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One carbon metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235209/contrasting-above-and-belowground-organic-matter-decomposition-and-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-in-response-to-warming-in-high-arctic-tundra
#1
Daan Blok, Samuel Faucherre, Imre Banyasz, Riikka Rinnan, Anders Michelsen, Bo Elberling
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates...
December 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232372/attenuated-expression-of-mtr-in-both-prenatally-androgenized-mice-and-women-with-the-hyperandrogenic-phenotype-of-pcos
#2
Lei Lei, Lijun Ding, Jing Su, Mengyuan Liu, Qingqing Shi, Jianjun Zhou, Haixiang Sun, Guijun Yan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine, metabolic and heterogeneous disorder in women of reproductive age, the exact etiology of which remains unknown. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the hyperandrogenic phenotype of PCOS, prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice were used to mimic this phenotype in women with PCOS. Using microarray analysis, 1188 differentially expressed genes, including 671 upregulated and 517 downregulated genes, were identified in ovaries from PNA mice. Five differentially expressed genes (Aldh1a7, Bhmt, Mtr, Nrcam, Ptprg) were validated, and decreased MTR expression was shown in ovaries of PNA mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230201/differential-metabolism-of-a-two-carbon-substrate-by-members-of-the-paracoccidioides-genus
#3
Lilian C Baeza, Fabiana R da Mata, Laurine L Pigosso, Maristela Pereira, Gustavo H M F de Souza, Alexandre S G Coelho, Célia M de Almeida Soares
The genus Paracoccidioides comprises known fungal pathogens of humans and can be isolated from different infection sites. Metabolic peculiarities in different members of the Paracoccidioides led us to perform proteomic studies in the presence of the two-carbon molecule acetate, which predominates in the nutrient-poor environment of the phagosome. To investigate the expression rates of proteins of different members of Paracoccidioides, including one isolate of P. lutzii (Pb01) and three isolates of P. brasiliensis (Pb03, Pb339, and PbEPM83), using sodium acetate as a carbon source, proteins were quantified using label-free and data-independent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229581/balancing-cellular-redox-metabolism-in-microbial-electrosynthesis-and-electro-fermentation-a-chance-for-metabolic-engineering
#4
REVIEW
Frauke Kracke, Bin Lai, Shiqin Yu, Jens O Krömer
More and more microbes are discovered that are capable of extracellular electron transfer, a process in which they use external electrodes as electron donors or acceptors for metabolic reactions. This feature can be used to overcome cellular redox limitations and thus optimising microbial production. The technologies, termed microbial electrosynthesis and electro-fermentation, have the potential to open novel bio-electro production platforms from sustainable energy and carbon sources. However, the performance of reported systems is currently limited by low electron transport rates between microbes and electrodes and our limited ability for targeted engineering of these systems due to remaining knowledge gaps about the underlying fundamental processes...
December 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228670/lncrna-as-cernas-may-be-involved-in-lactation-process
#5
Shuai Yu, Yong Zhao, Fangnong Lai, Meiqiang Chu, Yanan Hao, Yanni Feng, Hongfu Zhang, Jing Liu, Ming Cheng, Lan Li, Wei Shen, Lingjiang Min
The main function of the mammary gland is to secret milk for newborn growth. Milk production process is regulated by hormones, growth factors, noncoding RNAs and other factors locally. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one type of recently discovered non-coding RNA, have been found in mammary gland and some studies suggested lncRNA may play important roles in mammary gland development. Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are emerging to compete for miRNA binding and, in turn, regulate each other. In the current study, we sequenced mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA in goat mammary tissue at 2 points in lactation (early and mature)...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225823/human-mitochondrial-mthfd2-is-a-dual-redox-cofactor-specific-methylenetetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate-cyclohydrolase
#6
Minhye Shin, Jessica Momb, Dean R Appling
Background: Folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism provides one-carbon units for several biological processes. This pathway is highly compartmentalized in eukaryotes, with the mitochondrial pathway producing formate for use in cytoplasmic processes. The mitochondrial enzyme MTHFD2 has been reported to use NAD+ as a cofactor while the isozyme MTHFD2L utilizes NAD+ or NADP+ at physiologically relevant conditions. Because MTHFD2 is highly expressed in many cancer types, we sought to determine the cofactor preference of this enzyme...
2017: Cancer & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222096/aerobic-transformation-of-2-4-dinitrotoluene-by-escherichia-coli-and-its-implications-for-the-detection-of-trace-explosives
#7
Benjamin Shemer, Sharon Yagur-Kroll, Carina Hazan, Shimshon Belkin
DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene), a volatile impurity in military grade TNT-based explosives, is a potential tracer for the detection of buried landmines and other explosive devices. We have previously described an Escherichia coli bioreporter strain engineered to detect traces of DNT, and have demonstrated that the yqjF gene promoter, the sensing element of this bioreporter, is induced not by DNT but by at least one of its transformation products. In the present study we have characterized the initial stages of DNT biotransformation in E...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216425/replacing-the-ethylmalonyl-coa-pathway-with-the-glyoxylate-shunt-provides-metabolic-flexibility-in-the-central-carbon-metabolism-of-methylobacterium-extorquens-am1
#8
Lennart Schada von Borzyskowski, Frank Sonntag, Laura Pöschel, Julia Anne Vorholt, Jens Schrader, Tobias J Erb, Markus Buchhaupt
The ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway (EMCP) is an anaplerotic reaction sequence in the central carbon metabolism of numerous Proteo- and Actinobacteria. The pathway features several CoA-bound mono- and dicarboxylic acids that are of interest as platform chemicals for the chemical industry. The EMCP, however, is essential for growth on C1 and C2 carbon substrates and therefore cannot be simply interrupted to drain these intermediates. In this study, we aimed at reengineering central carbon metabolism of the Alphaproteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 for the specific production of EMCP derivatives in the supernatant...
