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One carbon metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545095/feeding-on-dispersed-vs-aggregated-particles-the-effect-of-zooplankton-feeding-behavior-on-vertical-flux
#1
Marja Koski, Julia Boutorh, Christina de la Rocha
Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542252/metabolic-flux-analysis-of-heterotrophic-growth-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#2
Nanette R Boyle, Neelanjan Sengupta, John A Morgan
Despite the wealth of knowledge available for C. reinhardtii, the central metabolic fluxes of growth on acetate have not yet been determined. In this study, 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) was used to determine and quantify the metabolic pathways of primary metabolism in C. reinhardtii cells grown under heterotrophic conditions with acetate as the sole carbon source. Isotopic labeling patterns of compartment specific biomass derived metabolites were used to calculate the fluxes. It was found that acetate is ligated with coenzyme A in the three subcellular compartments (cytosol, mitochondria and plastid) included in the model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535596/leaf-litter-leachate-concentration-promotes-heterotrophy-in-freshwater-biofilms-understanding-consequences-of-water-scarcity
#3
Aingeru Martínez, John Stephen Kominoski, Aitor Larrañaga
Climate change is increasing overall temporal variability in precipitation resulting in a seasonal water availability, both increasing periods of flooding and water scarcity. During low water availability periods, the concentration of leachates from riparian vegetation increases, subsequently increasing dissolved organic matter (DOM). Moreover, shifts in riparian vegetation by land use changes impact the quantity and quality of DOM. Our objective was to test effects of increasing DOM concentrations from Eucalyptus grandis (one of the most cultivated tree species in the world) leachates on the metabolism (respiration, R; gross primary productivity, GPP) and extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) of freshwater biofilms...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533358/role-of-type-2-nad-p-h-dehydrogenase-ndbc-in-regulation-of-carbon-allocation-in-synechocystis-6803
#4
Tuomas Huokko, Dorota Muth-Pawlak, Natalia Battchikova, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Eva-Mari Aro
NAD(P)H dehydrogenases comprise type 1 (NDH-1) and type 2 (NDH-2s) enzymes. Even though the NDH-1 complex is a well characterized protein complex in the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) the exact roles of different NDH2s remain poorly understood. To elucidate this question we studied the function of NdbC, one of the three NDH-2s in Synechocystis, by constructing a deletion mutant (ΔndbC) for corresponding protein and submitting the mutant to physiological and biochemical characterisation as well as to comprehensive proteomics analysis...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528265/synthesis-radiolabeling-and-preclinical-evaluation-of-a-11-c-gmom-derivative-as-pet-radiotracer-for-the-ion-channel-of-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor
#5
Pieter J Klein, Robert C Schuit, Athanasios Metaxas, Johannes Am Christiaans, Esther Kooijman, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Bart Nm van Berckel, Albert D Windhorst
INTRODUCTION: Presently available PET ligands for the NMDAr ion channel generally suffer from fast metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop a metabolically more stable ligand for the NMDAr ion channel, taking [(11)C]GMOM ([(11)C]1) as the lead compound. METHODS: [(11)C]1, its fluoralkyl analogue [(18)F]PK209 ([(18)F]2) and the newly synthesized fluorovinyloxy analogue [(11)C]7b were evaluated ex vivo in male Wistar rats for metabolic stability. In addition, [(11)C]7b was subjected to a biodistribution study and its affinity (Ki) and lipophilicity (logD7...
