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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235354/ultra-low-carbon-nanotube-toughened-epoxy-the-critical-role-of-a-double-layer-interface
#1
Jingwei Liu, Chao Chen, Yuezhan Feng, Yonggui Liao, Yun-Sheng Ye, Xiaolin Xie, Yiu-Wing Mai
Understanding the chemistry and structure of interfaces within epoxy resins is important for studying the mechanical properties of nanofiller-filled nanocomposites as well as for developing high performance polymer nanocomposites. Despite intensive efforts to construct nanofillers/matrix interfaces, few studies have demonstrated both an enhanced stress transferring efficiency while avoiding unfavorable defor-mation, due to undesirable interface fractures. Here, we report an optimized method to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites whose interfaces are chemically modulated by poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) (PGMA-b-PHMA) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (bc@fMWNT) and also offer a fundamental explanation of crack growth behavior and the toughening mechanism of the resulting nanocomposites...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227471/inhibiting-mitochondrial-phosphate-transport-as-an-unexploited-antifungal-strategy
#2
Catherine A McLellan, Benjamin M Vincent, Norma V Solis, Alex K Lancaster, Lucas B Sullivan, Cathy L Hartland, Willmen Youngsaye, Scott G Filler, Luke Whitesell, Susan Lindquist
The development of effective antifungal therapeutics remains a formidable challenge because of the close evolutionary relationship between humans and fungi. Mitochondrial function may present an exploitable vulnerability because of its differential utilization in fungi and its pivotal roles in fungal morphogenesis, virulence, and drug resistance already demonstrated by others. We now report mechanistic characterization of ML316, a thiohydantoin that kills drug-resistant Candida species at nanomolar concentrations through fungal-selective inhibition of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier Mir1...
December 11, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223857/when-it-is-apt-to-adapt-flexible-reasoning-guides-children-s-use-of-talker-identity-and-disfluency-cues
#3
Justine M Thacker, Craig G Chambers, Susan A Graham
An eye-tracking methodology was used to examine whether children flexibly engage two voice-based cues, talker identity and disfluency, during language processing. Across two experiments, 5-year-olds (N = 58) were introduced to two characters with distinct color preferences. These characters then used fluent or disfluent instructions to refer to an object in a display containing items bearing either talker-preferred or talker-dispreferred colors. As the utterance began to unfold, the 5-year-olds anticipated that talkers would refer to talker-preferred objects...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185707/atomic-scale-choreography-of-vapor-liquid-solid-nanowire-growth
#4
Martin Ek, Michael A Filler
Functional materials and devices require nanoscale control of morphology, crystal structure, and composition. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) crystal growth and its related growth modes enable the synthesis of 1D nanostructures, commonly called "nanowires", where the necessary nanoscale heterogeneity can be encoded axially. During the VLS process, a seed particle collects atoms and directs the nucleation of crystalline material. Modulating the delivery of growth species or conditions permits compositional and/or structural encoding...
November 29, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180764/synthesis-and-implication-of-novel-poly-acrylic-acid-nanosorbent-embedded-hydrogel-composite-for-lead-ion-removal
#5
Mayuri Bhatia, Satish Babu Rajulapati, Shirish Sonawane, Amandeep Girdhar
Lead stands second among the deadly heavy metal pollutants owing to the incompetent mechanism possessed by the human body for its removal. A polymeric hydrogel in the form of composite was prepared using acrylic acid (monomer) and novel nanofiller that possess super adsorbent properties with restricted gel seepage into flowing ionic liquid. The filler used is an adsorbent which is biocompatible, biodegradable, economical, abundant, non-hazardous and easy to synthesize. The invariably porous nanofiller, the Nanobentonite(clay), was synthesized using ion exchange reaction by creating acidic environment for accelerated dispersion with exfoliation by CTAB to enhance cation exchange capacity...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173129/preparation-and-performance-of-manganese-oxide-coated-zeolite-for-removal-of-manganese-contaminated-in-groundwater
#6
Cong Lyu, Xuejiao Yang, Shengyu Zhang, Qihui Zhang, Xiaosi Su
A promising and easily prepared catalytic filler media, manganese oxide coated zeolite (MOCZ), for the removal of Mn (II) contaminated in groundwater was studied. The optimal condition for MOCZ preparation was given as follows: acid activation of zeolite with 5% HCl mass percent for 12 hours, then soaking of acid activated zeolite with 7% KMnO4 mass percent for 8 hours, and finally calcination at 300 °C for 5 hours. Acid activation significantly enlarged the specific surface area of zeolite (> 79 m2 g-1), subsequently enhancing the coating of manganese oxides onto the surface of zeolite...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169661/light-irradiance-through-novel-cad-cam-block-materials-and-degree-of-conversion-of-composite-cements
#7
Diogo Pedrollo Lise, Annelies Van Ende, Jan De Munck, Kumiko Yoshihara, Noriyuki Nagaoka, Luiz Clovis Cardoso Vieira, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVE: To assess light irradiance (LI) delivered by two light-curing units (LCU's) and to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of three composite cements, when cured through different thicknesses of two novel CAD-CAM block materials. METHODS: 100-μm-thick films of a dual-curable composite cement (G-CEM LinkAce, GC), a light-curable flowable resin-based composite (RBC) (G-ænial Universal Flo, GC) and a micro-hybrid RBC (G-ænial Posterior, GC) were investigated as luting agents...
