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Filler G

William M Palin, Julian G Leprince, Mohammed A Hadis
Spatial and temporal control is a key advantage for placement and rapid setting of light-activated resin composites. Conventionally, placement of multiple thin layers (<2mm) reduces the effect of light attenuation through highly filled and pigmented materials to increase polymerisation at the base of the restoration. However, and although light curing greater than 2mm thick layers is not an entirely new phenomenon, the desire amongst dental practitioners for even more rapid processing in deep cavities has led to the growing acceptance of so-called "bulk fill" (4-6mm thick) resin composites that are irradiated for 10-20s in daily clinical practice...
March 14, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Matthieu Fumagalli, Julien Berriot, Benoit de Gaudemaris, Anne Veyland, Jean-Luc Putaux, Sonia Molina-Boisseau, Laurent Heux
Rubber materials with well-dispersed fillers and large mechanical reinforcement have been obtained by melt-processing a diene elastomer matrix and tailored nanocellulose powders having both a high specific surface area and a modified interface. Such filler powders with a specific surface area of 180 m2 g-1 and 100 m2 g-1 have been obtained by freeze-drying suspensions of short needle-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and entangled networks of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in tert-butanol/water, respectively...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Fan Yang, Johnson Efome, Dipak Rana, Takeshi Matsuura, Christopher Lan
Among other applications, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are slowly gaining grounds as fillers for desalination composite membranes. In this study, superhydrophobic poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibrous membranes were fabricated with MOF (Iron-BTC) loading of up to 5 wt.% via electro-spinning on a nonwoven substrate. To improve attachment of nanofibers unto the substrate, a substrate pre-treatment method called 'solvent basing' was employed. Iron content in the nanofiber, measured by dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), increased proportionally with the increase of MOF concentration in the spinning dope, indicating a uniform distribution of MOF in the nanofiber...
March 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M Kobrzynski, B Wile, S S Huang, G Filler
Eculizumab is the therapy of choice for patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Dosing recommendations stem from two trials: one retrospective trial (19 children and 5 infants) and one prospective trial (22 patients and 5 infants). This case report highlights the need for more precise dosing recommendations in children, particularly in infants, and for smaller vials of the medication to facilitate more precise dosing. Such changes would ensure that adverse events are minimized and that the children with aHUS who are treated with eculizumab experience an optimal clinical response...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Conor S Boland, Umar Khan, Mathew Binions, Sebastian Barwich, John B Boland, Denis Weaire, Jonathan N Coleman
The use of graphene-based nanocomposites as electromechanical sensors has been broadly explored in recent times with a number of papers describing porous, foam-like composites. However, there are no reported foam-based materials that are capable of large dynamic compressive load measurements and very few studies on composite impact sensing. In this work, we describe a simple method of infusing commercially-available foams with pristine graphene to form conductive composites, which we refer to as G-foam. Displaying a strain-dependent electrical response, G-foam was found to be a reasonably effective pressure sensing material...
March 6, 2018: Nanoscale
F Schwendicke, U Blunck, Y-K Tu, G Göstemeyer
OBJECTIVES:   Composites can be classified differently, according to manufacturer information, filler particle size, resin-monomer base, or viscosity, for example. Using clinical trial data, network meta-analyses aim to rank different composite material classes. Dentists then use these ranks to decide whether to use specific materials. Alternatively, annual failure rates (AFRs) of materials can be assessed, not requiring any classification for synthesis. It is unclear whether different classification systems lead to different rankings of the same material (ie, erroneous conclusions)...
March 2018: Operative Dentistry
Daniel P Giovenco, Torra E Spillane, Christine M Mauro, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Nearly half of marijuana users in the United States also smoke cigarillos, with many using the products as marijuana "blunts." The relationship between marijuana legalization and tobacco retail has not yet been examined. This study uses tobacco sales data to compare the cigarillo marketplace in states with legalized recreational marijuana to the overall U.S. marketplace in 2016. METHODS: Cigarillo sales data from 2016 were obtained from the Nielsen Research Company in the following market regions: Denver, CO; Seattle, WA; Portland, OR; and the overall U...