May 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527906/fluorescent-probes-for-imaging-formaldehyde-in-biological-systems
#6
REVIEW
Kevin J Bruemmer, Thomas F Brewer, Christopher J Chang
Formaldehyde (FA) is a common environmental toxin but is also endogenously produced through a diverse array of essential biological processes, including mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism, metabolite oxidation, and nuclear epigenetic modifications. Its high electrophilicity enables reactivity with a wide variety of biological nucleophiles, which can be beneficial or detrimental to cellular function depending on the context. New methods that enable detection of FA in living systems can help disentangle the signal/stress dichotomy of this simplest reactive carbonyl species (RCS), and fluorescent probes for FA with high selectivity and sensitivity have emerged as promising chemical tools in this regard...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527798/short-communication-effect-of-a-citrus-extract-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#7
Y Ying, M Niu, A R Clarke, K J Harvatine
Dry matter intake is a main driver of energy balance in lactating dairy cows, and some plant extracts have been commercially fed to dairy cows to stimulate feed intake. Citrus extracts contain several bioactive components and have been shown to modify metabolism in other animal models. Our hypothesis was that a citrus extract would increase dry matter intake. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a citrus extract on intake and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In experiment one, 11 early-lactation dairy cows (experiment 1; 77 ± 15 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a switchback design, and in experiment two, 15 mid-lactation Holstein cows (experiment 2; 157 ± 44 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a crossover design...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526373/coffee-consumption-in-aged-mice-increases-energy-production-and-decreases-hepatic-mtor-levels
#8
Keita Takahashi, Shuichi Yanai, Kentaro Shimokado, Akihito Ishigami
OBJECTIVE: Coffee, one of the world's most consumed beverages, has many benefits. Some studies have reported the effects of coffee on aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor activity, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism of aged (20-mo-old) mice given coffee. METHODS: Aged C57 BL/6 NCr mice were divided into three groups: controls that were not given coffee (n = 9), a group that received 0.1% caffeinated coffee (n = 9), and a group that received 0...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525966/gene-expression-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-growing-in-laboratory-isolation-conditions-compared-to-those-common-in-its-natural-ocean-environment
#9
Katherine García, Cristian Yáñez, Nicolás Plaza, Francisca Peña, Pedro Sepúlveda, Diliana Pérez-Reytor, Romilio T Espejo
BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an autochthonous marine bacterial species comprising strains able to grow in broth containing bile salts at 37 °C, a condition seldom found in the ocean. However, this condition is used for isolation in the laboratory because it is considered a necessary property for pathogenesis. In this context, revealing how gene expression enables V. parahaemolyticus to adapt to this particular condition -common to almost all V. parahaemolyticus isolates- will improve our understanding of the biology of this important pathogen...
May 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523730/investigating-the-effect-of-carbon-source-on-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-production-in-pichia-pastoris-by-a-transcriptomic-approach
#10
Safa Ben Azoun, Héla Kallel
Several factors affect protein expression in Pichia pastoris, one among them is the carbon source. In this work, we studied the effect of this factor on the expression level of rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) in two recombinant clones harboring seven copies of the gene of interest. The expression was driven either by the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter or the inducible alcohol oxidase1 (AOX1) promoter. Clones were compared in terms of cell physiology and carbon source metabolism...
May 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514140/properties-of-intermediates-in-the-catalytic-cycle-of-oxalate-oxidoreductase-and-its-suicide-inactivation-by-pyruvate
#11
Elizabeth Pierce, Steven O Mansoorabadi, Mehmet Can, George H Reed, Stephen W Ragsdale
Oxalate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (OOR) is an unusual member of the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (OFOR) family in that it catalyzes the coenzyme A (CoA)-independent conversion of oxalate into 2 equivalents of carbon dioxide. This reaction is surprising because binding of CoA to the acyl-TPP intermediate of other OFORs results in formation of a CoA ester, and in the case of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), CoA binding generates the central metabolic intermediate acetyl-CoA and promotes a 10(5)-fold acceleration of the rate of electron transfer...
May 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511181/1-cmdb-a-curated-database-of-genomic-variations-of-the-one-carbon-metabolism-pathway
#12
Manoj K Bhat, Veerendra P Gadekar, Aditya Jain, Bobby Paul, Padmalatha S Rai, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
BACKGROUND: The one-carbon metabolism pathway is vital in maintaining tissue homeostasis by driving the critical reactions of folate and methionine cycles. A myriad of genetic and epigenetic events mark the rate of reactions in a tissue-specific manner. Integration of these to predict and provide personalized health management requires robust computational tools that can process multiomics data. The DNA sequences that may determine the chain of biological events and the endpoint reactions within one-carbon metabolism genes remain to be comprehensively recorded...
May 17, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503921/fluorescent-nanoparticles-with-tissue-dependent-affinity-for-live-zebrafish-imaging
#13
Deepak Kumar Khajuria, Vijay Bhooshan Kumar, David Karasik, Aharon Gedanken
Carbon-based nanodots (CDs) are widely investigated due to their low toxicity, outstanding water solubility and biocompatibility. Specifically, fluorescent CDs have attracted ever-increasing interest. However, so far, only a few studies have focused on assessing the fluorescence of nitrogen-doped CDs (N@CDs) during in-vivo exposure. Here, we describe a strategy for engineering economically viable non-toxic one-pot hydrothermal synthesized N@CDs. The low toxicity and suitability of the N@CDs for fluorescence imaging are validated using zebrafish (ZF) as a model...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498939/carbon-utilization-profiles-of-river-bacterial-strains-facing-sole-carbon-sources-suggest-metabolic-interactions
#14
Lise Goetghebuer, Pierre Servais, Isabelle George
Microbial communities play a key role in water self-purification. They are primary drivers of biogenic element cycles and ecosystem processes. However, these communities remain largely uncharacterized. In order to understand the diversity-heterotrophic activity relationship facing sole carbon sources, we assembled a synthetic community composed of 20 'typical' freshwater bacterial species mainly isolated from the Zenne River (Belgium). The carbon source utilization profiles of each individual strain and of the mixed community were measured in Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays PM1 and PM2A microplates that allowed testing 190 different carbon sources...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497193/evaluation-of-new-cu-ii-complexes-as-a-novel-class-of-inhibitors-against-plant-carbonic-anhydrase-glutathione-reductase-and-photosynthetic-activity-in-photosystem-ii
#15
Margarita V Rodionova, Sergei K Zharmukhamedov, Mehmet Sayım Karacan, Kubra Begum Venedik, Alexandr V Shitov, Turgay Tunç, Serhat Mamaş, Vladimir D Kreslavski, Nurcan Karacan, Vyacheslav V Klimov, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev
Increasing inefficiency of production of important agricultural plants raises one of the biggest problems in the modern world. Herbicide application is still the best method of weed management. Traditional herbicides blocking only one of the plant metabolic pathways is ineffective due to the rapid growth of herbicide-resistant weeds. The synthesis of novel compounds effectively suppressing several metabolic processes, and therefore achieving the synergism effect would serve as the alternative approach to weed problem...