November 20, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151608/the-eso-diffuse-interstellar-bands-large-exploration-survey-edibles-i-project-description-survey-sample-and-quality-assessment
#8
Nick L J Cox, Jan Cami, Amin Farhang, Jonathan Smoker, Ana Monreal-Ibero, Rosine Lallement, Peter J Sarre, Charlotte C M Marshall, Keith T Smith, Christopher J Evans, Pierre Royer, Harold Linnartz, Martin A Cordiner, Christine Joblin, Jacco Th van Loon, Bernard H Foing, Neil H Bhatt, Emeric Bron, Meriem Elyajouri, Alex de Koter, Pascale Ehrenfreund, Atefeh Javadi, Lex Kaper, Habib G Khosroshadi, Mike Laverick, Franck Le Petit, Giacomo Mulas, Evelyne Roueff, Farid Salama, Marco Spaans
The carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are largely unidentified molecules ubiquitously present in the interstellar medium (ISM). After decades of study, two strong and possibly three weak near-infrared DIBs have recently been attributed to the [Formula: see text] fullerene based on observational and laboratory measurements. There is great promise for the identification of the over 400 other known DIBs, as this result could provide chemical hints towards other possible carriers. In an effort to systematically study the properties of the DIB carriers, we have initiated a new large-scale observational survey: the ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES)...
October 2017: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143001/easily-fabricated-and-lightweight-ppy-pda-agnw-composites-for-excellent-electromagnetic-interference-shielding
#9
Yan Wang, Fu-Qiang Gu, Li-Juan Ni, Kun Liang, Kyle Marcus, Shu-Li Liu, Fan Yang, Jin-Ju Chen, Zhe-Sheng Feng
Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing nanoscale conductive fillers have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, polypyrrole (PPy)/polydopamine (PDA)/silver nanowire (AgNW) composites with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance, good adhesion ability and light weight are successfully fabricated via a simple in situ polymerization method followed by a mixture process. Benefiting from the intrinsic adhesion properties of PDA, the adhesion ability and mechanical properties of the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites are significantly improved...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133884/epha2-is-an-epithelial-cell-pattern-recognition-receptor-for-fungal-%C3%AE-glucans
#10
Marc Swidergall, Norma V Solis, Michail S Lionakis, Scott G Filler
Oral epithelial cells discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic stimuli, and only induce an inflammatory response when they are exposed to high levels of a potentially harmful microorganism. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in epithelial cells that mediate this differential response are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is an oral epithelial cell PRR that binds to exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Binding of C...
November 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129946/application-of-materials-as-medical-devices-with-localized-drug-delivery-capabilities-for-enhanced-wound-repair
#11
Esther J Lee, Beom Kang Huh, Se Na Kim, Jae Yeon Lee, Chun Gwon Park, Antonios G Mikos, Young Bin Choy
The plentiful assortment of natural and synthetic materials can be leveraged to accommodate diverse wound types, as well as different stages of the healing process. An ideal material is envisioned to promote tissue repair with minimal inconvenience for patients. Traditional materials employed in the clinical setting often invoke secondary complications, such as infection, pain, foreign body reaction, and chronic inflammation. This review surveys the repertoire of surgical sutures, wound dressings, surgical glues, orthopedic fixation devices and bone fillers with drug eluting capabilities...
August 2017: Progress in Materials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119337/toxic-metals-in-cigarettes-and-human-health-risk-assessment-associated-with-inhalation-exposure
#12
Nsikak U Benson, Winifred U Anake, Adebusayo E Adedapo, Omowunmi H Fred-Ahmadu, Olusegun O Ayejuyo
This study evaluated the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 10 branded cigarettes commonly consumed in Nigeria. Chemical sequential extraction method and pseudo-total metal digestion procedure were used for extraction of metals from filler tobacco and filter samples. Samples were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The filler tobacco of cigarettes had Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the ranges of 5.90-7.94, 18...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107946/yeast-casein-kinase-2-governs-morphology-biofilm-formation-cell-wall-integrity-and-host-cell-damage-of-candida-albicans
#13
Sook-In Jung, Natalie Rodriguez, Jihyun Irrizary, Karl Liboro, Thania Bogarin, Marlene Macias, Edward Eivers, Edith Porter, Scott G Filler, Hyunsook Park
The regulatory networks governing morphogenesis of a pleomorphic fungus, Candida albicans are extremely complex and remain to be completely elucidated. This study investigated the function of C. albicans yeast casein kinase 2 (CaYck2p). The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain displayed constitutive pseudohyphae in both yeast and hyphal growth conditions, and formed enhanced biofilm under non-biofilm inducing condition. This finding was further supported by gene expression analysis of the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain which showed significant upregulation of UME6, a key transcriptional regulator of hyphal transition and biofilm formation, and cell wall protein genes ALS3, HWP1, and SUN41, all of which are associated with morphogenesis and biofilm architecture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092996/the-levels-of-vancomycin-in-the-blood-and-the-wound-after-the-local-treatment-of-bone-and-soft-tissue-infection-with-antibiotic-loaded-calcium-sulphate-as-carrier-material
#14
P Wahl, M Guidi, E Benninger, K Rönn, E Gautier, T Buclin, J-L Magnin, F Livio
AIMS: Calcium sulphate (CaSO4) is a resorbable material that can be used simultaneously as filler of a dead space and as a carrier for the local application of antibiotics. Our aim was to describe the systemic exposure and the wound fluid concentrations of vancomycin in patients treated with vancomycin-loaded CaSO4 as an adjunct to the routine therapy of bone and joint infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 680 post-operative blood and 233 wound fluid samples were available for analysis from 94 implantations performed in 87 patients for various infective indications...
