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End of life legislation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717769/end-of-life-care-in-latin-america
#1
REVIEW
Enrique Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Tania Pastrana, Rossana Ruiz-Mendoza, Alexandra Bukowski, Paul E Goss
Cancer has become a global pandemic with disproportionately higher mortality rates in low- and middle- income countries, where a large fraction of patients present in advanced stages and in need of end-of-life care. Globally, the number of adults needing end-of-life care is greater than 19 million, and up to 78% of these patients are living in low- and middle- income countries. In the Americas alone, more than one million people are in need of end-of-life care, placing an enormous burden on local health systems, which are often unprepared to meet the challenge presented by this complex patient population...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608984/dialysis-in-the-undocumented-the-past-the-present-and-what-lies-ahead
#2
EDITORIAL
Shruti Gupta, Andrew Z Fenves
In many states undocumented immigrants with end stage renal disease (ESRD) do not have access to regular, thrice weekly dialysis. The term "compassionate dialysis" is used to describe dialysis that is provided on an emergent basis, when patients are in extremis from symptoms of volume overload or suffer from life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities. In this editorial, one particularly poignant anecdote is presented from the experience of one of the authors (AZF) as a nephrologist in Texas, a state where undocumented immigrants have faced difficulties in accessing regular dialysis...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587503/sense-of-responsibility-in-icu-end-of-life-decision-making-relatives-experiences
#3
Ranveig Lind
BACKGROUND: Relatives of intensive care unit patients who lack or have reduced capacity to consent are entitled to information and participation in decision-making together with the patient. Practice varies with legislation in different countries. In Norway, crucial decisions such as withdrawing treatment are made by clinicians, usually morally justified to relatives with reference to the principle of non-maleficence. The relatives should, however, be consulted about whether they know what the patient would have wished in the situation...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427738/assessment-of-a-combined-dry-anaerobic-digestion-and-post-composting-treatment-facility-for-source-separated-organic-household-waste-using-material-and-substance-flow-analysis-and-life-cycle-inventory
#4
Morten Bang Jensen, Jacob Møller, Charlotte Scheutz
The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO3, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air...
April 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426217/phosphorus-depletion-as-a-green-alternative-to-biocides-for-controlling-biodegradation-of-metalworking-fluids
#5
Yaldah Azimi, Ian P Thompson
Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are used as lubricants and coolants in the manufacturing operations. Their biodeterioration, while in operation, is a widespread problem leading to poor performance and worker health issues. Adding biocides, though effective in reducing microbial growth, leads to the production of more recalcitrant wastewaters that are difficult to dispose or recycle on-site. Increasing environmental concerns have led to robust legislation for reducing/eliminating the use of toxic biocides in MWFs, stimulating a growing interest in the development/application of alternative biological preservation strategies...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419505/assisted-dying-disability
#6
Christopher A Riddle
This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal...
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393995/-euthanasia-in-chile
#7
REVIEW
Víctor Hugo Carrasco M, Francisca Crispi
Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chile’s history in euthanasia and the population’s opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314153/sewage-sludge-disposal-strategies-for-sustainable-development
#8
REVIEW
Małgorzata Kacprzak, Ewa Neczaj, Krzysztof Fijałkowski, Anna Grobelak, Anna Grosser, Małgorzata Worwag, Agnieszka Rorat, Helge Brattebo, Åsgeir Almås, Bal Ram Singh
The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems...
July 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301700/implementing-california-s-law-on-assisted-dying
#9
Ruchika Mishra
On October 5, 2015, Governor Jerry Brown approved bill ABX2 15, the End of Life Option Act, making California the fifth state in the country to allow physician-assisted dying. The law was modeled after Oregon's 1997 Death with Dignity Act. When the legislative special session ended on March 10, 2016, California health care providers had only ninety days to respond to the state mandate before the law would take effect, on June 9, 2016. Experience with the law so far suggests several challenges with implementation...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214237/knowledge-attitudes-and-preferences-of-advance-decisions-end-of-life-care-and-place-of-care-and-death-in-hong-kong-a%C3%A2-population-based-telephone-survey-of-1067-adults
#10
Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Nicole Kiang, Patsy Yuen-Kwan Chau, Janice Y C Lau, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Jean W Woo
OBJECTIVES: According to the 2015 Quality of Death Index published by the Intelligence Unit of the Economist, Hong Kong is ranked 22nd in terms of quality of palliative care in the world, behind many other major developed countries in Asia, including Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea. The objectives of the present study were to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preferences of the general Hong Kong adult population across different age groups regarding end-of-life (EOL) care decisions, place of care and death, as well as advance directive (AD)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210521/the-right-to-die-in-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-can-we-avoid-the-slippery-slope-argument
#11
REVIEW
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Rosaria De Luca, Margherita Russo, Lory Caccamo, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
Managing individuals with chronic disorders of consciousness raises ethical questions about the appropriateness of maintaining life-sustaining treatments and end-of-life decisions for those who are unable to make decisions for themselves. For many years, the positions fostering the "sanctity" of human life (i.e., life is inviolable in any case) have led to maintaining life-sustaining treatments (including artificial nutrition and hydration) in patients with disorders of consciousness, allowing them to live for as long as possible...
