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One carbon metabolism

Nicholas M Dalesio, Craig W Hendrix, Douglas Hale McMichael, Carol B Thompson, Carlton K K Lee, Huy Pho, Rafael S Arias, Rachael Rzasa Lynn, Jeffrey Galinkin, Myron Yaster, Robert H Brown, Alan R Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes multiorgan dysfunction, specifically metabolic abnormalities in the liver. Obese patients are opioid-sensitive and have high rates of respiratory complications after surgery. Obesity also has been shown to cause resistance to leptin, an adipose-derived hormone that is key in regulating hunger, metabolism, and respiratory stimulation. We hypothesized that obesity and leptin deficiency impair opioid pharmacokinetics (PK) independently of one another. METHODS: Morphine PK were characterized in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), diet-induced obese (DIO), and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, and in ob/ob mice given leptin-replacement (LR) therapy...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hao Wu, Fang Zeng, Hang Zhang, Jiangsheng Xu, Jianrong Qiu, Shuizhu Wu
The applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are usually limited by photosensitizers' side effects and singlet oxygen's short half-life. Herein, a mitochondria-targeted nanosystem is demonstrated to enhance the PDT efficacy by releasing a bio-precursor of photosensitizer under two-photon irradiation. A phototriggerable coumarin derivative is first synthesized by linking 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the bio-precursor) to coumarin; and the nanosystem (CD-ALA-TPP) is then fabricated by covalently incorporating this coumarin derivative and a mitochondria-targeting compound triphenylphosphonium (TPP) onto carbon dots (CDs)...
February 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Sayed-Rzgar Hosseini, Andreas Wagner
BACKGROUND: Biological systems are rife with examples of pre-adaptations or exaptations. They range from the molecular scale - lens crystallins, which originated from metabolic enzymes - to the macroscopic scale, such as feathers used in flying, which originally served thermal insulation or waterproofing. An important class of exaptations are novel and useful traits with non-adaptive origins. Whether such origins could be frequent cannot be answered with individual examples, because it is a question about a biological system's potential for exaptation...
October 21, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Gabriella P Rimmer, Pratul K Agarwal, Elizabeth E Howell
Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium towards the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value)...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Hui Fang, Bing Hu, Yong Nie, Yue-Qin Tang, Xiao-Lei Wu
The type strain Dietzia timorensis ID05-A0528(T), was reported to be able to survive in the highly saline and alkaline environments with diverse carbon sources. In order to more pertinently understand the genetic mechanisms of its environmental tolerance and crude oil emulsification, we reported the complete genome sequence of the strain in the study. The genome contains only one circular chromosome, with the total size of 3,607,892 bps, and the G+C content of this strain is 65.58%, much lower than other type strains of this genus...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Lingling Chen, Quanzhu Chen, Yanqiao Zhu, Longyu Hou, Peisheng Mao
Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in tuber. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tuber revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber, (1) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through cytosolic glycolytic pathway, (2) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis, (3) expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition, (4) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER, (5) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of DAG pool in Kennedy pathway, (6) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yves J R Menezo, Erica Silvestris, Brian Dale, Kay Elder
The negative effect of oxidative stress on the human reproductive process is no longer a matter for debate. Oxidative stress affects female and male gametes and the developmental capacity of embryos. Its effect can continue through late stages of pregnancy. Metabolic disorders and psychiatric problems can also be caued by DNA methylation and epigenetic errors. Age has a negative effect on oxidative stress and DNA methylation, and recent observations suggest that older men are at risk of transmitting epigenetic disorders to their offspring...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Daisuke Mayumi, Hanako Mochimaru, Hideyuki Tamaki, Kyosuke Yamamoto, Hideyoshi Yoshioka, Yuichiro Suzuki, Yoichi Kamagata, Susumu Sakata
Coal-bed methane is one of the largest unconventional natural gas resources. Although microbial activity may greatly contribute to coal-bed methane formation, it is unclear whether the complex aromatic organic compounds present in coal can be used for methanogenesis. We show that deep subsurface-derived Methermicoccus methanogens can produce methane from more than 30 types of methoxylated aromatic compounds (MACs) as well as from coals containing MACs. In contrast to known methanogenesis pathways involving one- and two-carbon compounds, this "methoxydotrophic" mode of methanogenesis couples O-demethylation, CO2 reduction, and possibly acetyl-coenzyme A metabolism...
