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One carbon metabolism

Veronika Řezáčová, Lenka Zemková, Olena Beskid, David Püschel, Tereza Konvalinková, Martina Hujslová, Renata Slavíková, Jan Jansa
Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) interconnect plants of the same and/or different species, redistributing nutrients and draining carbon (C) from the different plant partners at different rates. Here, we conducted a plant co-existence (intercropping) experiment testing the role of AMF in resource sharing and exploitation by simplified plant communities composed of two congeneric grass species ( Panicum spp.) with different photosynthetic metabolism types (C3 or C4 )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Erick Armingol, Eduardo Tobar, Ricardo Cabrera
It has been proposed that NADP+-specificity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) evolved as an adaptation of microorganisms to grow on acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. In Escherichia coli, changing the cofactor specificity of ICDH from NADP+ to NAD+ (cofactor swapping) decreases the growth rate on acetate. However, the metabolic basis of this phenotype has not been analyzed. In this work, we used constraint-based modeling to investigate the effect of the cofactor swapping of ICDH in terms of energy production, response of alternative sources of NADPH, and partitioning of fluxes between ICDH and isocitrate lyase (ICL) -a crucial bifurcation when the bacterium grows on acetate-...
2018: PloS One
Felicia Seichter, Erhan Tuetuencue, Tamina Hagemann, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Michael Groeger, Sandra Kress, Peter Radermacher, Boris Mizaikoff
Exhaled breath offers monitoring bio markers, as well as diagnosing diseases and therapeutic interventions. In addition, vital functions may be non-invasively monitored on-line. Animal models are frequently used in research for determining novel therapeutic approaches and/or for investigating biological pathways. The exhaled carbon dioxide concentration, exhaled and inhaled oxygen concentration, and the subsequent respiratory quotient (RQ) offer insight into metabolic activity. One may adapt breath sampling systems and equipment designed for human applications to large animal studies, however, such adaptations are usually impossible for small animals due to their minuscule breath volume...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Alberto Gianinetti, Franca Finocchiaro, Paolo Bagnaresi, Antonella Zechini, Primetta Faccioli, Luigi Cattivelli, Giampiero Valè, Chiara Biselli
Red rice fully dormant seeds do not germinate even under favorable germination conditions. In several species, including rice, seed dormancy can be removed by dry-afterripening (warm storage); thus, dormant and non-dormant seeds can be compared for the same genotype. A weedy (red) rice genotype with strong dormancy was used for mRNA expression profiling, by RNA-Seq, of dormant and non-dormant dehulled caryopses (here addressed as seeds) at two temperatures (30 °C and 10 °C) and two durations of incubation in water (8 h and 8 days)...
April 19, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Peng Huang, Benson Kaluba, Xiao-Lin Jiang, Shi Chang, Xiao-Feng Tang, Lin-Feng Mao, Zhi-Peng Zhang, Fei-Zhou Huang
Abnormal metabolism of cholesterol may be a contributing factor in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence has shown that liver X receptor (LXR) is closely related to intrahepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a novel liver-specific LXR inverse agonist, SR9243, on antifibrosis in NASH mice. A high-cholesterol diet was employed to induce NASH in BALB/c mice by either carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) administration or bile-duct ligation (BDL)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ana Florencia Gasperotti, María Victoria Revuelta, Claudia Alicia Studdert, María Karina Herrera Seitz
BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Halomonas are salt-tolerant organisms that have a versatile metabolism and can degrade a variety of xenobiotic compounds, utilizing them as their sole carbon source. In this study, we examined the genome of a Halomonas isolate from a hydrocarbon-contaminated site to search for chemosensory genes that might be responsible for the observed chemotactic behavior of this organism as well as for other responses to environmental cues. RESULTS: Using genome-wide comparative tools, our isolate was identified as a strain of Halomonas titanicae (strain KHS3), together with two other Halomonas strains with available genomes that had not been previously identified at a species level...
