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One carbon metabolism

Matthias G Steiger, Diethard Mattanovich, Michael Sauer
Mixed- substrate conversions are an under-regarded option to fix carbon dioxide in significant amounts. In such a conversion carbon dioxide together with one other carbon source like glucose are converted to a single carbon product. With mixed-substrate conversions it is possible to incorporate carbon dioxide into products with higher oxidation states than the co-substrate. Using abundant co-substrates like glucose, glycerol or methanol, it is possible to produce organic acids anaerobically, using CO2 both as an electron acceptor and as an additional carbon source...
October 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
L Canfora, N Abu-Samra, M Tartanus, B H Łabanowska, A Benedetti, F Pinzari, E Malusà
The use of entomopathogenic fungi for biocontrol of plant pests is recently receiving an increased interest due to the need of reducing the impact of agricultural practices on the environment. Biocontrol efficacy could be improved by co-inoculation of different microorganisms. However, interactions between the fungal species can trigger or depress the biocontrol activity. Co-inoculation of two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii) was performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of their joint behaviour on a range of different carbon sources in comparison to single inoculation...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jianxin Liu, Yongqing Xu, Liguo Zhang, Wei Li, Zhenxue Cai, Fei Li, Mu Peng, Fenglan Li, Baozhong Hu
BACKGROUND: Rumex patientia L. is consumed as a green vegetable in several parts of the world, and can withstand extremely low temperatures (-35°C). However, little or no available genomic data for this species has been reported to date. Here, we used Illumina Hiseq technology for transcriptome assembly in R. patientia under normal and cold conditions to evaluate how it responds to cold stress. RESULTS: After an in-depth RNA-Seq analysis, 115,589 unigenes were produced from the assembled transcripts...
2017: PloS One
Rosivaldo Quirino Bezerra Júnior, Ângela Maria Xavier Eloy, João Ricardo Furtado, Raymundo Rizaldo Pinheiro, Alice Andrioli, Frederico Bruno Moreno, Marina Duarte Pinto Lobo, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Tatiana Maria Farias Pinto, Maria Fátima da Silva Teixeira
The caprine arthrite encephalite (CAE) is a disease that affects especially dairy goat. The virus shows compartmentalization features, that allows it to hide at certain times during the course of the disease, making it difficult to control. The present study was conducted to identify the major seminal plasma protein profile of goats infected by CAE and its associations with seroconversion using Western blotting. Two groups containing five males each, were used in this experiment. The first group was composed by seropositive animals and the control by seronegative confirmed by Western blotting and PCR...
October 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Eleonora Gatta, James Auta, David P Gavin, Dulal K Bhaumik, Dennis R Grayson, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Cerebellum is an area of the brain particularly sensitive to the effects of acute and chronic alcohol consumption. Alcohol exposure decreases cerebellar Purkinje cell output by increasing GABA release from Golgi cells onto extrasynaptic α6/δ-containing GABAA receptors located on glutamatergic granule cells. Here, we studied whether chronic alcohol consumption induces changes in GABAA receptor subunit expression and whether these changes are associated with alterations in epigenetic mechanisms via DNA methylation...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tingting Chen, Courtney Philips, Jordan Hamilton, Blaine Chartbrand, Jay Grosskleg, Kris Bradshaw, Trevor Carlson, Karen Timlick, Derek Peak, Steven D Siciliano
Phosphorus (P) bioavailability often limits gasoline biodegradation in calcareous cold-region soils. One possible method to increase P bioavailability in such soils is the addition of citrate. Citrate addition at the field scale may increase hydrocarbon degradation by: (i) enhancing inorganic and organic P dissolution and desorption, (ii) increasing hydrocarbon bioavailability, and/or (iii) stimulating microbial activity. Alternatively, citrate addition may inhibit activity due to competitive effects on carbon metabolism...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Vanessa L Bailey, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Kristen DeAngelis, A Stuart Grandy, Christine V Hawkes, Kate Heckman, Kate Lajtha, Richard P Phillips, Benjamin N Sulman, Katherine E O Todd-Brown, Matthew D Wallenstein
The complexity of processes and interactions that drive soil C dynamics necessitate the use of proxy variables to represent soil characteristics that cannot be directly measured (correlative proxies), or that aggregate information about multiple soil characteristics into one variable (integrative proxies). These proxies have proven useful for understanding the soil C cycle, which is highly variable in both space and time, and are now being used to make predictions of the fate and persistence of C under future climate scenarios...