December 7, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213315/comprehensive-characterization-of-toxicity-of-fermentative-metabolites-on-microbial-growth
#9
Brandon Wilbanks, Cong T Trinh
Background: Volatile carboxylic acids, alcohols, and esters are natural fermentative products, typically derived from anaerobic digestion. These metabolites have important functional roles to regulate cellular metabolisms and broad use as food supplements, flavors and fragrances, solvents, and fuels. Comprehensive characterization of toxic effects of these metabolites on microbial growth under similar conditions is very limited. Results: We characterized a comprehensive list of thirty-two short-chain carboxylic acids, alcohols, and esters on microbial growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 under anaerobic conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212434/stable-isotope-pharmacokinetic-studies-provide-insight-into-effects-of-age-sex-and-weight-on-levothyroxine-metabolism
#10
Islam Younis, Mariam A Ahmed, Kenneth D Burman, Offie P Soldin, Jacqueline Jonklaas
Background We wished to determine whether levothyroxine pharmacokinetics (PKs) are affected by age, weight, and sex. Methods A pharmacokinetic study was performed after administration of a tracer dose of carbon-13- labeled LT4 (13C-LT4). The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Adults of any age being treated with levothyroxine for hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. A single dose of 13C- LT4 was administered. Eighteen serial plasma samples were collected. One sample was obtained before the 13C- LT4 dose and the majority of the remaining samples were collected over the 120-hour period post-dosing...
December 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212304/the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-as-a-potential-target-for-cancer-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Eunae Sandra Cho, Yong Hoon Cha, Hyun Sil Kim, Nam Hee Kim, Jong In Yook
During cancer progression, cancer cells are repeatedly exposed to metabolic stress conditions in a resource-limited environment which they must escape. Increasing evidence indicates the importance of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) homeostasis in the survival of cancer cells under metabolic stress conditions, such as metabolic resource limitation and therapeutic intervention. NADPH is essential for scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly derived from oxidative phosphorylation required for ATP generation...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212039/comprehensive-mapping-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-metabolism-using-dynamic-genome-scale-network-modeling
#12
Sriram Chandrasekaran, Jin Zhang, Zhen Sun, Li Zhang, Christian A Ross, Yu-Chung Huang, John M Asara, Hu Li, George Q Daley, James J Collins
Metabolism is an emerging stem cell hallmark tied to cell fate, pluripotency, and self-renewal, yet systems-level understanding of stem cell metabolism has been limited by the lack of genome-scale network models. Here, we develop a systems approach to integrate time-course metabolomics data with a computational model of metabolism to analyze the metabolic state of naive and primed murine pluripotent stem cells. Using this approach, we find that one-carbon metabolism involving phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, folate synthesis, and nucleotide synthesis is a key pathway that differs between the two states, resulting in differential sensitivity to anti-folates...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211475/optimization-of-orally-bioavailable-enhancer-of-zeste-homolog-2-ezh2-inhibitors-using-ligand-and-property-based-design-strategies-identification-of-development-candidate-r-5-8-dichloro-7-methoxy-oxetan-3-yl-methyl-2-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-2-dihydropyridin
#13
Pei-Pei Kung, Patrick Bingham, Alexei Brooun, Michael R Collins, Ya-Li Deng, Dac M Dinh, Connie Fan, Ketan S Gajiwala, Rita Grantner, Hovhannes J Gukasyan, Wenyue Hu, Buwen Huang, Robert S Kania, Susan E Kephart, Cody T Krivacic, Robert A Kumpf, Penney Khamphavong, Manfred Kraus, Wei Liu, Karen A Maegley, Lisa Nguyen, Shijian Ren, Daniel Tyler Richter, Robert A Rollins, Neal W Sach, Shikhar Sharma, John Sherrill, Jillian E Spangler, Albert E Stewart, Scott C Sutton, Sean Uryu, Dominique Verhelle, Hui Wang, Shuiwang Wang, Martin Wythes, Shuibo Xin, Shinji Yamazaki, Huichun Zhu, Jinjiang Zhu, Luke Zehnder, Martin P Edwards
A new series of lactam-derived EZH2 inhibitors was designed via a ligand- and physicochemical property-based strategy to address metabolic stability and thermodynamic solubility issues associated with previous lead compound 1. The new inhibitors incorporated an sp3 hybridized carbon atom at the 7-position of the lactam moiety present in lead compound 1 as a replacement for a dimethylisoxazole group. This transformation enabled optimization of the physicochemical properties and potency compared to compound 1...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203634/mediator-complex-subunits-med2-med5-med16-and-med23-genetically-interact-in-the-regulation-of-phenylpropanoid-biosynthesis
#14
Whitney L Dolan, Brian P Dilkes, Jake M Stout, Nicholas D Bonawitz, Clint Chapple
The phenylpropanoid pathway is a major global carbon sink and is important for plant fitness and the engineering of bioenergy feedstocks. In Arabidopsis thaliana, disruption of two subunits of the transcriptional regulatory Mediator complex, MED5a and MED5b, results in an increase in phenylpropanoid accumulation. By contrast, the semi-dominant MED5b mutation reduced epidermal fluorescence4-3 (ref4-3) results in dwarfism and constitutively repressed phenylpropanoid accumulation. Here we report the results of a forward genetic screen for suppressors of ref4-3...