May 11, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497120/analysis-of-light-and-carbon-specific-transcriptomes-implicates-a-class-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-cellulose-sensing
#16
Eva Stappler, Christoph Dattenböck, Doris Tisch, Monika Schmoll
In fungi, most metabolic processes are subject to regulation by light. Trichoderma reesei is adapted to degradation of plant cell walls and regulates production of the required enzymes in a manner dependent on the nutrient source and the light status. Here we investigated the interrelated relevance of two regulation levels of the transcriptome of T. reesei: light regulation and carbon source-dependent control. We show that the carbon source (cellulose, lactose, sophorose, glucose, or glycerol) is the major source of variation, with light having a modulating effect on transcript regulation...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496133/folate-metabolism-regulates-oligodendrocyte-survival-and-differentiation-by-modulating-ampk%C3%AE-activity
#17
Qinjie Weng, Jiajia Wang, Jiaying Wang, Biqin Tan, Jing Wang, Haibo Wang, Tao Zheng, Q Richard Lu, Bo Yang, Qiaojun He
Folate, an essential micronutrient, is a critical cofactor in one-carbon metabolism for many cellular pathways including DNA synthesis, metabolism and maintenance. Folate deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of neurological disease, cancer and cognitive dysfunction. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key enzyme to regulate folate metabolism, however folate/DHFR activity in oligodendrocyte development has not been fully understood. Here we show that folate enhances oligodendrocyte maturation both in vitro and in vivo, which is accompanied with upregulation of oligodendrocyte-specific DHFR expression...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494761/production-of-fuels-and-chemicals-from-xylose-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-review-and-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Suryang Kwak, Yong-Su Jin
Efficient xylose utilization is one of the most important pre-requisites for developing an economic microbial conversion process of terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and biochemicals. A robust ethanol producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered with heterologous xylose assimilation pathways. A two-step oxidoreductase pathway consisting of NAD(P)H-linked xylose reductase and NAD(+)-linked xylitol dehydrogenase, and one-step isomerase pathway using xylose isomerase have been employed to enable xylose assimilation in engineered S...
May 11, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494515/potent-and-selective-inhibitors-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-labeled-with-carbon-13-and-carbon-14
#19
Bachir Latli, Matt Hrapchak, Jolaine Savoie, Yongda Zhan, Carl A Busacca, Chris H Senanayake
(S)-6-(2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-3-((S)-1-(4-(1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)ethyl)-6-phenyl-1,3-oxazinan-2-one (1) and (4aR,9aS)-1-(1H-benzo[d]midazole-5-carbonyl)-2,3,4,4a,9,9a-hexahydro-1-H-indeno[2,1-b]pyridine-6-carbonitrile hydrochloride (2) are potent and selective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme. These two drug candidates developed for the treatment of type-2 diabetes were prepared labeled with carbon-13 and carbon-14 to enable drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, bioanalytical, and other studies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494086/functional-ecology-of-soil-microbial-communities-along-a-glacier-forefield-in-tierra-del-fuego-chile
#20
Miguel A Fernández-Martínez, Stephen B Pointing, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, María Arróniz-Crespo, T G Allan Green, Ricardo Rozzi, Leopoldo G Sancho, Asunción de Los Ríos
A previously established chronosequence from Pia Glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) containing soils of different ages (from bare soils to forest ones) is analyzed. We used this chronosequence as framework to postulate that microbial successional development would be accompanied by changes in functionality. To test this, the GeoChip functional microarray was used to identify diversity of genes involved in microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as other genes related to microbial stress response and biotic interactions...
September 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
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