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Vaibhav Rastogi, Devina Singh, Joseph J Mazza, Dennis Yang, Dipendra Parajuli, Steven H Yale
Flushing is the subjective sensation of warmth accompanied by visible cutaneous erythema occurring throughout the body with a predilection for the face, neck, pinnae, and upper trunk where the skin is thinnest and cutaneous vessels are superficially located and in greatest numbers. Flushing can be present in either a wet or dry form depending upon whether neural-mediated mechanisms are involved. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in wet flushing, accompanied by diaphoresis, due to concomitant stimulation of eccrine sweat glands...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Medicine & Research
Lu Yang, Yun Li, Arup Bhattacharya, Yuesheng Zhang
p53 tumor suppressor responds to various cellular stresses and regulates cell fate. Here, we show that peptidase D (PEPD) binds and suppresses over half of nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 under normal conditions, independent of its enzymatic activity. Eliminating PEPD causes cell death and tumor regression due to p53 activation. PEPD binds to the proline-rich domain in p53, which inhibits phosphorylation of nuclear p53 and MDM2-mediated mitochondrial translocation of nuclear and cytoplasmic p53. However, the PEPD-p53 complex is critical for p53 response to stress, as stress signals doxorubicin and H2 O2 each must free p53 from PEPD in order to achieve robust p53 activation, which is mediated by reactive oxygen species...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
George Th Tsangaris, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
Proteomics, through application of modern high-end mass spectrometric (MS) approaches, offers the advantage of in-depth analysis of cancer tissues regarding their protein composition. Pediatric brain tumor malignancies are scarcely approached by modern holistic technologies (e.g. genomics, proteomics) due to rarity of samples and most importantly difficulty in their collection. Ependymoma, is the third most common tumor in children and is thought to arise from ependymal cells in the wall of the cerebral ventricles or the spinal canal...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Yue-Ming Zheng, Wan-Fu Wang, Yan-Fen Li, Yong Yu, Zhao-Bing Gao
The Nav1.7 channel represents a promising target for pain relief. In the recent decades, a number of Nav1.7 channel inhibitors have been developed. According to the effects on channel kinetics, these inhibitors could be divided into two major classes: reducing activation or enhancing inactivation. To date, however, only several inhibitors have moved forward into phase 2 clinical trials and most of them display a less than ideal analgesic efficacy, thus intensifying the controversy regarding if an ideal candidate should preferentially affect the activation or inactivation state...
November 2, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Bruno Martino, Corrado Mammì, Claudia Labate, Silvia Rodi, Domenica Ielo, Manuela Priolo, Maurizio Postorino, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Ronco, Carmelo Laganà, Caterina Musolino, Marianna Greco, Giorgio La Nasa, Giovanni Caocci
Impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes represent adverse events in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. An unweighted genetic risk score (uGRS) for the prediction of insulin resistance, consisting of 10 multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms, has been proposed. We evaluated uGRS predictivity in 61 CML patients treated with nilotinib. Patients were genotyped for IRS1, GRB14, ARL15, PPARG, PEPD, ANKRD55/MAP3K1, PDGFC, LYPLAL1, RSPO3, and FAM13A1 genes...
November 2017: Experimental Hematology
Wei-Qi Wei, Lisa A Bastarache, Robert J Carroll, Joy E Marlo, Travis J Osterman, Eric R Gamazon, Nancy J Cox, Dan M Roden, Joshua C Denny
OBJECTIVE: To compare three groupings of Electronic Health Record (EHR) billing codes for their ability to represent clinically meaningful phenotypes and to replicate known genetic associations. The three tested coding systems were the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Clinical Classification Software for ICD-9-CM (CCS), and manually curated "phecodes" designed to facilitate phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) in EHRs...
2017: PloS One
Sherly X Li, Fumiaki Imamura, Zheng Ye, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Eva Ardanaz, Larraitz Arriola, Heiner Boeing, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Paul W Franks, Antonio Agudo, Sara Grioni, Rudolf Kaaks, Verena A Katzke, Timothy J Key, Kay Tee Khaw, Francesca R Mancini, Carmen Navarro, Peter M Nilsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, J Ramón Quirós, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, María-José Sánchez, Nadia Slimani, Ivonne Sluijs, Annemieke Mw Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Stephen J Sharp, Elio Riboli, Claudia Langenberg, Robert A Scott, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
Background: Gene-diet interactions have been reported to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to our knowledge, few examples have been consistently replicated to date. Objective: We aimed to identify existing evidence for gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D and to examine the reported interactions in a large-scale study. Design: We systematically reviewed studies reporting gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D. We searched the MEDLINE, Human Genome Epidemiology Network, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform electronic databases to identify studies published up to October 2015...