April 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
J Piot, A Hébrard, M Durand, J F Payen, P Albaladejo
Following cardiac surgery, hyperlactatemia due to anaerobic metabolism is associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality. We previously found that an elevated respiratory quotient (RQ) predicts anaerobic metabolism. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate that it is also associated with poor outcome following cardiac surgery. This single institution, prospective, observational study includes all those patients that were consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, that had also been monitored using pulmonary artery catheter...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Fabian Meyer, Philipp Keller, Johannes Hartl, Olivier G Gröninger, Patrick Kiefer, Julia A Vorholt
Methanol represents an attractive substrate for biotechnological applications. Utilization of reduced one-carbon compounds for growth is currently limited to methylotrophic organisms, and engineering synthetic methylotrophy remains a major challenge. Here we apply an in silico-guided multiple knockout approach to engineer a methanol-essential Escherichia coli strain, which contains the ribulose monophosphate cycle for methanol assimilation. Methanol conversion to biomass was stoichiometrically coupled to the metabolization of gluconate and the designed strain was subjected to laboratory evolution experiments...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Akil I Joseph, Rebecca L Edwards, Paula B Luis, Sai Han Presley, Ned A Porter, Claus Schneider
The efficacy of the curry spice compound curcumin as a natural anti-inflammatory agent is limited by its rapid reductive metabolism in vivo. A recent report described a novel synthetic derivative, 2,6-dimethyl-curcumin, with increased stability against reduction in vitro and in vivo. It is also known that curcumin is unstable at physiological pH in vitro and undergoes rapid autoxidative transformation. Since the oxidation products may contribute to the biological effects of curcumin, we tested oxidative stability of 2,6-dimethyl-curcumin in buffer (pH 7...
April 17, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Kaja Plucińska, Steven W Barger
This editorial highlights an article by McKee and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors report epigenetic changes linked to one-carbon metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of murine offspring from dams fed high-fat diet to mimic maternal obesity. The group found that high-fat diet feeding in utero increases weight gain in offspring and dynamically alters DNA methylation in the PFC of male but not female brains. These epigenetic marks were associated with a shift in brain one-carbon metabolism (folate and methionine) intermediates and were normalized by early-life methyl-donor supplementation in a sex-specific manner...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Wannes Swinnen, Shalaya Kipp, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: Exercise economy is one of the main physiological factors determining performance in endurance sports. Running economy (RE) can be improved with running-specific training, while the improvement of cycling economy (CE) with cycling-specific training is controversial. We investigated whether exercise economy reflects sport-specific skills/adaptations or is determined by overall physiological factors. METHODS: We compared RE and CE in 10 runners, 9 cyclists and 9 triathletes for running at 12 km/h and cycling at 200 W...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jorge E Spangenberg, Vivian Zufferey
The grapevine is one of the most important edible fruit plants cultivated worldwide, and it is highly sensitive to changes in the soil water content. We studied the total carbon and nitrogen contents and stable isotope compositions (C/NWSR , δ13 CWSR and δ15 NWSR values) of the solid residues obtained by freeze-drying wines produced from two white grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chasselas and Petite Arvine) field grown under different soil water regimes while maintaining other climatic and ecopedological conditions identical...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kenichi Shibata, Kohei Obase, Kiminori Itoh, Takashi Amemiya
Starvation is one of the most common forms of stress experienced in the wild life. Such conditions associate the other forms of stress such as acid, heat, oxidation, and so on. Organisms acclimate to such stresses and acquire the stress tolerances, which often trade-off their growth rates. To investigate whether starvation and the associated stresses may cause the changes in the growth and the central carbon metabolism, we stock-cultured the yeast S. cerevisiae on YNB agar plates up to a month and subsequently cultured in YNB broth...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Dinum Perera, Zenaida V Magbanua, Supaphan Thummasuwan, Dipaloke Mukherjee, Mark Arick, Philippe Chouvarine, Campbell J Nairn, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Jeffrey F D Dean, Daniel G Peterson
Loblolly pine (LP; Pinus taeda L.) is an economically and ecologically important tree in the southeastern U.S. To advance understanding of the loblolly pine (LP; Pinus taeda L.) genome, we sequenced and analyzed 100 BAC clones and performed a Cot analysis. The Cot analysis indicates that the genome is composed of 57, 24, and 10% highly-repetitive, moderately-repetitive, and single/low-copy sequences, respectively (the remaining 9% of the genome is a combination of foldback and damaged DNA). Although single/low-copy DNA only accounts for 10% of the LP genome, the amount of single/low-copy DNA in LP is still 14 times the size of the Arabidopsis genome...