November 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068424/high-thermal-conductivity-of-copper-matrix-composite-coatings-with-highly-aligned-graphite-nanoplatelets
#15
Alessandro Simoncini, Vincenzo Tagliaferri, Nadia Ucciardello
Nanocomposite coatings with highly-aligned graphite nanoplatelets in a copper matrix were successfully fabricated by electrodeposition. For the first time, the disposition and thermal conductivity of the nanofiller has been evaluated. The degree of alignment and inclination of the filling materials has been quantitatively evaluated by polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy. The room temperature values of the thermal conductivity were extracted for the graphite nanoplatelets by the dependence of the Raman G-peak frequency on the laser power excitation...
October 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048827/-simultaneous-determination-of-11-mycotoxins-in-feeds-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#16
Yunji Wei, Min Feng, Zhenyi Zhu, Jian He, Jinrong Shen, Zhenghe He, Xian Qin, Liying Zhou
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in feeds. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, then cleaned up by multifunctional purification column filler and PRIME HLB solid phase extraction column. The 11 mycotoxins were separated on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 3.5 μ m) with gradient elution program, and methanol-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution containing 0.1%(v/v) formic acid were used as mobile phases...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029848/fluoride-containing-bioactive-glass-composite-for-orthodontic-adhesives-ion-release-properties
#17
N A Al-Eesa, F S L Wong, A Johal, R G Hill
OBJECTIVE: Dental materials that release calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions could prevent demineralisation and/or enhance remineralisation of enamel. The objective was to develop a novel bioactive glass (BAG) resin and investigate pH changes and ion release in 3 immersion media. METHODS: Quench melt derived BAG (35.25% SiO2, 6% Na2O, 43% CaO, 5.75% P2O5, and 10% CaF2) was incorporated into a resin (42.25% BisEMA, 55% TEGDMA, 0.25% DMAEM, 0.5% camphorquinone and 2% 4-Meta), with a filler load of 80% by weight...
November 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025237/the-role-of-injectables-in-aesthetic-surgery-financial-implications
#18
Bryson G Richards, William F Schleicher, Gehaan F D'Souza, Raymond Isakov, James E Zins
Background: The plastic surgeon competes with both core and noncore physicians and surgeons for traditional cosmetic procedures. In 2007, the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) joined efforts to form a Cosmetic Medicine Task Force to further analyze this trend. Objectives: Our objective is to document and quantify the patient capture and total collections generated in a single surgeon's practice exclusive from Botulinum Toxin A and filler injections over a 10-year period...
October 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022348/modified-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-with-a-dual-synergetic-antibacterial-effect
#19
Marios Michailidis, Ioritz Sorzabal-Bellido, Evanthia A Adamidou, Yuri Antonio Diaz-Fernandez, Jenny Aveyard, Reut Wengier, Dmitry Grigoriev, Rasmita Raval, Yehuda Benayahu, Raechelle A D'Sa, Dmitry Shchukin
Application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as antifouling/antibacterial carriers is limited and specifically with a dual synergetic effect. In the present work, MSNs modified with quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) and loaded with the biocide Parmetol S15 were synthesized as functional fillers for antifouling/antibacterial coatings. From the family of the MSNs, MCM-48 was selected as a carrier because of its cubic pore structure, high surface area, and high specific pore volume. The QASs used for the surface modification of MCM-48 were dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride and dimethyltetradecyl[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989950/surveillance-of-nicotine-and-ph-in-cigarette-and-cigar-filler
#20
Tameka S Lawler, Stephen B Stanfill, B Rey deCastro, Joseph G Lisko, Bryce W Duncan, Patricia Richter, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: We examined differences between nicotine concentrations and pH in cigarette and cigar tobacco filler. METHODS: Nicotine and pH levels for 50 cigarette and 75 cigar brands were measured. Non-mentholated and mentholated cigarette products were included in the analysis along with several cigar types as identified by the manufacturer: large cigars, pipe tobacco cigars, cigarillos, mini cigarillos, and little cigars. RESULTS: There were significant differences found between pH and nicotine for cigarette and cigar tobacco products...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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