October 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
Pooja R Mandaviya, Dylan Aïssi, Koen F Dekkers, Roby Joehanes, Silva Kasela, Vinh Truong, Lisette Stolk, Diana van Heemst, M Arfan Ikram, Jan Lindemans, P Eline Slagboom, David-Alexandre Trégouët, André G Uitterlinden, Chen Wei, Phil Wells, France Gagnon, Marleen Mj van Greevenbroek, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Lili Milani, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Joyce Bj van Meurs, Sandra G Heil
AIM: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sensitive marker of one-carbon metabolism. Higher Hcy levels have been associated with global DNA hypomethylation. We investigated the association between plasma Hcy and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: Methylation was measured using Illumina 450 k arrays in 2035 individuals from six cohorts. Hcy-associated differentially methylated positions and regions were identified using meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three differentially methylated positions cg21607669 (SLC27A1), cg26382848 (AJUBA) and cg10701000 (KCNMA1) at chromosome 19, 14 and 10, respectively, were significantly associated with Hcy...
October 9, 2017: Epigenomics
Zhi-Wei Cheng, Zi-Yan Chen, Xing Yan, Yan-Wei Bian, Xiong Deng, Yue-Ming Yan
Drought stress, a major abiotic stress, commonly occurs in metal-contaminated environments and affects crop growth and yield. In this study, we performed the first integrated phenotypic, physiological, and proteomic analysis of Brachypodium distachyon L. seedling leaves under polyethylene glycol (PEG) mock osmotic stress, cadmium (Cd(2+)), and their combined stresses. Combined osmotic and Cd(2+) stress had more significant effects than each individual stress on seedling growth, and the physiological traits and ultrastructures of leaves...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Kevin E Acero-Navarro, Mariella Jiménez-Ramírez, Miguel A Villalobos, Rocío Vargas-Martínez, Hugo V Perales-Vela, Roberto Velasco-García
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) (EC plays an important role in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa because it generates NADPH, an essential cofactor for several biosynthetic pathways and antioxidant enzymes. P. aeruginosa G6PDH is also a key enzyme in the metabolism of various carbon sources, such as glucose, glycerol, fructose, and mannitol. Understanding the kinetic characteristics and mechanisms that control the activity of this enzyme is crucial for future studies in this context...
October 3, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
David Kostner, Michael Rachinger, Wolfgang Liebl, Armin Ehrenreich
Bacillus licheniformis strains are used for the large-scale production of industrial exoenzymes from proteinaceous substrates, but details of the amino acid metabolism involved are largely unknown. In this study, two chromosomal genes putatively involved in amino acid metabolism of B. licheniformis were deleted to clarify their role. For this, a convenient counterselection system for markerless in-frame deletions was developed for B. licheniformis. A deletion plasmid containing up- and downstream DNA segments of the chromosomal deletion target was conjugated to B...
October 6, 2017: Microbiology
François Thomas, Philippe Bordron, Damien Eveillard, Gurvan Michel
Flavobacteriia are recognized as key players in the marine carbon cycle, due to their ability to efficiently degrade algal polysaccharides both in the open ocean and in coastal regions. The chemical complexity of algal polysaccharides, their differences between algal groups and variations through time and space, imply that marine flavobacteria have evolved dedicated degradation mechanisms and regulation of their metabolism during interactions with algae. In the present study, we report the first transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis for an alga-associated flavobacterium during polysaccharide degradation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bohan Zhan, Shi Wen, Jie Lu, Guiping Shen, Xianchao Lin, Jianghua Feng, Heguang Huang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal tumors. However, the methodological differences between orthotopic and subcutaneous xenograft (OX and SX) models will cause confusion in understanding its pathological mechanism and clinical relevance. In this study, SX and OX models were established by implanting Panc-1 and BxPC-3 cell strains under skin and on the pancreas of mice, respectively. The tumor tissue and serum samples were collected for(1)H NMR spectroscopy followed by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Rosaria A Cavallaro, Vincenzina Nicolia, Maria Teresa Fiorenza, Sigfrido Scarpa, Andrea Fuso
Recent evidence emphasizes the role of dysregulated one-carbon metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Exploiting a nutritional B-vitamin deficiency paradigm, we have previously shown that PSEN1 and BACE1 activity is modulated by one-carbon metabolism, leading to increased amyloid production. We have also demonstrated that S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) supplementation contrasted the AD-like features, induced by B-vitamin deficiency. In the present study, we expanded these observations by investigating the effects of SAM and SOD (Superoxide dismutase) association...
