one chest channel. The proposed algorithm detects the nonlinear dynamics of the mother's body. So, the components of the MECG are estimated from the abdominal signal...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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