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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656247/distribution-source-and-risk-of-organochlorine-pesticides-ocps-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-urban-and-rural-soils-around-the-yellow-and-bohai-seas-china
#1
Qifeng Li, Yonglong Lu, Pei Wang, Tieyu Wang, Yueqing Zhang, Sarvajayakesavalu Suriyanarayanan, Ruoyu Liang, Yvette Baninla, Kifayatullah Khan
Between 1945 and 1983, China was the world's largest producer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the second largest producer of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). The provinces of Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, and Jiangsu around the Yellow and Bohai Seas have a long history of production and usage of OCPs and PCBs. To investigate their residual concentration, distribution, risk level, and temporal degradation, 7 OCPs and 7 indicator PCBs were determined in surface soils collected around the Yellow and Bohai Seas...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655864/comparison-of-the-severity-of-respiratory-disease-in-children-testing-positive-for-enterovirus-d68-and-human-rhinovirus
#2
Esra Caylan, Ezra Weinblatt, John Welter, Allen Dozor, Guiqing Wang, Sheila M Nolan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics and severity of respiratory disease in children testing positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) and for human rhinovirus (RhV). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective single center study of children presenting with acute respiratory symptoms and positive polymerase chain reaction for RhV/EV from September 1, 2014 through October 31, 2014 was performed. Specimens were subsequently tested specifically for EV-D68 and specimens identified as RhV were subtyped when possible into RhV-A, RhV-B, and RhV-C species...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655797/pulmonary-administration-of-a-dry-powder-formulation-of-the-antifibrotic-drug-tilorone-reduces-silica-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice
#3
Ville Vartiainen, Janne Raula, Luis M Bimbo, Jenni Viinamäki, Janne T Backman, Nurcin Ugur, Esko Kauppinen, Eva Sutinen, Emmi Joensuu, Katri Koli, Marjukka Myllärniemi
The aim of this work was to study the antifibrotic effect of pulmonary administration of tilorone to lung fibrosis. L-leucine coated tilorone particles were prepared and their aerosolization properties were analyzed using two dry powder inhalers (Easyhaler and Twister). In addition, the biological activity and cell monolayer permeation was tested. The antifibrotic effect of tilorone delivered by oropharyngeal aspiration was studied in vivo using a silica-induced model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice in a preventive setting...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653218/comparing-ran-out-status-of-inhaled-short-acting-beta-agonists-in-emergency-department-patients-with-acute-asthma-1996-1998-versus-2015-2017
#4
Tadahiro Goto, Carlos A Camargo, Catalina Gimenez-Zapiola, Daniel J Pallin, Nathan I Shapiro, Thomas J Ferro, Carolyn Rainville, Stanislav Stoyanov, Kohei Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence including running out of inhaled asthma medications, is an important problem. OBJECTIVE: To examine the changes in the proportion of adults with acute asthma who ran out of their short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) inhalers before presenting to the emergency department (ED) between 1996-1998 and 2015-2017. METHODS: We analyzed data from prospective multicenter observational cohort studies of ED adult patients (aged 18-54 years) with acute asthma...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653129/delivering-drugs-to-the-lungs-the-history-of-repurposing-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#5
Stephen P Newman
The repurposing of drug delivery by the pulmonary route has been applied to treatment and prophylaxis of an increasingly wide range of respiratory diseases. Repurposing has been most successful for the delivery of inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Repurposing utilizes the advantages that the pulmonary route offers in terms of more targeted delivery to the site of action, the use of smaller doses, and a lower incidence of side-effects...
April 10, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652814/health-risk-assessment-on-hazardous-ingredients-in-household-deodorizing-products
#6
Minjin Lee, Joo-Hyon Kim, Daeyeop Lee, Jaewoo Kim, Hyunwoo Lim, Jungkwan Seo, Young-Kwon Park
The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652181/trends-and-substance-use-associations-with-e-cigarette-use-in-us-adolescents
#7
Kelly A Curran, Thad Burk, Paulette D Pitt, Amy B Middleman
Concerns exist that e-cigarette use may introduce adolescents to drugs. This study explores trends and associations of inhaled tobacco use with drug use. We performed a secondary data analysis on the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey examining the inhaled tobacco and drug use patterns among US teens. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using bivariate and multivariate analyses between inhaled tobacco use with other drug use, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and gender. When adjusting for gender, age, and race/ethnicity, teens who use only e-cigarettes had a higher odds than peers who do not use any inhaled tobacco products to have ever tried marijuana or alcohol, currently use marijuana or alcohol, have lifetime drug use, and misused prescription medications...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652032/prevalence-and-clinical-predictors-of-lpr-among-patients-diagnosed-with-gerd-according-to-the-reflux-symptom-index-questionnaire
#8
Mahmoud Mosli, Bashaer Alkhathlan, Abdulmalik Abumohssin, Mazin Merdad, Ameen Alherabi, Osama Marglani, Hani Jawa, Talal Alkhatib, Hani Z Marzouki
Background/Aims: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition that can lead to significant morbidity. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a distinct clinical entity that can occur simultaneously with GERD, necessitating additional treatment measures. The degree of overlap and clinical predictors of LPR among patients with GERD remains unknown. We aim to measure the prevalence of LPR in patients with GERD and identify clinical predictors. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study involving patients with confirmed GERD according to the GERD questionnaire (GerdQ) using the reflux symptom index (RSI)...
