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One carbon metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909055/molecular-identification-of-d-ribulokinase-in-budding-yeast-and-mammals
#1
Charandeep Singh, Enrico Glaab, Carole L Linster
Proteomes of even well characterized organisms still contain a high percentage of proteins with unknown or uncertain molecular and/or biological function. A significant fraction of those proteins are predicted to have catalytic properties. Here we aimed at identifying the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr109c protein and of its human homolog FGGY, both of which belong to the broadly conserved FGGY family of carbohydrate kinases. Functionally identified members of this family phosphorylate 3- to 7-carbon sugars or sugar derivatives, but the endogenous substrate of S...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899380/crystal-structure-of-the-emerging-cancer-target-mthfd2-in-complex-with-a-substrate-based-inhibitor
#2
Robert Gustafsson, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Nina Gustafsson Sheppard, Katarina Färnegårdh, Olga Loseva, Elisée Wiita, Nadilly Bonagas, Leif Dahllund, Sabin Llona-Minguez, Maria Häggblad, Martin Henriksson, Yasmin Andersson, Evert Homan, Thomas Helleday, Pål Stenmark
To sustain their proliferation, cancer cells become dependent on one-carbon metabolism to support purine and thymidylate synthesis. Indeed, one of the most highly upregulated enzymes during neoplastic transformation is MTHFD2, a mitochondrial methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase involved in one-carbon metabolism. Since MTHFD2 is expressed normally only during embryonic development, it offers a disease-selective therapeutic target for eradicating cancer cells while sparing healthy cells...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898332/regulation-of-odd-numbered-fatty-acid-content-plays-an-important-part-in-the-metabolism-of-the-hyperaccumulator-noccaea-spp-adapted-to-oxidative-stress
#3
Milan Pavlík, Veronika Zemanová, Daniela Pavlíková, Pavlína Kyjaková, Tomáš Hlavsa
Relatively little is known about why odd-numbered fatty acids (OFAs) can be synthesized only by some plant species. We aimed at determining whether there is a relationship between the effects of Cd-induced oxidative stress on unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) and their degradation products, especially OFAs. Plants with different ability to accumulate Cd - Noccaea praecox from Mežica, Slovenia (Me) and two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens from Ganges, France (Ga) and Redlschlag, Austria (Re) were cultivated in pot experiments...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896396/metabolic-profiling-of-ob-ob-mouse-fatty-liver-using-hr-mas-1-h-nmr-combined-with-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-alterations-in-betaine-metabolism-and-the-transsulfuration-pathway
#4
Mikheil Gogiashvili, Karolina Edlund, Kathrin Gianmoena, Rosemarie Marchan, Alexander Brik, Jan T Andersson, Jörg Lambert, Katrin Madjar, Birte Hellwig, Jörg Rahnenführer, Jan G Hengstler, Roland Hergenröder, Cristina Cadenas
Metabolic perturbations resulting from excessive hepatic fat accumulation are poorly understood. Thus, in this study, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, a mouse model of fatty liver disease, were used to investigate metabolic alterations in more detail. Metabolites were quantified in intact liver tissues of ob/ob (n = 8) and control (n = 8) mice using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H-NMR. In addition, after demonstrating that HR-MAS (1)H-NMR does not affect RNA integrity, transcriptional changes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR on RNA extracted from the same specimens after HR-MAS (1)H-NMR measurements...
November 28, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891177/furfural-tolerance-and-detoxification-mechanism-in-candida-tropicalis
#5
Shizeng Wang, Gang Cheng, Chijioke Joshua, Zijun He, Xinxiao Sun, Ruimin Li, Lexuan Liu, Qipeng Yuan
BACKGROUND: Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891145/contrasting-proteomic-and-metabolomic-responses-of-bermudagrass-to-drought-and-salt-stresses
#6
Tiantian Ye, Haitao Shi, Yanping Wang, Fan Yang, Zhulong Chan
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of tolerant grass species to drought and salt. The comparative analyses of bermudagrass in response to drought and salt stresses at the physiological, proteomic, and metabolomic levels were performed in this study. The physiological results indicated that osmolytes accumulation, ROS level and antioxidant enzyme activities were extensively changed by drought and salt stresses. Through comparative proteomic analyses, we successfully identified a total of 77 proteins involved in photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis, and redox metabolic pathways when exposed to drought and salt stresses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886975/in-vitro-metabolic-engineering-of-bioelectricity-generation-by-the-complete-oxidation-of-glucose
#8
Zhiguang Zhu, Y-H Percival Zhang
The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis...
