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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779068/new-insights-into-the-inflamed-tumor-immune-microenvironment-of-gastric-cancer-with-lymphoid-stroma-from-morphology-and-digital-analysis-to-gene-expression
#1
Irene Gullo, Patrícia Oliveira, Maria Athelogou, Gilza Gonçalves, Marta L Pinto, Joana Carvalho, Ana Valente, Hugo Pinheiro, Sara Andrade, Gabriela M Almeida, Ralf Huss, Kakoli Das, Patrick Tan, José C Machado, Carla Oliveira, Fátima Carneiro
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer with lymphoid stroma (GCLS) is characterized by prominent stromal infiltration of T-lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate GCLS biology through analysis of clinicopathological features, EBV infection, microsatellite instability (MSI), immune gene-expression profiling and PD-L1 status in neoplastic cells and tumor immune microenvironment. METHODS: Twenty-four GCLSs were analyzed by RNA in situ hybridization for EBV (EBER), PCR/fragment analysis for MSI, immunohistochemistry (PD-L1, cytokeratin, CD3, CD8), co-immunofluorescence (CK/PD-L1, CD68/PD-L1), NanoString gene-expression assay for immune-related genes and PD-L1 copy number alterations...
May 19, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779041/the-potential-importance-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown, but the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and chronic inflammation indicates that immune disturbances are involved in AD pathogenesis. Recent genetic studies have revealed that many candidate genes are expressed in both microglia and myeloid cells which infiltrate into the AD brains. Invading myeloid cells controls the functions of resident microglia in pathological conditions, such as AD pathology. AD is a neurologic disease with inflammatory component where the immune system is not able to eliminate the perpetrator, while, concurrently, it should prevent neuronal injuries induced by inflammation...
May 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778982/efficient-co-delivery-of-neo-epitopes-using-dispersion-stable-layered-double-hydroxide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-melanoma-immunotherapy
#3
Ling-Xiao Zhang, Xi-Xiu Xie, Dong-Qun Liu, Zhi Ping Xu, Rui-Tian Liu
Cancer immunotherapy has shown tremendous progresses in recent years for various cancers and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles are demonstrated as effective adjuvants for protein-based vaccines. This research further shows that the colloidal stability of LDH-based vaccines significantly influences the therapeutic efficacy and LDH nanoparticles are able to adjuvant multiple tumor-associated antigen peptides to provoke strong cell-mediated immune responses for effective inhibition of cancer growth...
May 10, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778842/curcumin-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-organ-dysfunction-by-preventing-inflammation-and-enhancing-the-suppressive-function-of-tregs
#4
Longwang Chen, Yang Lu, Linjun Zhao, Lili Hu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhuoling Zhang, Mengfang Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators. It results in a dysregulated immune response and can lead to organ damage and death. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and immunoregulation functions in various disorders such as sepsis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, lung fibrosis, gallstone formation, and diabetes. This paper investigates the effects of curcumin on immune status and inflammatory response in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778737/cancer-immunotherapy-efficacy-and-patients-sex-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Fabio Conforti, Laura Pala, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Tommaso De Pas, Marco Martinetti, Giuseppe Viale, Richard D Gelber, Aron Goldhirsch
BACKGROUND: Despite the acknowledged sex-related dimorphism in immune system response, little is known about the effect of patients' sex on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors as cancer treatments. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the heterogeneity of immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy between men and women. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus, from database inception to Nov 30, 2017, for randomised controlled trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors (inhibitors of PD-1, CTLA-4, or both) that had available hazard ratios (HRs) for death according to patients' sex...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778570/nitrated-t-helper-cell-epitopes-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-her2-vaccine-and-induce-anti-tumor-immunity
#6
Hong Tian, Yu He, Xiaoda Song, Liangliang Jiang, Jianhua Luo, Yi Xu, Wanli Zhang, Xiangdong Gao, Wenbing Yao
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an attractive target for cancer vaccine. However, autoimmune tolerance prevents vaccines based on HER2 protein from inducing long-lasting, highly effective anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we proved that the introduction of p-nitrophenylalanine in the universal T cell epitope (named NitraTh) enhances humoral immunity induced by B cell epitope and cellular immunity induced by CTL epitope. Moreover, this NitraTh epitope can work in both mouse and human immune system...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778320/simultaneously-avoiding-the-hippocampus-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-a-planning-study
#7
Xing-Wen Fan, Juan-Qi Wang, Jun-Lan Wu, Hong-Bing Wang, Kai-Liang Wu
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the preferred treatment for multiple brain metastases, and patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer undergo prophylactic cranial irradiation after complete remission. However, neurotoxicity remains a complication. In addition to protecting the hippocampus from irradiation to preserve cognitive function, it is also critical to avoid irradiating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to preserve endocrine and immune function. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering WBRT while protecting the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777794/regulatory-t-cell-targeted-hybrid-nanoparticles-combined-with-immuno-checkpoint-blockage-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Wenquan Ou, Raj Kumar Thapa, Liyuan Jiang, Soe Zar Chi, Milan Gautam, Jae-Hoon Chang, Jee-Heon Jeong, Sae Kwang Ku, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
Immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments induced by regulatory T (Treg) cells is regarded a critical mechanism of tumor immune escape and poses a major impediment to cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we developed tLyp1 peptide-conjugated hybrid nanoparticles for targeting Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment. The tLyp1 peptide-modified hybrid nanoparticles presented good stability and effective targeting to Treg cells, and they enhanced the effect of imatinib in downregulating Treg cell suppression through inhibition of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777721/pentraxins-crp-i-and-crp-ii-are-post-translationally-deiminated-and-differ-in-tissue-specificity-in-cod-gadus-morhua-l-ontogeny
#9
Bergljót Magnadóttir, Polly Hayes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Birkir Þór Bragason, Mariya Hristova, Anthony P Nicholas, Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir, Sigrun Lange
Pentraxins are fluid phase pattern recognition molecules that form an important part of the innate immune defence and are conserved between fish and human. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), two pentraxin-like proteins have been described, CRP-I and CRP-II. Here we show for the first time that these two CRP forms are post-translationally deiminated (an irreversible conversion of arginine to citrulline) and differ with respect to tissue specific localisation in cod ontogeny from 3 to 84 days post hatching. While both forms are expressed in liver, albeit at temporally differing levels, CRP-I shows a strong association with nervous tissue while CRP-II is strongly associated to mucosal tissues of gut and skin...
May 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777710/mir-616-3p-promotes-angiogenesis-and-emt-in-gastric-cancer-via-the-pten-akt-mtor-pathway
#10
Zhen-Hua Wu, Chen Lin, Chen-Chen Liu, Wei-Wei Jiang, Ming-Zhu Huang, Xin Liu, Wei-Jian Guo
Dysregulation of microRNAs has been demonstrated to be involved in a variety of biological events related to cancer, including proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and immune escape. miR-616-3p is located on the chromosome region 12q13.3, however, its potential role and clinical implications in gastric cancer remain poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the potential role of miR-616-3p in gastric cancer. The results showed that miR-616-3p was up-regulated in cancer tissues. Higher expression of miR-616-3p in tumor tissues also predicted poor prognosis...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777219/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-at-the-center-of-immunity-to-solid-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Derk Amsen, Klaas P J M van Gisbergen, Pleun Hombrink, Rene A W van Lier
Immune responses in tissues are constrained by the physiological properties of the tissue involved. Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are a recently discovered lineage of T cells specialized for life and function within tissues. Emerging evidence has shown that TRM cells have a special role in the control of solid tumors. A high frequency of TRM cells in tumors correlates with favorable disease progression in patients with cancer, and studies of mice have shown that TRM cells are necessary for optimal immunological control of solid tumors...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777149/stretching-reduces-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-breast-cancer-model
#12
L Berrueta, J Bergholz, D Munoz, I Muskaj, G J Badger, A Shukla, H J Kim, J J Zhao, H M Langevin
There is growing interest in developing non-pharmacological treatments that could boost natural defenses against cancer and contribute to primary and secondary cancer prevention. Recent studies have shown that gentle daily stretching for 10 minutes can reduce local connective tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Because mechanical factors within the stroma can influence the tumor microenvironment, we hypothesized that stretching would reduce the growth of tumors implanted within locally stretched tissues and tested this hypothesis in a mouse orthotopic breast cancer model...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777108/factor-xiiia-expressing-inflammatory-monocytes-promote-lung-squamous-cancer-through-fibrin-cross-linking
#13
Alessandro Porrello, Patrick L Leslie, Emily B Harrison, Balachandra K Gorentla, Sravya Kattula, Subrata K Ghosh, Salma H Azam, Alisha Holtzhausen, Yvonne L Chao, Michele C Hayward, Trent A Waugh, Sanggyu Bae, Virginia Godfrey, Scott H Randell, Cecilia Oderup, Liza Makowski, Jared Weiss, Matthew D Wilkerson, D Neil Hayes, H Shelton Earp, Albert S Baldwin, Alisa S Wolberg, Chad V Pecot
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and lung squamous carcinomas (LUSC) represent about 30% of cases. Molecular aberrations in lung adenocarcinomas have allowed for effective targeted treatments, but corresponding therapeutic advances in LUSC have not materialized. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors in sub-populations of LUSC patients have led to exciting responses. Using computational analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified a subset of LUSC tumors characterized by dense infiltration of inflammatory monocytes (IMs) and poor survival...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776993/tumor-immune-evasion-arises-through-loss-of-tnf-sensitivity
#14
Conor J Kearney, Stephin J Vervoort, Simon J Hogg, Kelly M Ramsbottom, Andrew J Freeman, Najoua Lalaoui, Lizzy Pijpers, Jessica Michie, Kristin K Brown, Deborah A Knight, Vivien Sutton, Paul A Beavis, Ilia Voskoboinik, Phil K Darcy, John Silke, Joseph A Trapani, Ricky W Johnstone, Jane Oliaro
Immunotherapy has revolutionized outcomes for cancer patients, but the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly defined. We used a series of whole-genome clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based screens performed in vitro and in vivo to identify mechanisms of tumor immune evasion from cytotoxic lymphocytes [CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells]. Deletion of key genes within the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling, and antigen presentation pathways provided protection of tumor cells from CD8+ T cell-mediated killing and blunted antitumor immune responses in vivo...
