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End of life legislation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100140/human-rights-and-dignity-behind-bars
#1
Tina Maschi, Marina Richter
Death and dying in prisons constitute a topic of growing importance across the globe. Based on the contributions made in this special issue, we reflect on current debates and outline recommendations for dialogue and practice. Scientific dialogue across the Atlantic, and across the globe, provides insights into different national carceral systems and their ways of dealing with end of life behind bars. At the same time, the comparison also helps to identify basic needs and practices that can work in various settings...
January 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031256/organ-donation-after-medical-assistance-in-dying-or-cessation-of-life-sustaining-treatment-requested-by-conscious-patients-the-canadian-context
#2
Julie Allard, Marie-Chantal Fortin
In June 2016, following the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada to decriminalise assistance in dying, the Canadian government enacted Bill C-14, legalising medical assistance in dying (MAID). In 2014, the province of Quebec had passed end-of-life care legislation making MAID available as of December 2015. The availability of MAID has many implications, including the possibility of combining this practice with organ donation through the controlled donation after cardiac death (cDCD) protocol. cDCD most often occurs in cases where the patient has a severe neurological injury but does not meet all the criteria for brain death...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027675/nurses-moral-experiences-of-assisted-death
#3
James Elmore, David Kenneth Wright, Maude Paradis
BACKGROUND: Legislative changes are resulting in assisted death as an option for people at the end of life. Although nurses' experiences and perspectives are underrepresented within broader ethical discourses about assisted death, there is a small but significant body of literature examining nurses' experiences of caring for people who request this option. AIM: To synthesize what has been learned about nurses' experiences of caring for patients who request assisted death and to highlight what is morally at stake for nurses who undertake this type of care...
January 1, 2016: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981764/legal-and-ethical-issues-associated-with-advance-care-directives-in-an-australian-context
#4
D L Denniss
The need for appropriate mechanisms guiding end-of-life care is increasingly vital. This commentary compares the use of Advance Care Directives (ACD) in New South Wales and South Australia in order to highlight the inconsistency in Australian legislation, before exploring common problems, legal concerns and ethical issues associated with their application in an adult population. The benefits and detriments of statutory legislation for ACD are also evaluated.
December 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909209/reuse-of-bituminous-pavements-a-mini-review-of-research-regulations-and-modelling
#5
REVIEW
Joke Anthonissen, Wim Van den Bergh, Johan Braet
Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885089/slaying-the-dragon-the-story-of-one-fpso-20-vietnamese-operators-and-3-concrete-mixers
#6
Anthony O'Brien, Annelize van Rooyen
End of life of a floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) facility requires a lot of planning and management. One of the major challenges is the issue of decontamination and waste management. Waste disposal is a very sensitive subject and with agreements like the London Protocol and differences in legislation between countries, it has the potential to become a major stumbling block. Radiation safety is something not often on the mind of an FPSO operator. The planning and layout of such a vessel and its processing plant have usually not gone through any as low as reasonably achievable process during design...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842649/-anticipating-the-end-of-life-planning-for-the-loss-of-intellectual-autonomy
#7
Laurence Gouello
More than ten years after the Leonetti law was passed, the French parliament has definitively adopted legislation granting new rights to people at the end of life. This new legislation is the result of persistent public pressure. French people want to see their wishes respected with regard to their end-of-life care. How and in what conditions should such measures be applied in the case of patients at the end of life and with diminished intellectual autonomy?
November 2016: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803564/the-palliative-care-information-act-and-access-to-palliative-care-in-terminally-ill-patients-a-retrospective-study
#8
Kitty Victoria, Sarita Patel
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that over 50% of end-of-life discussions take place for the first time in the hospital and that terminally ill patients often have unrealistic views regarding the possible scope of treatment. The Palliative Care information Act (PCIA) was passed in an attempt to address the lack of access for terminally ill patients to palliative care services. A multi-database systematic review was performed on published studies from 2010 to present, and there were none found measuring the effectiveness of the PCIA...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776894/end-of-life-euthanasia-and-assisted-suicide-an-update-on-the-situation-in-france
#9
REVIEW
R Aubry
On February 2, 2016, the French parliament adopted legislation creating new rights for the terminally ill. The text modifies and reinforces the rights of patients to end-of-life care and strengthens the status of surrogate decision makers. Under the new regulations, advance directives become legally binding though not unenforceable. Two types of advance directives are distinguished depending on whether the person is suffering or not from a serious illness when drafting them. The attending physician must abide by the patient's advance directives except in three situations: there is a life-threatening emergency; the directives are manifestly inappropriate; the directives are not compatible with the patient's medical condition...