July 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jonathan P Hintze, Amelia Kirby, Erin Torti, Jacqueline R Batanian
Prolidase deficiency (PD) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the peptidase D (PEPD) gene, affecting collagen degradation. Features include lower extremity ulcers, facial dysmorphism, frequent respiratory infections, and intellectual disability, though there is significant intra- and interfamilial variability. Twenty-eight mutations have been previously reported, all either small deletions/duplications or point mutations discovered by enzyme or DNA assays. PD has been reported in patients of various ethnic backgrounds, but never in the Mexican-American population...
May 2016: Molecular Syndromology
Martin Hampl, Esther Eberhardt, Andrias O O'Reilly, Angelika Lampert
Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 are linked to inherited pain syndromes such as erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). PEPD mutations impair Nav1.7 fast inactivation and increase persistent currents. PEPD mutations also increase resurgent currents, which involve the voltage-dependent release of an open channel blocker. In contrast, IEM mutations, whenever tested, leave resurgent currents unchanged. Accordingly, the IEM deletion mutation L955 (ΔL955) fails to produce resurgent currents despite enhanced persistent currents, which have hitherto been considered a prerequisite for resurgent currents...
May 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jacqueline M Achkar, Laetitia Cortes, Pascal Croteau, Corey Yanofsky, Marija Mentinova, Isabelle Rajotte, Michael Schirm, Yiyong Zhou, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis, Victoria O Kasprowicz, Michelle Larsen, René Allard, Joanna Hunter, Eustache Paramithiotis
Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV(-)) and co-infected (HIV(+)) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay...
September 2015: EBioMedicine
Zedan Shen, Jian Sun, Jun Yao, Shaojie Wang, Mingquan Ding, Huilong Zhang, Zeyong Qian, Nan Zhao, Gang Sa, Rui Zhao, Xin Shen, Andrea Polle, Shaoliang Chen
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been shown to be an effective tool for investigating gene functions in herbaceous plant species, but has rarely been tested in trees. The establishment of a fast and reliable transformation system is especially important for woody plants, many of which are recalcitrant to transformation. In this study, we established a tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS system for two Populus species, Populus euphratica and P. × canescens. Here, TRV constructs carrying a 266 bp or a 558 bp fragment of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene were Agrobacterium-infiltrated into leaves of the two poplar species...
September 2015: Tree Physiology
Fernando S Goes, John McGrath, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Paula Wolyniec, Mehdi Pirooznia, Ingo Ruczinski, Gerald Nestadt, Eimear E Kenny, Vladimir Vacic, Inga Peters, Todd Lencz, Ariel Darvasi, Jennifer G Mulle, Stephen T Warren, Ann E Pulver
Schizophrenia is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder associated with lifelong morbidity and early mortality. Several genetic variants associated with schizophrenia have been identified, but the majority of the heritability remains unknown. In this study, we report on a case-control sample of Ashkenazi Jews (AJ), a founder population that may provide additional insights into genetic etiology of schizophrenia. We performed a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of 592 cases and 505 controls of AJ ancestry ascertained in the US...
December 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Kirk J Lubick, Shelly J Robertson, Kristin L McNally, Brett A Freedman, Angela L Rasmussen, R Travis Taylor, Avram D Walts, Seitaro Tsuruda, Mizuki Sakai, Mariko Ishizuka, Elena F Boer, Erin C Foster, Abhilash I Chiramel, Conrad B Addison, Richard Green, Daniel L Kastner, Michael G Katze, Steven M Holland, Antonella Forlino, Alexandra F Freeman, Manfred Boehm, Kentaro Yoshii, Sonja M Best
Type I interferon (IFN-α/β or IFN-I) signals through two receptor subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, to orchestrate sterile and infectious immunity. Cellular pathways that regulate IFNAR1 are often targeted by viruses to suppress the antiviral effects of IFN-I. Here we report that encephalitic flaviviruses, including tick-borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, antagonize IFN-I signaling by inhibiting IFNAR1 surface expression. Loss of IFNAR1 was associated with binding of the viral IFN-I antagonist, NS5, to prolidase (PEPD), a cellular dipeptidase implicated in primary immune deficiencies in humans...
