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Piyush Priya, Archana Yadav, Jyoti Chand, Gitanjali Yadav
Background: Terpenoid hydrocarbons represent the largest and most ancient group of phytochemicals, such that the entire chemical library of a plant is often referred to as its 'terpenome'. Besides having numerous pharmacological properties, terpenes contribute to the scent of the rose, the flavors of cinnamon and the yellow of sunflowers. Rapidly increasing -omics datasets provide an unprecedented opportunity for terpenome detection, paving the way for automated web resources dedicated to phytochemical predictions in genomic data...
2018: Plant Methods
Ling Ding, Helmar Goerls, Katharina Dornblut, Wenhan Lin, Armin Maier, Heinz-Herbert Fiebig, Christian Hertweck
Caryolanes are known as typical plant-derived sesquiterpenes. Here we describe the isolation and full structure elucidation of three caryolanes, bacaryolane A-C (1-3), that are produced by a bacterial endophyte (Streptomyces sp. JMRC:ST027706) of the mangrove plant Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. By 2D NMR, analysis of the first X-ray crystallographic data of a caryolane (bacaryolane C), CD spectroscopy, and comparison with data for plant-derived caryolanes, we rigorously established the absolute configuration of the bacaryolanes and related compounds from bacteria...
December 24, 2015: Journal of Natural Products
Matthew W Bernart
The citrus-derived bioactive monoterpene limonene is an important industrial commodity and fragrance constituent. An RP isocratic elution C18 ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) method using a superficially porous stationary phase and photodiode array (PDA) detector has been developed for determining the limonene content of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) oil. The method is fast with a cycle time of 1.2 min, linear, precise, accurate, specific, and stability indicating, and it satisfies U.S. Pharmacopeia suitability parameters...
January 2015: Journal of AOAC International
Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Diogo Antonio Tschoeke, Aline Santos de Oliveira, Lilian Jorge Hill, Wladimir Costa Paradas, Leonardo Tavares Salgado, Cristiane Carneiro Thompson, Renato Crespo Pereira, Fabiano L Thompson
The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons...
February 2015: Marine Drugs
Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
Tens of thousands of terpenoid natural products have been isolated from plants and microbial sources. Higher fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are known to produce an array of well-known terpenoid natural products, including mycotoxins, antibiotics, antitumor compounds, and phytohormones. Except for a few well-studied fungal biosynthetic pathways, the majority of genes and biosynthetic pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of a small number of these secondary metabolites have only been discovered and characterized in the past 5-10 years...
2015: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Maureen B Quin, Christopher M Flynn, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures...
October 2014: Natural Product Reports
István Molnár, David Lopez, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Timothy P Devarenne, Taylor L Weiss, Matteo Pellegrini, Jeremiah D Hackett
BACKGROUND: Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material...
October 30, 2012: BMC Genomics
David E Cane, Haruo Ikeda
Tens of thousands of terpenoids are present in both terrestrial and marine plants, as well as fungi. In the last 5-10 years, however, it has become evident that terpenes are also produced by numerous bacteria, especially soil-dwelling Gram-positive organisms such as Streptomyces and other Actinomycetes. Although some microbial terpenes, such as geosmin, the degraded sesquiterpene responsible for the smell of moist soil, the characteristic odor of the earth itself, have been known for over 100 years, few terpenoids have been identified by classical structure- or activity-guided screening of bacterial culture extracts...
March 20, 2012: Accounts of Chemical Research
David W Christianson
Although terpenoid synthases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, these enzymes appear to play little role in the chemistry of catalysis other than to trigger the ionization and chaperone the conformation of flexible isoprenoid substrates and carbocation intermediates through multistep reaction cascades. Fidelity and promiscuity in this chemistry (whether a terpenoid synthase generates one or several products), depends on the permissiveness of the active site template in chaperoning each step of an isoprenoid coupling or cyclization reaction...
April 2008: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
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