February 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Han Li, Ze Guo, Dafu Wu, Jing Fan, Shaobin Huang, Shaofeng Zhou
A novel medium consisting of iron oxide-coated porous ceramsite (modified ceramsite) was investigated for NO removal under thermophilic conditions in this study. We used a surface coating method with FeCl₃·6H₂O as the modifier. When ceramsite was calcined for 4 h at 500 °C, the surface pH value decreased to 3.46, which is much lower than the isoelectric point of ceramsite, ensuring its surface was electropositive. The surface of modified ceramsite changed from two- to three-dimensional and exhibited excellent adsorption behavior to assist microbial growth; the maximum dry weight of the biofilm was 1...
February 28, 2018: Materials
Ahmed Al Rumayyan, Nasr Ahmed, Reem Al Subait, Ghassan Al Ghamdi, Moeber Mohammed Mahzari, Tarig Awad Mohamed, Jerome I Rotgans, Mustafa Donmez, Silvia Mamede, Henk G Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Self-explanation while individually diagnosing clinical cases has proved to be an effective instructional approach for teaching clinical reasoning. The present study compared the effects on diagnostic performance of self-explanation in small groups with the more commonly used hypothetico-deductive approach. METHODS: Second-year students from a six-year medical school in Saudi Arabia (39 males; 49 females) worked in small groups on seven clinical vignettes (four criterion cases representing cardiovascular diseases and three 'fillers', i...
February 26, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
C R Carvalho, S Wrobel, C Meyer, C Brandenberger, I F Cengiz, R López-Cebral, J Silva-Correia, G Ronchi, R L Reis, C Grothe, J M Oliveira, K Haastert-Talini
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) resulting in a gap to be bridged between the transected nerve ends are commonly reconstructed with autologous nerve tissue, but there is a need for valuable alternatives. This experimental work considers the innovative use of the biomaterial Gellan Gum (GG) as a luminal filler for nerve guidance channels made from chitosan with a 5% degree of acetylation. The engineered constructs should remodel the structural support given to regenerating axons by the so-called bands of Büngner...
February 21, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Todd A Stueckle, Donna C Davidson, Ray Derk, Tiffany G Kornberg, Lori Battelli, Sherri Friend, Marlene Orandle, Alixandra Wagner, Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Konstantinos A Sierros, Sushant Agarwal, Rakesh K Gupta, Yon Rojanasakul, Dale W Porter, Liying Rojanasakul
Organomodified nanoclays (ONCs) are increasingly used as filler materials to improve nanocomposite strength, wettability, flammability, and durability. However, pulmonary risks associated with exposure along their chemical lifecycle are unknown. This study's objective was to compare pre- and post-incinerated forms of uncoated and organomodified nanoclays for potential pulmonary inflammation, toxicity, and systemic blood response. Mice were exposed via aspiration to low (30 µg) and high (300 µg) doses of pre-incinerated uncoated montmorillonite nanoclay (CloisNa), ONC (Clois30B), their respective incinerated forms (I-CloisNa and I-Clois30B), and crystalline silica (CS)...
February 16, 2018: ACS Nano
E C Vermisoglou, T Giannakopoulou, N Todorova, T Vaimakis, N Boukos, D Petridis, C Trapalis
A facile and green method for trapping the hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide between the hydrophilic Kunipia F layers in order to attain stable aqueous dispersions of reduced graphene oxide is described. Initially stable aqueous dispersions of hydrophilic clay intercalated with hydrophilic graphene oxide sheets were formed providing well-organized heterostructures, as it was revealed by scanning electron microscopy images. These structures were preserved in the product obtained after hydrothermal treatment where the hydrophilic graphene oxide was converted to hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Marc Swidergall, Norma V Solis, Michail S Lionakis, Scott G Filler
In the version of this Article originally published, technical problems led to errors in Figs. 2d and 5b. In the western blot panel in Fig. 2d, actin bands were misaligned at the bottom of the image and did not line up with the other bands in the panel; the corrected figure is shown below. In Fig. 5b, the upper right panel had an incorrect title of 'CXCL3/KC'; it should have instead been 'CXCL1/KC'. These errors have now been corrected in all versions of the Article.