April 12, 2018: Gene
Jie-Xia Liu, Kai Feng, Guang-Long Wang, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is an important regulator of plant growth and development, and its proportion in the atmosphere continues to rise now. Lignin is one of the major secondary products in plants with vital biological functions. However, the relationship between CO2 level and xylogenesis in celery is still unknown. In order to investigate the effects of increasing CO2 concentration on lignin accumulation in celery, 'Jinnanshiqin' were exposed to two CO2 applications, 400 (e0 ) and 1000 μmol mol-1 (e1 ), respectively...
April 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Di Lu, Jianyong Zhuo, Modan Yang, Chao Wang, Pan Linhui, Haiyang Xie, Xiao Xu, Shusen Zheng
BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Hepatitis B recurrence adversely affects patients' survival after liver transplantation. This study aims to find association between donor gene variations of one carbon metabolism and post-transplant hepatitis B recurrence. METHODS: This study enrolled 196 patients undergoing liver transplantation for HBV related end-stage liver diseases. We detected 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of 7 one-carbon metabolism pathway genes (including MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, ALDH1L1, GART, SHMT1 and CBS) in donor livers and analyzed their association with HBV reinfection after liver transplantation...
April 5, 2018: Gene
Lennart Schada von Borzyskowski, Martina Carrillo, Simeon Leupold, Timo Glatter, Patrick Kiefer, Ramon Weishaupt, Matthias Heinemann, Tobias J Erb
Organisms are either heterotrophic or autotrophic, meaning that they cover their carbon requirements by assimilating organic compounds or by fixing inorganic carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The conversion of a heterotrophic organism into an autotrophic one by metabolic engineering is a long-standing goal in synthetic biology and biotechnology, because it ultimately allows for the production of value-added compounds from CO2 . The heterotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is a platform organism for a future C1-based bioeconomy...
April 3, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Patrick Kottenhahn, Kai Schuchmann, Volker Müller
Background: Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) is an attractive future energy carrier to replace fossil fuels. Biologically and sustainably produced H2 could contribute significantly to the future energy mix. However, biological H2 production methods are faced with multiple barriers including substrate cost, low production rates, and low yields. The C1 compound formate is a promising substrate for biological H2 production, as it can be produced itself from various sources including electrochemical reduction of CO2 or from synthesis gas...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Christophe Leplat, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Tristan Rossignol
Yarrowia lipolytica is a non-conventional oleaginous yeast that displays high lipid titers and yields; its production capacity holds significant promise for industrial biolipid applications. While its lipid metabolism has been widely studied, little is known about its transcriptional regulatory network. Deciphering the role of transcriptional regulators is crucial for understanding lipid accumulation, a complex phenomenon.To identify the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, we developed a systematic overexpression approach for 148 putative transcription factors...
March 29, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Leah R Vincent, Samuel R Kerr, Yang Tan, Joshua Tomberg, Erica L Raterman, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Magnus Unemo, Robert A Nicholas, Ann E Jerse
Resistance to ceftriaxone in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is mainly conferred by mosaic penA alleles that encode penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) variants with markedly lower rates of acylation by ceftriaxone. To assess the impact of these mosaic penA alleles on gonococcal fitness, we introduced the mosaic penA alleles from two ceftriaxone-resistant (Cror ) clinical isolates (H041 and F89) into a Cros strain (FA19) by allelic exchange and showed that the resultant Cror mutants were significantly outcompeted by the Cros parent strain in vitro and in a murine infection model...
April 3, 2018: MBio
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