November 22, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886045/nutrition-one-carbon-metabolism-and-neural-tube-defects-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Kelei Li, Mark L Wahlqvist, Duo Li
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of severe congenital malformations, induced by the combined effects of genes and the environment. The most valuable finding so far has been the protective effect of folic acid supplementation against NTDs. However, many women do not take folic acid supplements until they are pregnant, which is too late to prevent NTDs effectively. Long-term intake of folic acid-fortified food is a good choice to solve this problem, and mandatory folic acid fortification should be further promoted, especially in Europe, Asia and Africa...
November 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882545/low-abundant-soil-bacteria-can-be-metabolically-versatile-and-fast-growing
#10
Viola Kurm, Wim H van der Putten, Wietse de Boer, Suzanne Naus-Wiezer, W H Gera Hol
The abundance of species is assumed to depend on their life history traits, such as growth rate and resource specialization. However, this assumption has not been tested for bacteria. Here we investigate how abundance of soil bacteria relates to slow growth and substrate specialization (oligotrophy) versus fast growth and substrate generalization (copiotrophy). We collected 47 saprotrophic soil bacterial isolates of differing abundances and measured their growth rate and the ability to use a variety of single carbon sources...
November 24, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881075/modelling-microbial-metabolic-rewiring-during-growth-in-a-complex-medium
#11
Marco Fondi, Emanuele Bosi, Luana Presta, Diletta Natoli, Renato Fani
BACKGROUND: In their natural environment, bacteria face a wide range of environmental conditions that change over time and that impose continuous rearrangements at all the cellular levels (e.g. gene expression, metabolism). When facing a nutritionally rich environment, for example, microbes first use the preferred compound(s) and only later start metabolizing the other one(s). A systemic re-organization of the overall microbial metabolic network in response to a variation in the composition/concentration of the surrounding nutrients has been suggested, although the range and the entity of such modifications in organisms other than a few model microbes has been scarcely described up to now...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879330/quantitative-transcriptomics-reveals-the-growth-and-nutrient-dependent-response-of-a-streamlined-marine-methylotroph-to-methanol-and-naturally-occurring-dissolved-organic-matter
#12
Scott M Gifford, Jamie W Becker, Oscar A Sosa, Daniel J Repeta, Edward F DeLong
The members of the OM43 clade of Betaproteobacteria are abundant coastal methylotrophs with a range of carbon-utilizing capabilities. However, their underlying transcriptional and metabolic responses to shifting conditions or different carbon substrates remain poorly understood. We examined the transcriptional dynamics of OM43 isolate NB0046 subjected to various inorganic nutrient, vitamin, and carbon substrate regimes over different growth phases to (i) develop a quantitative model of its mRNA content; (ii) identify transcriptional markers of physiological activity, nutritional state, and carbon and energy utilization; and (iii) identify pathways involved in methanol or naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM) metabolism...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878795/transcutaneous-versus-blood-carbon-dioxide-monitoring-during-acute-noninvasive-ventilation-in-the-emergency-department-a-retrospective-analysis
#13
Christian Michael Horvath, Martin Hugo Brutsche, Florent Baty, Jochen Julius Rüdiger
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide (PtCO2) has been suggested as an alternative to invasively obtained PaCO2 for the monitoring of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Current data on monitoring in hypoxaemic respiratory failure are scarce and show conflicting results in hypercapnic patients in the emergency department. METHODS AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective comparison of real-time PtCO2 (SenTec Digital Monitor) and arterial/venous carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2/PvCO2) measurements in patients with severe hypoxaemic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure during NIV...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878282/the-importance-of-mitochondrial-folate-enzymes-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#14
Masaaki Miyo, Masamitsu Konno, Hugh Colvin, Naohiro Nishida, Jun Koseki, Koichi Kawamoto, Kenta Tsunekuni, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Ichiro Takemasa, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii
Folate plays a pivotal role in the one-carbon metabolism needed for methylation reactions, nucleotide synthesis, and DNA repair. Although folate metabolism was recently shown to be associated with carcinogenesis in some solid tumors, the importance of folate metabolism in colorectal cancer remains unclear. In the present investigation we found that expression of three mitochondrial folate metabolic enzymes, serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT2), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L2 (ALDH1L2), were upregulated in human colorectal tumor tissues compared to normal tissues...