July 8, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Ju-Sheng Zheng, Tao Huang, Kelei Li, Yanqiu Chen, Hua Xie, Danfeng Xu, Jianqin Sun, Duo Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is modulated by the interactions between genetic and dietary factors. This study sought to examine whether the associations of genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified genetic variants with T2D risk were modulated by n-3 fatty acids in Chinese Hans. METHODS: Six hundred and twenty-two T2D patients and 293 healthy controls were recruited. Erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids were measured by standard methods. Nine GWAS-identified T2D-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped...
2015: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
Lu Yang, Yun Li, Arup Bhattacharya, Yuesheng Zhang
ERBB2 is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a subset of human breast cancer and other cancers. We recently found that human prolidase (PEPD), a dipeptidase, is a high affinity ERBB2 ligand and cross-links two ERBB2 monomers. Here, we show that recombinant human PEPD (rhPEPD) strongly inhibits ERBB2-overexpressing tumors in mice, whereas it does not impact tumors without ERBB2 overexpression. rhPEPD causes ERBB2 depletion, disrupts oncogenic signaling orchestrated by ERBB2 homodimers and heterodimers, and induces apoptosis...
May 1, 2015: EBioMedicine
Edward C Emery, Abdella M Habib, James J Cox, Adeline K Nicholas, Fiona M Gribble, C Geoffrey Woods, Frank Reimann
The importance of NaV1.7 (encoded by SCN9A) in the regulation of pain sensing is exemplified by the heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes associated with its mutation. Gain-of-function mutations are typically pain-causing and have been associated with inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). IEM is usually caused by enhanced NaV1.7 channel activation, whereas mutations that alter steady-state fast inactivation often lead to PEPD. In contrast, nonfunctional mutations in SCN9A are known to underlie congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP)...
May 20, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Frank L Rice, Phillip J Albrecht, James P Wymer, Joel A Black, Ingemar Sj Merkies, Catharina G Faber, Stephen G Waxman
BACKGROUND: The skin is a morphologically complex organ that serves multiple complementary functions, including an important role in thermoregulation, which is mediated by a rich vasculature that is innervated by sympathetic and sensory endings. Two autosomal dominant disorders characterized by episodes of severe pain, inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD) have been directly linked to mutations that enhance the function of sodium channel Nav1.7. Pain attacks are accompanied by reddening of the skin in both disorders...
2015: Molecular Pain
Noboru Imai, Noriko Miyake, Yoshiaki Saito, Emiko Kobayashi, Masako Ikawa, Shinya Manaka, Masaaki Shiina, Kazuhiro Ogata, Naomichi Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: We encountered a 5-year-old girl who had short-lasting, severe, unilateral temporal headaches with ipsilateral lacrimation, nasal congestion and rhinorrhoea, and facial flushing after severe attacks. Family history revealed similar short-lasting, severe headaches in an older brother, younger sister, mother, maternal aunt, and maternal grandfather's brother. METHODS: We performed routine laboratory examinations and electrophysiological and radiological studies for three children, and whole-exome sequencing to determine the genetic causality in this family...
2015: Journal of Headache and Pain
V Insolia, V M Piccolini
Prolidase gene (PEPD) encodes prolidase enzyme, which is responsible for hydrolysis of dipeptides containing proline or hydroxyproline at their C-terminal end. Mutations in PEPD gene cause, in human, prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PD patients show reduced or absent prolidase activity and a broad spectrum of phenotypic traits including various degrees of mental retardation. This is the first report correlating PD and brain damages using as a model system prolidase deficient mice, the so called dark-like (dal) mutant mice...
2014: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Marc R Suter, Zahurul A Bhuiyan, Cédric J Laedermann, Thierry Kuntzer, Muriel Schaller, Maurice W Stauffacher, Eliane Roulet, Hugues Abriel, Isabelle Decosterd, Christian Wider
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the SCN9A gene cause chronic pain and pain insensitivity syndromes. We aimed to study clinical, genetic, and electrophysiological features of paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD) caused by a novel SCN9A mutation. METHODS: Description of a 4-generation family suffering from PEPD with clinical, genetic and electrophysiological studies including patch clamp experiments assessing response to drug and temperature. RESULTS: The family was clinically comparable to those reported previously with the exception of a favorable effect of cold exposure and a lack of drug efficacy including with carbamazepine, a proposed treatment for PEPD...
February 2015: Anesthesiology
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