April 13, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651868/the-mandate-and-work-of-icrp-committee-2-on-doses-from-radiation-exposure
#9
J D Harrison
The practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of radiological protection requires the availability of appropriate methodology and data. Over many years, ICRP Committee 2 has provided sets of dose coefficients to allow users to evaluate equivalent and effective doses for radiation exposures of workers and members of the public. The methodology being applied in the calculation of doses is state-of-the-art in terms of the biokinetic models used to describe the behaviour of inhaled and ingested radionuclides, and the dosimetric models used to model radiation transport for external and internal exposures...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651835/use-of-a-probiotic-mixture-containing-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-bb12-and-enterococcus-faecium-l3-in-atopic-children
#10
Francesco Di Pierro, Isabella Basile, Maria L Danza, Leo Venturelli, Raffaele Contini, Paolo Risso, Maria Colombo
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in childhood, mainly due to low gut biodiversity and a low bifidobacterial load, has been suggested as a risk factor for atopy. Administration of Enterococcus faecium L3 in infants has been shown to increase the gut bifidobacterial count. The aim was to verify if a mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 and E. faecium L3 could reduce the signs, symptoms and need for drugs in atopic children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed, and compared with controls, clinical outcomes following use of BB12 and L3 strains when administered 3 months before or during the development of signs and symptoms of atopy...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651336/pi3k-p38-and-jak-stat-signalling-in-bronchial-tissue-from-patients-with-asthma-following-allergen-challenge
#11
Thomas Southworth, Sarah Mason, Alan Bell, Isabel Ramis, Marta Calbet, Anna Domenech, Neus Prats, Montserrat Miralpeix, Dave Singh
Background: Inhaled allergen challenges are often used to evaluate novel asthma treatments in early phase clinical trials. Current novel therapeutic targets in asthma include phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) delta and gamma, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathways. The activation of these pathways following allergen exposure in atopic asthma patients it is not known. Methods: We collected bronchial biopsies from 11 atopic asthma patients at baseline and after allergen challenge to investigate biomarkers of PI3K, p38 MAPK and JAK/STAT activation by immunohistochemistry...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651248/carbon-nanotubes-and-other-engineered-nanoparticles-induced-pathophysiology-on-mesothelial-cells-and-mesothelial-membranes
#12
REVIEW
Sotirios I Sinis, Chrissi Hatzoglou, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Sotirios G Zarogiannis
Nanoparticles have great potential for numerous applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. However, concerns have been raised that they may induce deleterious effects on biological systems. There is accumulating evidence that, like asbestos, inhaled nanomaterials of >5 μm and high aspect ratio (3:1), particularly rod-like carbon nanotubes, may inflict pleural disease including mesothelioma. Additionally, a recent set of case reports suggests that inhalation of polyacrylate/nanosilica could in part be associated with inflammation and fibrosis of the pleura of factory workers...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650761/once-daily-triple-therapy-inhaler-for-copd
#13
(no author information available yet)
▼Trelegy Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler containing fluticasone furoate (inhaled corticosteroid [ICS]), vilanterol trifenatate (long-acting beta2 agonist [LABA]) and umeclidinium bromide (long-acting muscarinic antagonist [LAMA]).1 It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance treatment for adults with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are not adequately treated by a combination of an ICS and a LABA. Here, we consider the evidence for this combination product and discuss how it fits with current management strategies...
April 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650563/blood-eosinophil-count-and-risk-of-pneumonia-hospitalisations-in-individuals-with-copd
#14
Signe Vedel-Krogh, Børge G Nordestgaard, Peter Lange, Jørgen Vestbo, Sune F Nielsen
Introduction: Blood eosinophil count in COPD is associated with higher exacerbation rate and favorable response to corticosteroids; however, frequent exacerbations and use of inhaled corticosteroids could also elevate pneumonia risk. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil counts are associated with high risk of pneumonia in individuals with severe COPD from the general population. Methods: We included 7,180 individuals with COPD, including 643 with FEV1 <50% of the predicted value from the Copenhagen General Population Study, from 2003-2011...