November 22, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876555/one-carbon-metabolism-and-epigenetics
#15
REVIEW
Simonetta Friso, Silvia Udali, Domenica De Santis, Sang-Woon Choi
The function of one-carbon metabolism is that of regulating the provision of methyl groups for biological methylation reactions including that of DNA and histone proteins. Methylation at specific sites into the DNA sequence and at histone tails are among the major epigenetic feature of mammalian genome for the regulation of gene expression. The enzymes within one-carbon metabolism are dependent from a number of vitamins or nutrients that serve either as co-factors or methyl acceptors or donors among which folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, betaine, choline and methionine have a major role...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876553/why-devote-an-entire-issue-to-the-topic-of-how-nutrients-in-one-carbon-metabolism-play-roles-in-modern-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Joel Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872964/toward-sustainable-amino-acid-production
#17
Yoshihiro Usuda, Yoshihiko Hara, Hiroyuki Kojima
Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872106/mthfd1-polymorphisms-modify-the-associations-of-plasma-glycine-and-serine-with-risk-of-ami-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris-in-wenbit
#18
Yunpeng Ding, Eva R Pedersen, Gard F T Svingen, Øyvind Helgeland, Jesse F Gregory, Kjetil H Løland, Klaus Meyer, Grethe S Tell, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård
BACKGROUND: -Serine and glycine interconversion and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1)-mediated one-carbon transfer are the major sources of methyl groups for one-carbon metabolism. Recently, plasma glycine and a common polymorphism in MTHFD1 have been associated with risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is therefore of interest to explore if these two pathways interact in relation to AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: -A total of 2571 participants in the Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial (WENBIT) undergoing coronary angiography for stable angina pectoris were studied...
November 21, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866740/metabolomics-evaluation-of-the-in-vivo-toxicity-of-bromoacetonitriles-one-class-of-high-risk-nitrogenous-disinfection-byproducts
#19
Yongfeng Deng, Yan Zhang, Yifeng Lu, Kai Lu, Hao Bai, Hongqiang Ren
Bromoacetonitriles (BANs), one class of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), have frequently been detected in drinking water. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of BANs have been demonstrated in mammalian cells. However, a systematic study of the in vivo toxicity of BANs is rare. In this study, metabolomics combined with histopathology and oxidative stress analysis were used to evaluate the toxicity of BANs in mice. The results indicated that BAN exposure induced liver and kidney injury in mice. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities decreased, and the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) increased in mice livers due to BANs exposure, which indicated that hepatic oxidative stress was induced...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866250/itraq-based-comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-the-fruiting-dikaryon-and-the-non-fruiting-monokaryon-of-flammulina-velutipes
#20
Jing-Yu Liu, Ming-Chang Chang, Jun-Long Meng, Cui-Ping Feng, Yong-Nan Liu
Flammulina velutipes is a potentially excellent fungus to study basic mechanisms of basidiomycete mycelium biology. To provide a better understanding of the mechanism of hyphae growth and fruit-body formation, the biological functions of the differentially abundant proteins between the fruiting dikaryon and the non-fruiting monokaryon of F. velutipes were investigated at the proteomic level using iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technique. Among the 1198 proteins identified with high confidence, a total of 472 proteins were detected differentially abundant at least one of the mycelium development stages...
November 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
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