February 13, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Anthony Hayes, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Brooke Farrugia, John M Whitelock, Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
Chondroitin sulphate (CS) glycosaminoglycan chains on cell and extracellular matrix proteoglycans (PGs) can no longer be regarded as merely hydrodynamic space fillers. Overwhelming evidence over recent years indicates that sulphation motif sequences within the CS chain structure are a source of significant biological information to cells and their surrounding environment. CS sulphation motifs have been shown to interact with a wide variety of bioactive molecules, e.g. cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, morphogenetic proteins, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, as well as structural components within the extracellular milieu...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical Journal
M K S Monteiro, V R L Oliveira, F K G Santos, E L Barros Neto, R H L Leite, E M M Aroucha, R R Silva, K N O Silva
Complete factorial planning 23 was applied to identify the influence of the cassava starch(A), glycerol(B) and modified clay(C) content on the water vapor permeability(WVP) of the cassava starch films with the addition of bentonite clay as a filler, its surface was modified by ion exchange from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), fourier transform by infrared radiation(FTIR), atomic force microscopy(AFM) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The factorial analysis suggested a mathematical model thats predicting the optimal condition of the minimization of WVP...
March 2018: Food Research International
Takeo Ebina
Phyllosilicate (clay) is used as a filler to improve the thermal stability and gas barrier properties of plastic films. However, few film preparation trials used clays as the main component. Many researchers have studied clay-based films (CBFs) that are heat-resistant and have high gas barrier properties against various gases (such as oxygen, water vapor, and hydrogen) over a wide range of temperatures. An organic binder improves the film toughness, but increases gas permeation. CBFs are obtained by solution casting and show excellent incombustibility and electrical insulation...
February 6, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
G Franchi, C Neiva-Vaz, A Picard, M-P Vazquez
BACKGROUND: Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers have gained rapid acceptance for treating facial wrinkles, deep tissue folds and sunken areas due to aging. This study evaluates, in addition to space-filling properties, their effects on softness and elasticity as a secondary effect, following injection of 3 commercially available cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers (15mg/mL, 17,5mg/mL and 20mg/mL) in patients presenting with congenital or acquired facial malformations. PATIENTS ET METHODS: We started injecting gels of cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers in those cases in 2013; we performed 46 sessions of injections in 32 patients, aged from 13-32...
February 2, 2018: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Tomas Duminis, Saroash Shahid, Natalia G Karpukhina, Robert G Hill
OBJECTIVE: Dental restoration aesthetics, particularly the translucency of modern dental restorative filling materials depends on the refractive index (RI) match between the different components in the material. In the case of dental composites (DC), the RI of the polymer must match the RI of the filler otherwise the material is optically opaque and has limited depth of cure. In the case of glass ionomer cements (GICs), the RI of the ion-leachable glass must match the RI of the polysalts to engineer a smart material with a tooth-like appearance...
February 2, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ramsey S Lewis
Introduction: The FDA has announced the potential for mandated lowering of nicotine levels in combustible cigarettes. The World Health Organization has recommended a lowering of cigarette filler nicotine levels to below 0.4 mg/g. To devise appropriate nicotine control strategies, regulators must consider technical feasibility, timelines for compliance, and potential impediments to implementation. Outlined here is previously unsummarized information on genetic approaches that might be used to reduce nicotine levels in cured tobacco leaves...
February 1, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Tonya N Watkins, Hong Liu, Matthew Chung, Tracy H Hazen, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Scott G Filler, Vincent M Bruno
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic, ubiquitous, saprophytic mould that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals as well as life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. A critical step in the establishment of infection is the invasion of airway epithelial cells by the inhaled fungi. Understanding how A. fumigatus senses and responds to airway cells is important to understand the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Here, we analysed the transcriptomes of two commonly used clinical isolates, Af293 and CEA10, during infection of the A549 type II pneumocyte cell line in vitro...
January 18, 2018: Microbial Genomics
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