Read by QxMD icon Read

End of life legislation

Ravindra B Ghooi, Kelly Dhru, Sheela Jaywant
Many individuals at the end of life are unable to convey their wishes regarding medical treatments. Advance directives (ADs) or living wills (LWs) allow them to crystallise their wishes in a written form so that these can be carried out if the relevant situation arises. In many countries, ADs are legally valid and enforceable; they reduce the use of life-sustaining treatments, which often merely prolong life without improving or even maintaining the quality of life. Such treatment puts a financial burden on the patient's family, often leading to penury...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Dana M Zive, Jennifer Cook, Charissa Yang, David Sibell, Susan W Tolle, Michael Lieberman
In April 2015, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) deployed a web-based, electronic medical record-embedded application created by third party vendor Vynca Inc. to allow real-time education, and completion of Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST). Forms are automatically linked to the Epic Systems™ electronic health record (EHR) patient header and submitted to a state Registry, improving efficiency, accuracy, and rapid access to and retrieval of these important medical orders. POLST Forms, implemented in Oregon in 1992, are standardized portable medical orders used to document patient treatment goals for end-of-life care...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Lisa C Lindley
BACKGROUND: California implemented pediatric palliative care legislations that allowed children to receive curative and supportive care from diagnosis of a life-threatening, serious illness in 2010. Palliative care policies may improve access to hospice care as children near end of life. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of the palliative care policy on hospice utilization for children and their families was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN: Using 2007 and 2010 California Medicaid data, a difference-in-difference analysis was conducted to analyze hospice use (i...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Olugbenga O Akinade, Lukumon O Oyedele, Saheed O Ajayi, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz A Alaka, Hakeem A Owolabi, Sururah A Bello, Babatunde E Jaiyeoba, Kabir O Kadiri
The aim of this paper is to identify Critical Success Factors (CSF) needed for effective material recovery through Design for Deconstruction (DfD). The research approach employed in this paper is based on a sequential exploratory mixed method strategy. After a thorough review of literature and conducting four Focus Group Discussion (FGDs), 43 DfD factors were identified and put together in a questionnaire survey. Data analyses include Cronbach's alpha reliability analysis, mean testing using significance index, and exploratory factor analysis...
August 25, 2016: Waste Management
Qiu Zhang, Chuanbo Xie, Shanghang Xie, Qing Liu
Advance directives (ADs) have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients' quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rashad S Barsoum
Geographical, ecological, and genetic factors result in many similarities among the six main countries of the African Sahara, including the epidemiology of kidney disease. With an average incidence of 182 and prevalence of 522 patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) per million population, North Africa (NA) spends $650 million on dialysis and transplantation despite an estimated annual loss of 600,000 life years. The health burden of ESKD is not limited to its directly-related morbidity and mortality but affects even more significantly other body systems, particularly the cardiovascular system...
July 29, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Kasper Raus, Kenneth Chambaere, Sigrid Sterckx
BACKGROUND: Continuous deep sedation at the end of life is a practice that has been the topic of considerable ethical debate, for example surrounding its perceived similarity or dissimilarity with physician-assisted dying. The practice is generally considered to be legal as a form of symptom control, although this is mostly only assumed. France has passed an amendment to the Public Health Act that would grant certain terminally ill patients an explicit right to continuous deep sedation until they pass away...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Ruth Horn, Angeliki Kerasidou
Dignity is one of the most controversial and yet commonly used terms in debates regarding end-of-life issues. The term "dignity" can take various meanings. For example, it can be used to denote the respect owed to an individual person, or to signify the intrinsic value of humankind as a whole. These two different understandings of dignity inevitably lead to different approaches to end-of-life decisionmaking. This article explores the meaning of the term "dignity" in two European countries, England and France...
July 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
W C Li, H F Tse, L Fok
This review article summarises the sources, occurrence, fate and effects of plastic waste in the marine environment. Due to its resistance to degradation, most plastic debris will persist in the environment for centuries and may be transported far from its source, including great distances out to sea. Land- and ocean-based sources are the major sources of plastic entering the environment, with domestic, industrial and fishing activities being the most important contributors. Ocean gyres are particular hotspots of plastic waste accumulation...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ellen Fink-Samnick
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: This article: PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTINGS(S): : Applicable to all health care sectors where case management is practiced. FINDINGS/CONCLUSION: Few topics are more intimate and multifaceted for case managers than engaging with today's culturally diverse patient populations around end-of-life processes. The already prominent focus of this issue has been further elevated by a series of events to receive public attention...
July 2016: Professional Case Management
Daniel Boivin, Julie Barrette
Soon, physicians across Canada will be permitted to assist patients in dying, provided certain conditions are met. Physicians in the province of Quebec can already provide this service since December 10, 2015. While Quebec has been studying the question of legislating medical aid in dying since 2009, the rest of the country must come up with legislation on this issue within the next few months. This article suggests that other Canadian jurisdictions, federally and provincially/territorially, may find inspiration in the extensive work done in Quebec leading to its end-of-life legislation, including on the issues of identifying proper safeguards to protect vulnerable people and eligibility criteria that could be put in place in these jurisdictions...