December 4, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203369/gasotransmitter-hydrogen-sulfide-signaling-in-neuronal-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Bindu D Paul, Solomon H Snyder
Hydrogen sulfide is a gaseous signaling molecule or gasotransmitter which plays important roles in a wide spectrum of physiologic processes in the brain and peripheral tissues. Unlike nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, the other major gasotransmitters, research on hydrogen sulfide is still in its infancy. One of the modes by which hydrogen sulfide signals is via a posttranslational modification termed sulfhydration/persulfidation, which occurs on reactive cysteine residues on target proteins, where the reactive -SH group is converted to an -SSH group...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193674/potential-impact-of-metabolic-and-gut-microbial-response-to-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-lean-and-diet-induced-obese-rats-on-offspring-obesity-risk
#16
Heather A Paul, Kelsey H Collins, Marc R Bomhof, Hans J Vogel, Raylene A Reimer
SCOPE: Maternal obesity programs metabolic dysfunction in offspring, increasing their susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disease in later life. Moreover, pregnancy and lactation are associated with many metabolic adaptations, yet it is unclear how diet-induced maternal obesity may interrupt these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed 1 H NMR serum metabolomics analysis on samples collected pre-pregnancy and in pregnant and lactating lean and high fat/sucrose (HFS) diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats to identify maternal metabolic pathways associated with developmental programming of offspring obesity...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191863/exposure-to-co2-influences-metabolism-calcification-and-gene-expression-of-the-thecosome-pteropod-limacina-retroversa
#17
Amy E Maas, Gareth L Lawson, Alexander J Bergan, Ann M Tarrant
Thecosomatous pteropods, a group of aragonite shell-bearing zooplankton, are becoming an important sentinel organism for understanding the influence of ocean acidification on pelagic organisms. These animals show vulnerability to changing carbonate chemistry conditions, are geographically widespread, and are both biogeochemically and trophically important. The objective of this study was to determine how increasing duration and severity of CO2 treatment influence the physiology of the thecosome Limacina retroversa, integrating both gene expression and organism-level (respiration and calcification) metrics...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190422/structure-specific-effects-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-on-plasma-cholesterol-concentration-in-male-syrian-hamsters
#18
Yimin Zhao, Jianhui Liu, Wangjun Hao, Hanyue Zhu, Ning Liang, Zouyan He, Ka Ying Ma, Zhen-Yu Chen
Previous studies have shown that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are capable of decreasing plasma cholesterol. However, the relative plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of individual SCFAs and the underlying mechanisms by which SCFAs decrease plasma cholesterol remain largely unknown. The present study was to compare plasma cholesterol-lowering potency of four common SCFAs with 2-5 carbons, and to investigate their interactions with gene expressions of key regulatory factors involved in cholesterol metabolism...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185200/the-mthfr-polymorphism-affect-the-susceptibility-of-hcc-and-the-prognosis-of-hcc-liver-transplantation
#19
C Wang, H Xie, D Lu, Q Ling, P Jin, H Li, R Zhuang, X Xu, S Zheng
BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahyfrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the key enzyme for one carbon and folate metabolism. Previous studies have drawn different conclusions about the relationship between the mutation of MTHFR and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence. MTHFR polymorphisms' influence on liver transplantation for HCC recurrence has yet not been reported. Aim of this study was to clarify the impact of MTHFR polymorphism on hepatocarcinogenesis and the prognosis of liver transplant recipient with HCC...
November 28, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184024/identification-of-fitness-determinants-during-energy-limited-growth-arrest-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
David W Basta, Megan Bergkessel, Dianne K Newman
Microbial growth arrest can be triggered by diverse factors, one of which is energy limitation due to scarcity of electron donors or acceptors. Genes that govern fitness during energy-limited growth arrest and the extent to which they overlap between different types of energy limitation are poorly defined. In this study, we exploited the fact that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can remain viable over several weeks when limited for organic carbon (pyruvate) as an electron donor or oxygen as an electron acceptor. ATP values were reduced under both types of limitation, yet more severely in the absence of oxygen...
November 28, 2017: MBio
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