October 14, 2016: Science
Kaja H Skjærven, Lars Martin Jakt, John Arne Dahl, Marit Espe, Håvard Aanes, Kristin Hamre, Jorge M O Fernandes
World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aline G Cozer, Márcia Trapp, Claudia Vieira Marques, Tiago L Martins, Jorge Felipe A Model, Vanessa Schein, Luiz Carlos Kucharski, Roselis S M Da Silva
The present work assesses in vitro the role of human Stanniocalcin 1 (hSTC-1) in glucose metabolism in white retroperitoneal adipose tissue (WRAT) from fed rat. In the fed state, hSTC1 increases the incorporation of (14)C from glucose into lipids in the rat WRAT. The increase in lipogenesis capacity supports the hypothesis that the activity of the glycerol-3-phosphate-generating pathway (glycolysis) from glucose is regulated by hSTC-1. The effect of hSTC-1 on de novo fatty acid synthesis and on glucose oxidation in WRAT is supported by an 85 % increase in (14)CO2 production from (14)C-glucose...
October 11, 2016: Lipids
Jun Toyohara
In the cancer research field, the preferred method for evaluating the proliferative activity of cancer cells in vivo is to measure DNA synthesis rates. The cellular proliferation rate is one of the most important cancer characteristics, and represents the gold standard of pathological diagnosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to evaluate in vivo DNA synthetic activity through visualization of enhanced nucleoside metabolism. However, methods for the quantitative measurement of DNA synthesis rates have not been fully clarified...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
D Ferreira-Martins, S D McCormick, A Campos, M Lopes-Marques, H Osório, J Coimbra, L F C Castro, J M Wilson
Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Erik R Coats, Benjamin S Watson, Cynthia K Brinkman
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers that can substitute for petroleum-based plastics in a variety of applications. One avenue to commercial PHA production involves coupling waste-based synthesis with the use of mixed microbial consortia (MMC). In this regard, production requires maximizing the enrichment of a MMC capable of feast-famine PHA synthesis, with the metabolic response induced through imposition of aerobic-dynamic feeding (ADF) conditions. However, the concept of PHA production in complex matrices remains unrefined; process operational improvements are needed, along with an enhanced understanding of the MMC...
September 21, 2016: Water Research
Hongzhong Lu, Weiqiang Cao, Liming Ouyang, Jianye Xia, Mingzhi Huang, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Henk Noorman
Aspergillus niger is one of the most important cell factories for industrial enzymes and organic acids production. A comprehensive genome-scale metabolic network model (GSMM) with high quality is crucial for efficient strain improvement and process optimization. The lack of accurate reaction equations and gene-protein-reaction associations (GPRs) in the current best model of A. niger named GSMM iMA871, however, limits its application scope. To overcome these limitations, we updated the A. niger GSMM by combining the latest genome annotation and literature mining technology...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Yuerong Gao, Chun Liu, Xiaodong Li, Haiqian Xu, Yue Liang, Nan Ma, Zhangjun Fei, Junping Gao, Cai-Zhong Jiang, Chao Ma
Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Arpita Sen, Ligia Acosta-Sampson, Christopher G Alvaro, Jonathan S Ahn, Jamie H D Cate, Jeremy Thorner
: When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using either of two constitutive yeast promoters (PGK1prom and CCW12prom), the transporters CDT-1 and CDT-2 from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa are able to catalyze, respectively, active transport and facilitated diffusion of cellobiose (and, for CDT-2, also xylan and its derivatives). In S. cerevisiae, endogenous permeases are removed from the plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and are marked for internalization through ubiquitinylation catalyzed by Rsp5, a HECT class ubiquitin:protein ligase (E3)...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Paul Fowler, Andrew Homan, Derek Atkins, James Whitwell, Melvyn Lloyd, Roberta Bradford
A range of fibrous materials, including several types of asbestos and carbon fibres with nano scale diameters that had reported positive genotoxicity data (predominantly clastogenicity), were tested in the in vitro micronucleus test (OECD 487) in GLP-compliant studies in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Out of eight materials tested, only one (crocidolite, an asbestos fibre) gave a positive response either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9) and at short (3h) or extended (24h) exposure times (p≤0...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Robert T Kennedy, Charles F Burant, Michael J MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells requires metabolic signals including the generation of glucose-derived short chain acyl-CoAs in the cytosol from mitochondrially-derived metabolites. One concept of insulin secretion is that ATP citrate lyase generates short chain acyl-CoAs in the cytosol from mitochondrially-derived citrate. Of these, malonyl-CoA, is believed to be an important signal in insulin secretion. Malonyl-CoA is also a precursor for lipids...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
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