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Cancer and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240004/gut-microbiota-and-pancreatic-diseases
#1
Marianna Signoretti, Roberta Roggiolani, Caterina Stornello, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Gabriele Capurso
Changes in diet, lifestyle and exposition to environmental risk factors account for the increased incidence of pancreatic disorders, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The role of the microbiome in the development of pancreatic disorders is increasingly recognized. The translocation of gut bacteria and endotoxins following gut barrier failure is a key event contributing to the severity of acute pancreatitis, while small intestine bacterial overgrowth is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis and further worsens their symptoms and malnutrition...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239749/interleukin-21-inhibits-cancer-mediated-foxp3-induction-in-na%C3%A3-ve-human-cd4-t-cells
#2
Vinodh Kannappan, Kate Butcher, Malgorzata Trela, Iain Nicholl, Weiguang Wang, Kesley Attridge
IL-21 is known to promote anti-tumour immunity due to its ability to promote T cell responses and counteract Treg-mediated suppression. It has also been shown to limit Treg frequencies during tumour-antigen stimulations. However, whether this represents inhibition of FOXP3 induction in naïve CD4 T cells or curtailed expansion of natural Treg remains unclear. Moreover, whether this effect is maintained in an environment of tumour-derived immunosuppressive factors is not known. Here, we show that in the context of a number of cancers, naïve CD45RA+ CD4 T cells are induced to express high levels of FOXP3, and that FOXP3 expression correlates with inhibition of T cell proliferation...
February 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239677/the-discontinuity-theory-of-immunity
#3
Thomas Pradeu, Eric Vivier
Some biological systems detect the rate of change in a stimulus rather than the stimulus itself only. We suggest that the immune system works in this way. According to the discontinuity theory of immunity, the immune system responds to sudden changes in antigenic stimulation and is rendered tolerant by slow or continuous stimulation. This basic principle, which is supported by recent data on immune checkpoints in viral infections, cancers, and allergies, can be seen as a unifying framework for diverse immune responses...
July 14, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239472/analyses-of-the-peripheral-immunome-following-multiple-administrations-of-avelumab-a-human-igg1-anti-pd-l1-monoclonal-antibody
#4
Renee N Donahue, Lauren M Lepone, Italia Grenga, Caroline Jochems, Massimo Fantini, Ravi A Madan, Christopher R Heery, James L Gulley, Jeffrey Schlom
BACKGROUND: Multiple anti-PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint monoclonal antibodies (MAb) have shown clear evidence of clinical benefit. All except one have been designed or engineered to omit the possibility to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) as a second potential mode of anti-tumor activity; the reason for this is the concern of lysis of PD-L1 positive immune cells. Avelumab is a fully human IgG1 MAb which has been shown in prior in vitro studies to mediate ADCC versus a range of human tumor cells, and clinical studies have demonstrated anti-tumor activity versus a range of human cancers...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239471/gene-expression-markers-of-tumor-infiltrating-leukocytes
#5
Patrick Danaher, Sarah Warren, Lucas Dennis, Leonard D'Amico, Andrew White, Mary L Disis, Melissa A Geller, Kunle Odunsi, Joseph Beechem, Steven P Fling
BACKGROUND: Assays of the abundance of immune cell populations in the tumor microenvironment promise to inform immune oncology research and the choice of immunotherapy for individual patients. We propose to measure the intratumoral abundance of various immune cell populations with gene expression. In contrast to IHC and flow cytometry, gene expression assays yield high information content from a clinically practical workflow. Previous studies of gene expression in purified immune cells have reported hundreds of genes showing enrichment in a single cell type, but the utility of these genes in tumor samples is unknown...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239470/fak-inhibition-opens-the-door-to-checkpoint-immunotherapy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#6
EDITORIAL
Stefan N Symeonides, Stephen M Anderton, Alan Serrels
Immunotherapy has had remarkable success in the treatment of some cancer types. However, pancreatic cancer has remained largely refractory to immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Recently, Jiang and colleagues identified a key role for FAK in regulating the composition of the fibrotic and immuno-suppressive pancreatic tumour niche, and showed that FAK inhibitors can be used in combination with immune checkpoint blockade and gemcitabine chemotherapy to significantly delay pancreatic tumour progression...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239466/nivolumab-induced-myxedema-crisis
#7
Uqba Khan, Humaira Rizvi, Dahlia Sano, Jane Chiu, Tarik Hadid
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. CASE PRESENTATION: Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treatment with nivolumab presented with diffuse facial and tongue swelling, slurred speech, depressed mentation, fatigue and weakness...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239463/enhancing-adoptive-cancer-immunotherapy-with-v%C3%AE-2v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-through-pulse-zoledronate-stimulation