April 12, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650193/inhalation-with-bronchodilator-combination-effective-in-reducing-length-of-hospital-stay-in-children-with-pneumonia
#15
Rahma Annisa, Nani Nurhaeni, Dessie Wanda
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the correlation between inhalation therapy and length of hospital stay in children under age of five with pneumonia. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 102 consecutive patients (secondary data) with pneumonia. The patients were divided depending on the type of therapy they received: Group I used inhalation therapy with bronchodilator β-agonist + NaCl 0,9%, Group II used inhalation therapy with bronchodilator β-agonist and anticholinergic + NaCl 0,9%, Group III used inhalation therapy with NaCl 0,9%, and Group IV used no inhalation therapy...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650044/human-amnion-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-lung-injury-induced-by-white-smoke-inhalation-in-rats
#16
Pei Cui, Haiming Xin, Yongming Yao, Shichu Xiao, Feng Zhu, Zhenyu Gong, Zhiping Tang, Qiu Zhan, Wei Qin, Yanhua Lai, Xiaohui Li, Yalin Tong, Zhaofan Xia
BACKGROUND: White smoke inhalation (WSI) is an uncommon but potentially deadly cause of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome for which no effective pharmaceutical treatment has been developed. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) against WSI-induced lung injury in rats. METHODS: hAMSCs were injected into rats via the tail vein 4 h after WSI. At 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after cell injection, hAMSCs labeled with PKH26 in lung, heart, liver, and kidney tissues were observed by fluorescence microscopy...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650006/beclomethasone-dipropionate-and-formoterol-fumarate-synergistically-interact-in-hyperresponsive-medium-bronchi-and-small-airways
#17
Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Francesco Facciolo, Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids increase the expression of β2 -adrenoceptors (β2 -ARs) and protect them against down-regulation. Conversely, β2 -AR agonists improve the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain whether adding a long-acting β2 -AR agonist (LABA) to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) results in an additive effect, or there is true synergy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction between the ICS beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) and the LABA formoterol fumarate (FF) in a validated human ex vivo model of bronchial asthma...
April 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649916/patient-perception-of-breezhaler-and-ellipta-device-feedback-mechanisms-in-copd-the-advantage-study
#18
Pablo Altman, Miguel A Bergna, Gabriel R Garcia, Tadhg Guerin, Andrea V Pino, John L Whiteford
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the ADVANTAGE study was to compare device-naïve COPD patients' perception of the Breezhaler® and Ellipta® devices' feedback mechanisms of dose delivery confirmation. The secondary objective was to assess comfort with the inhalers' mouthpiece in terms of ease to form a tight seal around the mouthpiece. These objectives were achieved by using a novel, patient perception of inhaler questionnaire developed and tested during cognitive interviews of patients, by Evidera, London, United Kingdom...
April 12, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649882/local-atopy-in-childhood-adenotonsillar-hypertrophy
#19
Kyu-Sup Cho, Seong Heon Kim, Sung-Lyong Hong, Jaeyoung Lee, Sue Jean Mun, Young Eun Roh, Young Mi Kim, Hye-Young Kim
Background Although the cause of adenotonsillar hypertrophy remains unknown, some studies have shown that allergy may be a risk factor. Purpose This study determined the levels of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) in the adenotonsillar tissues of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and evaluated the clinical significance of local atopy in adenotonsillar tissues. Methods We measured 21 types of specific immunoglobulin E in the serum and adenotonsillar tissues of 102 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and compared the sensitization patterns of the serum and local tissues...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649591/inhalable-gadofullerenol-70-fullerenol-as-high-efficiency-ros-scavengers-for-pulmonary-fibrosis-therapy
#20
Yue Zhou, Mingming Zhen, Haijun Ma, Jie Li, Chunying Shu, Chunru Wang
Pulmonary fibrosis has become a fatal disease for its high incidence and few effective drugs available in clinic. In this study, gadofullerenol (GF-OH) and [70] fullerenol (C70 -OH) nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by a one-pot reaction were designed as nanomedicines to treat this fatal disease. It was revealed that the inhalation of gadofullerenols and [70] fullerenols substantially alleviates the collagen deposition induced by acute lung injury. Based on detailed studies of oxidative stress parameters and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ), we demonstrated they owned the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions for the modulation of ROS-mediated inflammation process...
April 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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