September 30, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sara Moruzzi, Patrizia Guarini, Silvia Udali, Andrea Ruzzenente, Alfredo Guglielmi, Simone Conci, Patrizia Pattini, Nicola Martinelli, Oliviero Olivieri, Stephanie A Tammen, Sang-Woon Choi, Simonetta Friso
Several polymorphic gene variants within one-carbon metabolism, an essential pathway for nucleotide synthesis and methylation reactions, are related to cancer risk. An aberrant DNA methylation is a common feature in cancer but whether the link between one-carbon metabolism variants and cancer occurs through an altered DNA methylation is yet unclear. Aims of the study were to evaluate the frequency of one-carbon metabolism gene variants in hepatocellular-carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and colon cancer, and their relationship to cancer risk together with global DNA methylation status...
2017: PloS One
Cedric Blötz, Jörg Stülke
Glycerol and glycerol-containing compounds such as lipids belong to the most abundant organic compounds that may serve as nutrient for many bacteria. For the cell wall-less bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, glycerol derived from phospholipids of their human or animal hosts is the major source of carbon and energy. The lipids are first degraded by lipases, and the resulting glycerophosphodiesters are transported into the cell and cleaved to release glycerol-3-phosphate. Alternatively, free glycerol can be transported, and then become phosphorylated...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
A Ntzouvani, T Nomikos, D Panagiotakos, E Fragopoulou, C Pitsavos, A McCann, P M Ueland, S Antonopoulou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of clinically relevant factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Circulating levels of several amino acids and metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and MetS. We aimed to identify the amino acid profile that is significantly associated with MetS among an all male Mediterranean population. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred middle-aged men (54...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Christopher P Long, Jacqueline E Gonzalez, Adam M Feist, Bernhard O Palsson, Maciek R Antoniewicz
Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) is a widely-used method for improving the fitness of microorganisms in selected environmental conditions. It has been applied previously to Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 during aerobic exponential growth on glucose minimal media, a frequently used model organism and growth condition, to probe the limits of E. coli growth rate and gain insights into fast growth phenotypes. Previous studies have described up to 1.6-fold increases in growth rate following ALE, and have identified key causal genetic mutations and changes in transcriptional patterns...
September 23, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Jacqueline M Rand, Tippapha Pisithkul, Ryan L Clark, Joshua M Thiede, Christopher R Mehrer, Daniel E Agnew, Candace E Campbell, Andrew L Markley, Morgan N Price, Jayashree Ray, Kelly M Wetmore, Yumi Suh, Adam P Arkin, Adam M Deutschbauer, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Brian F Pfleger
Microorganisms can catabolize a wide range of organic compounds and therefore have the potential to perform many industrially relevant bioconversions. One barrier to realizing the potential of biorefining strategies lies in our incomplete knowledge of metabolic pathways, including those that can be used to assimilate naturally abundant or easily generated feedstocks. For instance, levulinic acid (LA) is a carbon source that is readily obtainable as a dehydration product of lignocellulosic biomass and can serve as the sole carbon source for some bacteria...
September 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Franziska Flügel, Stefan Timm, Stéphanie Arrivault, Alexandra Florian, Mark Stitt, Alisdair R Fernie, Hermann Bauwe
The Calvin-Benson cycle and its photorespiratory repair shunt are in charge of nearly all biological CO2 fixation on Earth. They interact functionally and via shared carbon flow on several levels including common metabolites, transcriptional regulation and response to environmental changes. 2-Phosphoglycolate (2PG) is one of the shared metabolites and produced in large amounts by oxidative damage of the CO2 acceptor molecule ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. It was anticipated early on, although never proven, that 2PG could also be a regulatory metabolite that modulates central carbon metabolism by inhibition of triose-phosphate isomerase...
September 25, 2017: Plant Cell
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