May 18, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776955/high-fat-diet-induced-inflammation-accelerates-prostate-cancer-growth-via-il6-signaling
#15
Takuji Hayashi, Kazutoshi Fujita, Satoshi Nojima, Yujiro Hayashi, Kosuke Nakano, Yu Ishizuya, Cong Wang, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Toshiro Kinouchi, Kyosuke Matsuzaki, Kentaro Jingushi, Taigo Kato, Atsunari Kawashima, Akira Nagahara, Takeshi Ujike, Motohide Uemura, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Jennifer B Gordetsky, Eiichi Morii, Kazutake Tsujikawa, George J Netto, Norio Nonomura
OBJECTIVE: High-fat diet (HFD) could induce prostate cancer progression. The aim of this study is to identify mechanisms of HFD-induced prostate cancer progression, focusing on inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered HFD and celecoxib to autochthonous immunocompetent Pb-Cre+; Pten(fl/fl) model mice for prostate cancer. Tumor growth was evaluated by tumor weight and Ki67 stain, and local immune cells were assessed by flow cytometry at 22 weeks of age...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776595/clinicopathologic-significance-of-lair-1-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Xiaojie Wu, Leyan Zhang, Jiadi Zhou, Luying Liu, Qiang Fu, Aili Fu, Xiaoying Feng, Rui Xin, Hongrui Liu, Yong Gao, Jiangnan Xue
AIM: Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is an immune inhibitory receptor which is expressed within most types of hematopoietic cells and negatively regulates immune responses. Recently, we found LAIR-1 expression to be present within tumors of nonhematopoietic lineages. However, the roles of LAIR-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of LAIR-1 in HCC tissue and assess its clinical significance at this site...
April 30, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776594/gearing-up-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
April 22, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776592/response-to-metals-treatment-of-fra1-a-member-of-the-ap-1-transcription-factor-family-in-p-lividus-sea-urchin-embryos
#18
Roberta Russo, Rosa Bonaventura, Marco Chiaramonte, Caterina Costa, Valeria Matranga, Francesca Zito
Lithium (Li), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) are metals normally present in the seawater, although they can have adverse effects on the marine ecosystem at high concentrations by interfering with many biological processes. These metals are toxic for sea urchin embryos, affecting their morphology and developmental pathways. In particular, they perturb differently the correct organization of the embryonic axes (animal-vegetal, dorso-ventral): Li is a vegetalizing agent and Ni disrupts the dorso-ventral axis, while Zn has an animalizing effect...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776373/metabolic-therapy-with-peg-arginase-induces-a-sustained-complete-remission-in-immunotherapy-resistant-melanoma
#19
Carmela De Santo, Paul Cheng, Andrew Beggs, Sharon Egan, Alberto Bessudo, Francis Mussai
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a poor prognosis. Current treatment strategies for high-stage melanoma are based around the use of immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PDL1 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies to stimulate anti-cancer T cell responses, yet a number of patients will relapse and die of disease. Here, we report the first sustained complete remission in a patient with metastatic melanoma who failed two immunotherapy strategies, by targeting tumour arginine metabolism...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776342/dna-methylation-signatures-of-breast-cancer-in-peripheral-t-cells
#20
Surabhi Parashar, David Cheishvili, Niaz Mahmood, Ani Arakelian, Imrana Tanvir, Haseeb Ahmed Khan, Richard Kremer, Catalin Mihalcioiu, Moshe Szyf, Shafaat A Rabbani
BACKGROUND: Immune surveillance acts as a defense mechanism in cancer, and its disruption is involved in cancer progression. DNA methylation reflects the phenotypic identity of cells and recent data suggested that DNA methylation profiles of T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are altered in cancer progression. METHODS: We enrolled 19 females with stage 1 and 2, nine with stage 3 and 4 and 9 age matched healthy women. T cells were isolated from peripheral blood and extracted DNA was subjected to Illumina 450 K DNA methylation array analysis...
May 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
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