December 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731296/the-urgent-need-for-advance-directives-in-india
#10
Ravindra B Ghooi, Kelly Dhru, Sheela Jaywant
Many individuals at the end of life are unable to convey their wishes regarding medical treatments. Advance directives (ADs) or living wills (LWs) allow them to crystallise their wishes in a written form so that these can be carried out if the relevant situation arises. In many countries, ADs are legally valid and enforceable; they reduce the use of life-sustaining treatments, which often merely prolong life without improving or even maintaining the quality of life. Such treatment puts a financial burden on the patient's family, often leading to penury...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696173/implementation-of-a-novel-electronic-health-record-embedded-physician-orders-for-life-sustaining-treatment-system
#11
Dana M Zive, Jennifer Cook, Charissa Yang, David Sibell, Susan W Tolle, Michael Lieberman
In April 2015, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) deployed a web-based, electronic medical record-embedded application created by third party vendor Vynca Inc. to allow real-time education, and completion of Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST). Forms are automatically linked to the Epic Systems™ electronic health record (EHR) patient header and submitted to a state Registry, improving efficiency, accuracy, and rapid access to and retrieval of these important medical orders. POLST Forms, implemented in Oregon in 1992, are standardized portable medical orders used to document patient treatment goals for end-of-life care...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693902/the-effect-of-pediatric-palliative-care-policy-on-hospice-utilization-among-california-medicaid-beneficiaries
#12
Lisa C Lindley
CONTEXT: California implemented pediatric palliative care legislations that allowed children to receive curative and supportive care from diagnosis of a life-threatening serious illness in 2010. Palliative care policies may improve access to hospice care as children near end of life. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the palliative care policy on hospice utilization for children and their families was investigated. METHODS: Using 2007 and 2010 California Medicaid data, a difference-in-difference analysis was conducted to analyze hospice use (i...
November 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569731/design-for-deconstruction-dfd-critical-success-factors-for-diverting-end-of-life-waste-from-landfills
#13
Olugbenga O Akinade, Lukumon O Oyedele, Saheed O Ajayi, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz A Alaka, Hakeem A Owolabi, Sururah A Bello, Babatunde E Jaiyeoba, Kabir O Kadiri
The aim of this paper is to identify Critical Success Factors (CSF) needed for effective material recovery through Design for Deconstruction (DfD). The research approach employed in this paper is based on a sequential exploratory mixed method strategy. After a thorough review of literature and conducting four Focus Group Discussion (FGDs), 43 DfD factors were identified and put together in a questionnaire survey. Data analyses include Cronbach's alpha reliability analysis, mean testing using significance index, and exploratory factor analysis...
August 25, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529264/the-attitudes-of-chinese-cancer-patients-and-family-caregivers-toward-advance-directives
#14
Qiu Zhang, Chuanbo Xie, Shanghang Xie, Qing Liu
Advance directives (ADs) have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients' quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469145/burden-of-end-stage-kidney-disease-north-africa
#15
Rashad S Barsoum
Geographical, ecological, and genetic factors result in many similarities among the six main countries of the African Sahara, including the epidemiology of kidney disease. With an average incidence of 182 and prevalence of 522 patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) per million population, North Africa (NA) spends $650 million on dialysis and transplantation despite an estimated annual loss of 600,000 life years. The health burden of ESKD is not limited to its directly-related morbidity and mortality but affects even more significantly other body systems, particularly the cardiovascular system...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357285/controversies-surrounding-continuous-deep-sedation-at-the-end-of-life-the-parliamentary-and-societal-debates-in-france
#16
Kasper Raus, Kenneth Chambaere, Sigrid Sterckx
BACKGROUND: Continuous deep sedation at the end of life is a practice that has been the topic of considerable ethical debate, for example surrounding its perceived similarity or dissimilarity with physician-assisted dying. The practice is generally considered to be legal as a form of symptom control, although this is mostly only assumed. France has passed an amendment to the Public Health Act that would grant certain terminally ill patients an explicit right to continuous deep sedation until they pass away...
June 29, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348825/the-concept-of-dignity-and-its-use-in-end-of-life-debates-in-england-and-france
#17
Ruth Horn, Angeliki Kerasidou
Dignity is one of the most controversial and yet commonly used terms in debates regarding end-of-life issues. The term "dignity" can take various meanings. For example, it can be used to denote the respect owed to an individual person, or to signify the intrinsic value of humankind as a whole. These two different understandings of dignity inevitably lead to different approaches to end-of-life decisionmaking. This article explores the meaning of the term "dignity" in two European countries, England and France...
July 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232963/plastic-waste-in-the-marine-environment-a-review-of-sources-occurrence-and-effects
#18
REVIEW
W C Li, H F Tse, L Fok
This review article summarises the sources, occurrence, fate and effects of plastic waste in the marine environment. Due to its resistance to degradation, most plastic debris will persist in the environment for centuries and may be transported far from its source, including great distances out to sea. Land- and ocean-based sources are the major sources of plastic entering the environment, with domestic, industrial and fishing activities being the most important contributors. Ocean gyres are particular hotspots of plastic waste accumulation...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231957/the-evolution-of-end-of-life-care-ethical-implications-for-case-management
#19
Ellen Fink-Samnick
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: This article: PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTINGS(S): : Applicable to all health care sectors where case management is practiced. FINDINGS/CONCLUSION: Few topics are more intimate and multifaceted for case managers than engaging with today's culturally diverse patient populations around end-of-life processes. The already prominent focus of this issue has been further elevated by a series of events to receive public attention...
July 2016: Professional Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169207/quebec-s-medical-aid-in-dying-an-inspiration-for-other-canadian-jurisdictions
#20
Daniel Boivin, Julie Barrette
Soon, physicians across Canada will be permitted to assist patients in dying, provided certain conditions are met. Physicians in the province of Quebec can already provide this service since December 10, 2015. While Quebec has been studying the question of legislating medical aid in dying since 2009, the rest of the country must come up with legislation on this issue within the next few months. This article suggests that other Canadian jurisdictions, federally and provincially/territorially, may find inspiration in the extensive work done in Quebec leading to its end-of-life legislation, including on the issues of identifying proper safeguards to protect vulnerable people and eligibility criteria that could be put in place in these jurisdictions...
February 2016: Health Law in Canada
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