February 2016: Health Law in Canada
Harvey Schipper
Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus...
February 2016: Health Law in Canada
Gerald Chipeur
In this article, the author reviews Supreme Court of Canada and European Court of Human Rights case law to identify the factors the Parliament of Canada should take into account when it creates legislation regulating physician-assisted suicide. He also highlights the Criminal Code provisions that currently govern the provision of assistance in a suicide. The author concludes that the Charter of Rights and Freedoms requires a unique Canadian approach to the subject of physician-assisted suicide--an approach that provides adequate safeguards to protect the vulnerable, adequate oversight to ensure transparency, and adequate accommodation for the ethical and moral concerns of physicians to respect their human rights...
February 2016: Health Law in Canada
Afsoon Taghavi, Mohammad Hashemi-Bahremani, Leili Hosseini, Shabnam Bazmi
This article investigates ethical challenges cancer patients face in the end stages of life including doctors' responsibilities, patients' rights, unexpected desires of patients and their relatives, futile treatments, and communication with patients in end stages of life. These patients are taken care of through palliative rather than curative measures. In many cases, patients in the last days of life ask their physician to terminate their illness via euthanasia which has many ethical considerations. Proponents of such mercy killing (euthanasia) believe that if the patient desires, the physician must end the life, while opponents of this issue, consider it as an act of murder incompatible with the spirit of medical sciences...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Janet Sopcheck
For many decades, Americans showed a preference for delaying death through a technological imperative that often created challenges for nurses in caring for dying patients and their families. Because of their vast knowledge of health and healing, and their proximity to patients' bedsides, nurses are often well positioned to advocate for healthcare reform and legislation to improve end-of-life care. This article provides an overview of the social, economic, and political factors that are shaping end-of-life care in the United States...
February 2016: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
Małgorzata Szeroczyńska, Marek Czarkowski, Małgorzata Krajnik, Romuald Krajewski, Leszek Pawłowski, Anna Adamczyk, Agnieszka Barczak-Oplustil, Piotr Aszyk, Andrzej Kobyliński, Tomasz Pasierski, Piotr Sobański, Wojciech Bołoz On Behalf Of The Polish Working Group On End-Of-Life Ethics
INTRODUCTION In numerous countries legislation has been put in place allowing citizens to appoint persons authorized to make medical decisions on their behalf, should the principal lose such decision‑making capacity. OBJECTIVES The paper aimed to prepare a draft proposal of legal regulations introducing into Polish legislation the institution of the health care agent. PATIENTS AND METHODS The draft proposal has been grounded in 6 expertise workshops, in conjunction with several online debates. RESULTS The right to appoint a health care agent should apply to all persons of full legal capacity, and to minors over 16 years of age...
May 5, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
J Toulouse, M-C Leneveu, J Brouard, M Alexandre
BACKGROUND: Pediatrics residents treat patients who are particularly vulnerable and they care for many patients in palliative situations. The purpose of this study was to build a typology detailing the representations of pediatrics and oncology residents on palliative care and how these transfer to their practice, and to determine their knowledge of euthanasia and end-of-life legislation. METHODS: To draw up this typology, we used a semidirective interview method...
June 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
C Velter, B Cribier, F Goldwasser, P Vinant
INTRODUCTION: Patient information and advance directives (AD) are described in the French laws of 4 March 2002 and 22 April 2005, which concern the decisions of subjects regarding end-of-life treatment. At present, practitioners rarely seek the opinion of patients on this matter. The Claeys-Leonetti law requires doctors to identify any advance directives by patients, which are binding upon medical staff. The present study sought to analyse the extent of application of the laws of 2002 and 2005 and to collect the observations of clinicians in dermato-oncology regarding the new legislation...
August 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Grant Gillett
The application by Lecretia Seales, in relation to the lawfulness of physician aid in dying in New Zealand, was heard by Collins J, an experienced medical jurisprudentialist. It raised issues re-ignited by the recent Supreme Court of Canada ruling in Carter v Canada and the legislative change in California. Is a continued prohibition in Australasia and the United Kingdom against physician aid in dying causing patients to be subjected to cruel, inhumane and undignified deaths or, in fact, is a legislative change unnecessary given the level of care that patients can receive and the peaceful and harmonious deaths that we often hear about in hospice and other settings...
December 2015: Journal of Law and Medicine
R R Kishore
Aruna Shanbaug's protracted continuance in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) for nearly 42 years needs to be viewed seriously by all those who believe in a person's inalienable right to dignity in dying. A terminally ill and/or incapacitated individual is a helpless person confronted with perpetual risk of intrusion in to his autonomy by the moral paternalists, owing to false notion of human virtues. Legislative inadequacy coupled with judicial heterogeneity has exposed the decision making process to unwarranted ambiguity...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"