November 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187813/organ-donation-protocols
#12
REVIEW
C B Maciel, D Y Hwang, D M Greer
Organ transplantation improves survival and quality of life in patients with end-organ failure. Waiting lists continue to grow across the world despite remarkable advances in the transplantation process, from the creation of public engagement campaigns to the development of critical pathways for the timely identification, referral, approach, and treatment of the potential organ donor. The pathophysiology of dying triggers systemic changes that are intimately related to organ viability. The intensive care management of the potential organ donor optimizes organ function and improves the donation yield, representing a significant step in reducing the mismatch between organ supply and demand...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156567/are-hospital-clinicians-aware-of-legislation-surrounding-provision-of-palliative-care
#13
(no author information available yet)
118 Background: Many deaths require medical treatment to be withheld or withdrawn. Patients or their substitute decision makers may disagree with these decisions, and sometimes refuse the right to appropriate palliative care. An awareness of legal frameworks surrounding end of life decisions is vital to navigate through these conflicts. Without this, patients suffer unnecessarily. METHODS: 542 hospital doctors and nurses were recruited from a large metropolitan public tertiary teaching hospital network involving 5 campuses and 2 medical schools...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100140/human-rights-and-dignity-behind-bars
#14
Tina Maschi, Marina Richter
Death and dying in prisons constitute a topic of growing importance across the globe. Based on the contributions made in this special issue, we reflect on current debates and outline recommendations for dialogue and practice. Scientific dialogue across the Atlantic, and across the globe, provides insights into different national carceral systems and their ways of dealing with end of life behind bars. At the same time, the comparison also helps to identify basic needs and practices that can work in various settings...
January 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031256/organ-donation-after-medical-assistance-in-dying-or-cessation-of-life-sustaining-treatment-requested-by-conscious-patients-the-canadian-context
#15
Julie Allard, Marie-Chantal Fortin
In June 2016, following the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada to decriminalise assistance in dying, the Canadian government enacted Bill C-14, legalising medical assistance in dying (MAID). In 2014, the province of Quebec had passed end-of-life care legislation making MAID available as of December 2015. The availability of MAID has many implications, including the possibility of combining this practice with organ donation through the controlled donation after cardiac death (cDCD) protocol. cDCD most often occurs in cases where the patient has a severe neurological injury but does not meet all the criteria for brain death...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027675/nurses-moral-experiences-of-assisted-death
#16
James Elmore, David Kenneth Wright, Maude Paradis
BACKGROUND: Legislative changes are resulting in assisted death as an option for people at the end of life. Although nurses' experiences and perspectives are underrepresented within broader ethical discourses about assisted death, there is a small but significant body of literature examining nurses' experiences of caring for people who request this option. AIM: To synthesize what has been learned about nurses' experiences of caring for patients who request assisted death and to highlight what is morally at stake for nurses who undertake this type of care...
January 1, 2016: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981764/legal-and-ethical-issues-associated-with-advance-care-directives-in-an-australian-context
#17
D L Denniss
The need for appropriate mechanisms guiding end-of-life care is increasingly vital. This commentary compares the use of Advance Care Directives (ACD) in New South Wales and South Australia in order to highlight the inconsistency in Australian legislation, before exploring common problems, legal concerns and ethical issues associated with their application in an adult population. The benefits and detriments of statutory legislation for ACD are also evaluated.
December 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909209/reuse-of-bituminous-pavements-a-mini-review-of-research-regulations-and-modelling
#18
REVIEW
Joke Anthonissen, Wim Van den Bergh, Johan Braet
Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement...
April 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885089/slaying-the-dragon-the-story-of-one-fpso-20-vietnamese-operators-and-3-concrete-mixers
#19
Anthony O'Brien, Annelize van Rooyen
End of life of a floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) facility requires a lot of planning and management. One of the major challenges is the issue of decontamination and waste management. Waste disposal is a very sensitive subject and with agreements like the London Protocol and differences in legislation between countries, it has the potential to become a major stumbling block. Radiation safety is something not often on the mind of an FPSO operator. The planning and layout of such a vessel and its processing plant have usually not gone through any as low as reasonably achievable process during design...
April 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842649/-anticipating-the-end-of-life-planning-for-the-loss-of-intellectual-autonomy
#20
Laurence Gouello
More than ten years after the Leonetti law was passed, the French parliament has definitively adopted legislation granting new rights to people at the end of life. This new legislation is the result of persistent public pressure. French people want to see their wishes respected with regard to their end-of-life care. How and in what conditions should such measures be applied in the case of patients at the end of life and with diminished intellectual autonomy?
November 2016: Soins. Gérontologie
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