#8
Mohanad H Nada, Hong Wang, Grefachew Workalemahu, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Craig T Morita
BACKGROUND: Human γδ T cells expressing Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptors monitor foreign- and self-prenyl pyrophosphate metabolites in isoprenoid biosynthesis to mediate immunity to microbes and tumors. Adoptive immunotherapy with Vγ2Vδ2 T cells has been used to treat cancer patients with partial and complete remissions. Most clinical trials and preclinical studies have used continuous zoledronate exposure to expand Vγ2Vδ2 cells where zoledronate is slowly diluted over the course of the culture...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239462/thrombocytopenia-in-patients-with-melanoma-receiving-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#9
Eileen Shiuan, Kathryn E Beckermann, Alpaslan Ozgun, Ciara Kelly, Meredith McKean, Jennifer McQuade, Mary Ann Thompson, Igor Puzanov, John P Greer, Suthee Rapisuwon, Michael Postow, Michael A Davies, Zeynep Eroglu, Douglas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including antibodies against programmed death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), are being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of cancer. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including colitis, dermatitis, and pneumonitis are well described, but less frequent events are now emerging with larger numbers of patients treated. Herein we describe the incidence and spectrum of thrombocytopenia following immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and two severe cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239383/effects-of-cigarette-smoking-on-transplant-survival-extending-or-shortening-it
#10
Feifei Qiu, Ping Fan, Golay D Nie, Huazhen Liu, Chun-Ling Liang, Wanlin Yu, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking (CS) regulates both innate and adaptive immunity and causes numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers, and transplant rejection. Therefore, smoking poses a serious challenge to the healthcare system worldwide. Epidemiological studies have always shown that CS is one of the major risk factors for transplant rejection, even though smoking plays redundant roles in regulating immune responses. The complex roles for smoking in immunoregulation are likely due to molecular and functional diversities of cigarette smoke components, including carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239379/estrogen-receptor-dependent-regulation-of-dendritic-cell-development-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Sophie Laffont, Cyril Seillet, Jean-Charles Guéry
Autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer affect women and men differently. Because they tend to develop more vigorous adaptive immune responses than men, women are less susceptible to some infectious diseases but also at higher risk of autoimmunity. The regulation of immune responses by sex-dependent factors probably involves several non-redundant mechanisms. A privileged area of study, however, concerns the role of sex steroid hormones in the biology of innate immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238782/vaccination-efficacy-with-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-against-cancer-was-enhanced-under-simulated-microgravity
#12
Jing Li, Jun Chen, Xiuyu Li, Yanfang Qian
Stem cell vaccination can induce consistent and strong anti-tumor immunity against cancer in mice model. The antigenic similarity between tumors and embryos has been appreciated for many years and reflects the expression of embryonic gene products by cancer cells and/or cancer-initiating stem cells. Taking advantage of this similarity, we have tested a prophylactic lung cancer vaccine composed of allogeneic murine MSCs. Based on this conception, we first compared their tumor vaccines intervention effects of adult MSCs and MSCs under simulated microgravity (MSC/SMG)...
February 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238174/combining-talimogene-laherparepvec-with-immunotherapies-in-melanoma-and-other-solid-tumors
#13
REVIEW
Reinhard Dummer, Christoph Hoeller, Isabella Pezzani Gruter, Olivier Michielin
Talimogene laherparepvec is a first-in-class intralesional oncolytic immunotherapy. In a recent Phase III trial (OPTiM), talimogene laherparepvec significantly improved durable response rate compared with subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Overall response rate was also higher in the talimogene laherparepvec arm, and the greatest efficacy was demonstrated in patients with earlier-stage (IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a) melanoma. Talimogene laherparepvec was well tolerated, with the majority (89%) of adverse events being grade 1 or 2...
February 25, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237875/tumor-growth-factor-%C3%AE-is-an-important-factor-for-immunosuppression-and-tumorgenesis-in-polyoma-bk-virus-infection-a-systematic-review-article
#14
REVIEW
Ashraf Kariminik, Babak Kheirkhah
Polyoma BK virus (PBK) is a prevalent human specific virus and the cause of several malignancies in human. The main mechanisms used by PBK to induce/stimulate human cancers are yet to be clarified but it has been proposed that PBK may use several mechanisms to induce/stimulate cancers in human including attenuation of immune responses via up-regulation of immunosuppressor molecules. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a key multifunctional factor from modulation of immunosurveillance to angiogenesis...
February 23, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237837/a-novel-dna-vaccine-platform-enhances-neo-antigen-like-t-cell-responses-against-wt1-to-break-tolerance-and-induce-anti-tumor-immunity
#15
Jewell N Walters, Bernadette Ferraro, Elizabeth K Duperret, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Jaemi Chu, Ashley Saint-Fleur, Jian Yan, Hy Levitsky, Amir S Khan, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
Tumor-associated antigens have emerged as important immunotherapeutic targets in the fight against cancer. Germline tumor antigens, such as WT1, Wilms' tumor gene 1, are overexpressed in many human malignancies but have low expression in somatic tissues. Recent vaccination approaches to target WT1 have been hampered by poor in vivo immune potency, likely due to the conserved self-antigen nature of WT1. In this study, we use a novel synthetic micro-consensus SynCon DNA vaccine approach with the goal of breaking tolerance and increasing vaccine immune potency...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237180/plasma-cytokines-correlated-with-disease-characteristics-progression-free-survival-and-overall-survival-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumor%C3%A2-patients
#16
Daniela Svetlovska, Viera Miskovska, Dana Cholujova, Paulina Gronesova, Silvia Cingelova, Michal Chovanec, Zuzana Sycova-Mila, Jana Obertova, Patrik Palacka, Jan Rajec, Katarina Kalavska, Vanda Usakova, Jan Luha, Dalibor Ondrus, Stanislav Spanik, Jozef Mardiak, Michal Mego
BACKGROUND: Cytokines are the communicators of immune system and are involved in all immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation among plasma cytokines, patient and tumor characteristics, and clinical outcome in chemonaive testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 92 metastatic chemotherapy-naive TGCT patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy from July 2010 to March 2014. Plasma was isolated before first administration of chemotherapy, and the concentration of 51 plasma cytokines were analyzed using multiplex bead arrays...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236980/significance-of-immune-checkpoint-proteins-in-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Ross A Soo, Hye Ryun Kim, Bernadette Reyna Asuncion, Zul Fazreen, Mohamed Feroz Mohd Omar, Maria Cynthia Herrera, Joey Sze Yun Lim, Grace Sia, Richie Soong, Byoung-Chul Cho
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the expression of PD-L1, PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM3) in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 90 patients with newly diagnosed advanced stage NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations and treated with first line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) within 3 months of diagnosis were stained for CTLA-4, PD-L1, PD-1, TIM-3 and CD3 expression by immunohistochemistry...
March 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236978/circulating-heregulin-level-is-associated-with-the-efficacy-of-patritumab-combined-with-erlotinib-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Kimio Yonesaka, Kenji Hirotani, Joachim von Pawel, Mircea Dediu, Shuquan Chen, Catherine Copigneaux, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
OBJECTIVES: Patritumab is a fully human anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) antibody that blocks activation by its ligand, heregulin (HRG). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of patritumab in aberrantly high HRG-expressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the phase II randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study HERALD (n=212 patients with NSCLC), patritumab plus erlotinib did not improve progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo plus erlotinib...
March 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236854/transfer-of-malignant-traits-as-opposed-to-migration-of-cells-a-novel-concept-to-explain-metastatic-disease
#19
Goffredo Orazio Arena, Vincenzo Arena, Manuel Arena, Mohamed Abdouh
Metastatic disease is believed to develop following dissemination of cells to target organs. Inability of this theory to effectively explain certain phenomena such as patterns of metastatic spread, late metastasis formation, different gene patterns between primary cancer and metastasis have brought forward the need for alternative models. Recent discoveries have strengthened the validity of theories supporting a humoral transfer of malignant traits as opposed to migration of malignant cells to explain metastatic disease in cancer patients...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236573/modifying-antigen-encapsulating-liposomes-with-kala-facilitates-mhc-class-i-antigen-presentation-and-enhances-anti-tumor-effects
#20
Naoya Miura, Hidetaka Akita, Naho Tateshita, Takashi Nakamura, Hideyoshi Harashima
For a successful anti-cancer vaccine, antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I is a requirement. To accomplish this, an antigen must be delivered to the cytoplasm by overcoming the endosome/lysosome. We previously reported that a lipid nanoparticle modified with a KALA peptide (WEAKLAKALAKALAKHLAKALAKALKA), an α-helical cationic peptide, permits the encapsulated pDNA to be efficiently delivered to the cytoplasm in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Herein, we report on the use of KALA-modified liposomes as an antigen carrier, in an attempt to induce potent antigen-specific cellular immunity...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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